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19. At what Height, or in what Region of the Air,
the Winds blow. 20. To what Distance one and the same Wind may reach.
CH A P. XXI.
of particular Winds, and Storms or Tempests.
Page 491 1. Some Winds are constant, others not. 2. Some Winds are general, others particular. 3. The Cause of the general Winds. 4. Some Winds periodical and stated; others uncer
tain and contingent. 5. The periodical Winds enumerated. 6. The Cause of the Etesian Winds. 7. Why the Etesian are not found in many Places. 8. Some Winds peculiar, others common. 9. Certain winds periodical at certain Hours. 10. Northern Winds most frequent in Places near the
North Pole. 11. Four Species of Winds. 12. Certain impetuous and sudden Winds. 13. Their Kinds exemplified. 14. Tornados, or Travados. 15. Cataraxts, or Exhydrias. 16. Ecnephias, or lesser Exhydrias. 17. Typhon, or Oranchan. 18. Whether certain Winds burst out of the Earth, or
rise from the Water. 19. Whether a certain Wind may rise from the Flood
of the Sea and Rivers. 20. the Causes of the Brothers at Sea; or Castor,
Pollux, and Helena in Tempests. 21. Why Calms are so frequent in Part of the Ethiopic
Ocean, under the Equator ; especially on the Gui
nea Coast. 22. Storms and Tempests anniversary in certain Places,
Τ Η Ε
OF Universal Geography.
S E C T. I.
CH A P. I.
Of the DEFINITION, DIVISION, METHÔD, &c.
VES T hath been an antient Custom for
those that fully treat of any Art, or Science, to premise fomewhat
of it's Origin, Nature, Constitution, SW &c. And this Procedure is not
improper, provided it be clear of BRU A R all sophistical Equivocation ; be. cause from such Preliminaries the Reader may con. ceive an Idea of the Work, or at least the Subftance thereof, and so proceed more advisedly there. in. We shall therefore here offer a few Particulars as to the Nature, Use, and Design of Geography. VOL. I.
The Definition of Geography. GEOGRAPHY is that part of mixed Mathematics, which explains the State of the Earth, and of it's Parts, depending on Quantity, viz, it's Figure, Place, Magnitude, and Motion, with the Celestial Appearances, &C.
BY some it is taken in too limited a Sense, for a bare Description of the several Countries; and by others too extensively, who along with such a Description would have their Political Constitution. But the Authors who proceed thus are excusable, because they do it only to excite and delight the Reader, who might otherwise be the less attentive to a bare Enumeration and Description of the Countries, without some Knowledge of the Manners, and Customs of the Inhabitants.
The Division of Geography.
WE divide Geography into General and Special, or Universal and Particular. Golnitzius says, Geography is to be explained externally and internally ; but these Terms are improper, and ill chosen, Universal and Particular being much more pertinent. We call that Universal Geography which considers the whole Earth in general, and explains it's Properties without regard to particular Countries : But Special or Particular Geograpby describes the Constitution and Situation of each single Country by itself which is twofold, viz. Chorographical, which describes Countries of a considerable Extent; or Topographical, which gives a View of some place or small Tract of the Earth.
IN this Book, we shall exhibit Universal Geogra. phy, which may be divided into three Parts, Absolute, Relative, and Comparative. In the Absolute
Part we shall handle what respects the Body of the Earth itself, it's Parts and peculiar Properties ; as it's Figure, Magnitude, and Motion ; it's Lands, Seas, and Rivers, &C. In the Relative Part we shah account for the Appearances and Accidents that happen to it from Celestial Causes; and, lastly, the Comparative Part shall contain an Explicatio:1 of those Properties, which arise from comparing ditferent Parts of the Earth together (a).
The Subject of Geography. THE Object, or Subject, of Geography is the Earth; especially it's Superficies and exterior Parts.
The Properties of Geography,
THE Things which seem to be most worthy of Observation in every Country are of three kinds, viz. Celestial, Terrestrial, and Human. The Celestial Properties are such as affect us by reason of the apparent Motion of the Sun, and Stars. These are eight in Number : 1. The Elevation of the Pole, or the Diftance of a Place from the Equator. 2. The Obliquity of the Diurnal Motion of the Stars above the Horizon of that Place. 3. The Time of the longest and shorte;
(a) The Honour of reducing Mistakes, and hath left us a Me. . Geography to Art and System thod of discovering his own. was reserved to Ptolemy; who There is one thing yet very by adding Mathematical Advan- lame in our Gergraphy, the fix tages to the Historical Method; ing the true Longitude of in which it had been treated of Places; and tho' several new before, has described the World Ways have been lately tried, to in a much more Intelligible redress chis Inconvenience, both Manner: he has delineated it from exact Pendulums, and from under more certain Rules, and Observations upon the Immerby fixing the Bounds of Places, fions and Emersions of Jupiter's from Longitude and Latitude, Satellites, yet they have not al. hath both discovered others together proved effectual.
Day. 4. The Climate and Zone. 5. Heat, Cold, and the Seasons of the Year; with Rain, Snow, Wind, and other Meteors: and tho' these may seem Ter. restrial Properties, yet because they chiefly depend upon the Motion of the Sun, and the four Seasons of the Year, we have reckoned them among the Celestial Matters. 6. The Rising, Appearance, and Continuance, of the Stars above the Horizon. 7. The Stars that pass throʻ the Zenith of a Place. 8. The Celerity of the Motion with which, according to the Copernican Hypothesis, every Place constantly revolves. And according to Astrologers a ninth Property may be added; for they assign some Country or other to every one of the twelve Signs of the Zodiac, and the Planets which are Lords of these Signs; but such imaginary Qualities seem superstitious and vain to me; nor do I perceive any reasonable Foundation for them (a). Thus far the Celestial Properties. · W E call those Terrestrial Properties that are observed in the Face of every Country; which are ten in Number. 1. The Limits and Bounds of each Country. 2. It's Figure. 3. Ii's Magnitude. 4. It's Mountains. 5. li's Waters, viz. Springs, Rivers, and Bays. 6. Ii's Woods and Defarts. 7. The Fruitfulness and Barrenness of the Country, with it's various kinds of Fruits. 3. The Minerals and Fossils. 9. The living Creatures there. 10. The Longitude of the Place : which might be comprehended under the first of these Properties.
(a) Tho' this Art be of great to this Day, venerated in most Antiquity, it is rejected and Eastern Countries, especially aexploded by most knowing Peo. mong the Indians; where nople of this Age; and only Im- thing is done of any Consepostors, or some weak Pre- quence, before the Astrologer tenders to Learning, now pra- determines a fortunate Hour die it, in these Parts of the to undertake it. See Rohault's World. It is however, even Physics Part 2. chap. 27.