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seldom happen, and scarce without the Ecnephia; Seneca calls Prejler a Whirlwind with Lightening.
THE Ecnephia is a strong and sudden Wind that breaks out from some Cloud •, which is frequent in the Ethiopic Sea, between Brafil and South Africa; especially at the Cape of Good-Hope, and on the other Side of Africa, at "Terra de Natal, and at Guinea, under the Equator. The Portuguese call them Travados, the Latins Procella, but the Greek Word Ecnephia is best: they are most frequent in certain Places, and in certain Months of the Year.
A little Cloud, and sometimes several of them black or blackish, are plainly seen by Sailors to go together, and increase even in a clear Sky, before the Wind breaks out; and when they first fee them, they should gather in their Sails, and prepare their Ship against the raging Wind that is at hand: but before the Portuguese knew this Prognostic of Wind they lost several Ships, being the first that had failed the Ethiopic Ocean. For when India was made known by Gamma, the King of Portugal sent a greater Fleet of Ships, of large Bottoms, to die Number of thirteen, under Caprali in the Year 1500; which was the first Fleet sent to Brasil, with great Joy to the Portuguese.
WHEN they had waited there the Month of A'^'il, they sailed in May towards the Cape of Good-Hope, with raging Storms; and tho' they law the Signs thereof, yet they knew not the Tempest that was to follow •, which Majseus thus describes.
'THEY made a long Run of almost two
* hundred Leagues from Brazil towards the Cape
• (which is about one thousand German Miles) the
• Ocean and Winds all the while raging. Having 1 entered that Voyage in May, with more Bold'ness than Success, a fiery Comet appeared con« tinually to the tenth Day, with a fearful Aspect;
* and the Sea and Heavens often changing; the
« black: 'black and foul Clouds having gathered toge
* ther in the North into a round Form, and the
* Wind seeming to come all against them as it were « by Reflexion: the Sea being faint in deceitful
* Calms. The Sailors not knowing the Tempests 4 that used to rage there, spread their Sails to ga» ther the Wind; when on a sudden the Wind 1 broke out from the Clouds in the North on four
* Ships whose Tackling was not in order to be
* handed, and overset them in a Moment;
* and tho' the rest were looking on, yet not one 'of a great many could be saved from death,
* except a few that had Oars or broken Pieces 'of Sails thrown to them. The North Wind
* continuing, the Sea rose sometimes high as it
* were to the Stars; and again fell low to the Bot
* torn; the Sea looked black in die Day-time,
* and fiery in the Night, which Storm held them 'twenty Days.' So far Maffeus.
THE Cape of Good-Hope is disastrous for such Storms from the Clouds.
NOT far from the Shore there is a high Mountain, broad on the Top like a Table, from which great Storms often proceed; and this prognosticates strangely. For when the Sky is clear, and the Sea smooth, there is a little Cloud seen on the Top of the Hill, which appears at first no larger than a Hazel Nut, and then like a Walnut which the Dutch call the Ox-eye; and then covers the whole Plain above, and the Dutch compare it to a Table spread with all kinds of Meat on it: then the Storms begin to blow from the Top of the Mountain with such Force that overwhelms all Ships that are not on their Guard, or have their Sails out; but Sailors are now more wary, and when they fee the Ox-eye, they run immediately from the Shore as much as they can, and gather in their Sails, and do what is proper to defend fend their Ships: nor does this Sign ever fail. The like Storm rages at 'terra dt Natal, having the Ox-eye there also •, and by it several Ships have been loft ; and likewise in the whole Tract: between that and the Cape of Good-Hope. There is also in Daupbine in France, not far from Vienne, a high Mountain, on whose Top there is a Lake, from which all the Storms thereabouts arise; on the Top of it there is a little Cloud or Exhalation, which portends Thunder and Rain.
O N the Sea under the Equator, between America and Africa, and near the Equator; there are frequently such Storms ; especially in those Months in which there are few or no constant Winds blowing i and that almost thro' the whole Year, especially in April, May, and June, (in other Months 'tis more rare) and they are very remarkable on the Shores of Guinea. They break forth three or four times in a Day, and cease on a sudden, varying ordinarily every half Hour; but they are most vehement at first. They break out from the black and filthy Clouds that appear when the'Sky is clear and the Sea calm, by which the Seamen know they are approaching. And with their help it is that Sailors get beyond the Equator for other constant Winds are often wanting, especially in those three Months, for they do not hinder the Ships failing except at the first breaking out.
B U T in that part of the Sea which is next the Kingdom of Loango, in Africa, the Storm is often in the Months of January, February, March, Aprils and in different Places of Africa at other times.
THUS likewise at a Promontory inAfrica, called now Guardafu, not far from the Month of the Red-! Sea, there rages in the Month of May every Year a North Wind, and the Ecnephias most vehemently..
FOR *tis observable, that as some Winds less, forcible blow yearly ; so there are Storms and Tempests pests anniversary in some Places: and with such a Storm, not far from that Cape, did Sodreus, the Portuguese Consul, perish in the Year 1505; and tho' he was admonished by the Africans, yet he would not hearken to it.
B U T in the Entrance of the Arabian Gulph, and in Arabia, and Ethiopia, there is a peculiar and wonderful Storm happens. A thick black Cloud, mixed with fiery little Clouds (which are terrible to behold), brings Darkness in the Day, and on a sudden there breaks out a Storm, which is soon over; but it throws such a quantity of red Sand on the Land and Sea, that the Arabians say it sometimes buries whole Companies of Merchants and Travellers, with their Camels, viz. the Caravans that pass there once or twice a Year, being gathered (out of all parts of Asia) in Syria, they arrive thence from Aleppo to Arabia, to the Number of fix thousand Men, who dare not travel by themselves, because of the Robberies by the Arabians, and other Dangers, as they do from India to China and Tart ar y: and from hence 'tis they fay the Arabian and Egyptian Mummy comes; their Bodies being dryed in the Sand with the Sun's Heat. This Storm comes from the North to which the Red-Sea is extended ; and therer fore 'tis likely, there being a great quantity of red Sand on that Shore, that 'tis carried up by the Wind, which causes a red Colour to appear among the Clouds, and afterwards falls down.
AND 'tis also probable, that there is such a Storm of Sand in Libya, because of the great Heaps pf that Sand there ; which the Antients knew when they wrote of the difficult access to the Temple of Jupiter Hammon in Libya: nor were they without the knowledge of the way how Mummy was made. In Quxarat, a Kingdom in India, Clouds of Sand, or a vast quantity of small Dust raised by the Sun's Heat, doth often oppress Travellers; as is written by Twist a Dutchman, who lived long there.
A S to the Cause of these Storms, 'tis plain they come from the Clouds, and may be formed two ways, i. If a Cloud falls down, by it's Weight it will move the Air under it, as a Sheet, or Sail, let fall •, and hence 'tis the smaller the Cloud appears the Storm after it is the greater; for the Cloud, or Oxeye, is then high, and appears small, and falling down, moves the Air with greater force. 2. If sulphureous Spirits inclosed in the Cloud, break out on a sudden in one Place, other Parts being stiut as the Wind breaks out of a Bottle, when the. Liquor in it is heated j but the first Cause seems the truer.
Exhydrias is a Wind that breaks out of a Cloud with a great quantity of Water.
THIS differs but little from an Ecnephias % only the Cloud, from which it seems to break out, is now condensed to Water, and born up so long by the Clouds about it, and perhaps forced together by the Winds, 'till at last it falls down, and beats the Air below it, which causes the Wind: but these are rare, and the Ecnephias itself hath often Showers attending it, and therefore the Difference is only in Degree j except that the Exhydrias for the most part comes strait down.
P RO POS ITION XII.
A Typhon is a strong swift Wind that blows from all Points, wandring about all quarters and generally comes from above.
THIS is frequent in the Oriental Sea, especially in the Sea at Siam, China, and Japan, and between Malacca and Japan. It breaks out violently almost from