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THE third kind of Observations to be made in every Country, we call Human, because they chiefly respect the Inhabitants of the Place; and these are also ten in Number, i. Their Stature, Shape, Colour, and the length of their Lives; their Origin, Meat, and Drink. 2. Their Arts, and the Profits which arise from them; with the Merchandise and Wares they barter with one another. 3. Their Virtues and Vices, Learning, Capacities, and Schools. 4. Their Ceremonies at Births, Marriages, and Funerals. 5. The Language which the Inhabitants use. 6. Their Political Government, 7. Their Religion and Church Government. 8. Their Cities and famous Places. 9. Their remarkable Histories. 10. Their famous Men, Artificers, and the Inventions, of the Natives.

T H E S E are the three kinds of Occurrences to be explained in Special Geography; and tho' the last Sort seem not so properly to belong to this Science, yet we are obliged to admit them for Custom fake, and the Information of the Reader.

IN Universal Geography fwhich is the Subject of this Book) the absolute Division of the Earth, and the Constitution of it's Parts, will first be examined; then the Celestial Phænomena, in general, that are to be applied to their respective Countries, in Special Geography; and lastly there will follow in the Comparative Part such Considerations as occur from comparing the Phænomena of one Place with another. *

The Principles of Geography.

THE Principles from which Arguments are drawn for proving Propositions in Geography are of three forts. 1. Geometrical, Arithmetical, and Trigonometrical Propositions. 2. Astronomical Precepts and Theorems (tho' it may seem strange we stiould have Recourse to the Celestial Bodies, which are distant from us so many Millions of Miles, for understanding the Nature of the Earth we inhabit). 3. Experience-, because the greatest Part of Geography, and chiefly the Special, is founded only upon- the Experience and Observations of those who have described the several Countries.

The Order os Geography,

THE Order we have thought most convenient to follow in General Geography, is already mentioned in the Division and Explication of it's Properties; yet there remains a Doubt as to the Order to be observed in explaining these Properties: viz. whether we should apply them to their relative Countries in which they are found, or refer the Countries themselves to the Properties accounted, for, in general. Aristotle, in his first Book of Animals, moves the fame Doubt and argues at large, whether the Properties should be adjusted to the general Account of Animals, or the Animals ranked under the Account of their Properties. The like Difficulty occurs in other Parts of Philosophy. However we shall here first explain some general Properties; and after apply them to (heir respective Countries.

The Proof of Geography,

In proving Geographical Propositions we are to observe; that several Properties, and chiefly the Celestial, are confirmed by proper Demonstrations: But in Special Geography (excepting the Celestials) almost every Thing is explained without Demonstration; being either grounded on Experience and Observation, or on the Testimony of 2 oui> our Senses: nor can they be proved by any other Means. For Science is taken either for that Knowledge which is founded on things highly probable; or for a certain Knowledge of Tilings which is gained by the force of Argument, or the Testimony of Sense; or for that Knowledge which arises from Demonstration in a strict Sense, such as is found in Geometry, Arithmetic, and other Mathematical Sciences; excepting Chronology and Geography; to both which the Name of Science, taken in the second Sense, doth most properly belong.

THERE are also several Propositions proved, or rather exposed to view, by the artificial Terrestrial Globe, or by Geographical Maps ; most of which might be confirmed by a strict Demonstration; tho' omitted on Account of the Incapacity of som» Readers. Other Propositions cannot be lb well proved, yet are received as apparent Truths, Thus tho' we suppose all Places on the Globe, and in Maps, to be laid down in the fame Order as they really are on Earth; nevertheless in these Matters we rather follow the Descriptions that are given by Geographical Authors. Globes and Maps, indeed, made from such Observations, serve well enough for Illustration, and the more easy Comprehension of the Thing.

The Origin of Geography.

THE Origin of Geography is not of late Date, nor was it brought into the World as it were at one Birth; neither was it invented by one Man: but it's Foundations were laid" many Ages ago. It is true, indeed, the old Geographers were employed only in describing particular Countries, either in whole, or in part. The Romans, when they had overcome and subdued any Province, used to ex

B 4 pose pose the Cborography thereof to the Spectators in their Triumphs delineated upon a Table, and flourished round with Pictures. There were also at Rome, in the Portico of Lucullus, several Geographical Tables exposed to public View. The Senate of Rome, about one hundred Years before the Birth of Christ, sent Geographers and Surveyors into the several parts of the Earth, that they might measure the whole; tho' they scarce visited a twentieth Part of it. NecOy also, King of Egypt, many Ages before Christ, commandedthat the Extremities of Africa mould be diligently searched into •, which was performed by the Phœnicians in the space of three Years. Darius commanded that the Mouths of the River Indus, and the whole Æthiopic Sea, to the eastward, should be diligently examined into. Alexander the Great, as Pliny tells us, in his Asiatic Expedition, carried along with him two GeografherSy Diogenes and Beta, to measure and delineate to him his Journies; from whose Journals and Observations the Geographers of succeeding Ages borrowed many Things. And tho' the Study of all other Arts was almost abolished by the Wars, Geography and Fortification were improved thereby.

NEVERTHELESSthe Geography of the Antients was very imperfect, and commonly full of false Relations •, because they knew little or nothing of those Places of the Earth which are of most Consequence to be known; or at least they had no certain Experience about them. For, i. all America was entirely unknown to them. 2. So were the remotest Northern Countries, 3. The South Continent and the Country of Magellan. 4. They knew not that the World could be sailed round, or that the Earth was surrounded by the Ocean, in an uninterrupted Continuity: Some indeed of the Antients I confess were of this Opinion, but I deny they had any Certainty of it. 5. They knew not

that the Torrid Zone was inhabited, by an almost infinite number of People. 6. They were ignorant of the true Measure of the Earth, tho' they writ a great deal on that Subject. 7. They did not think that Africa could be failed round, (b) because the Scuth Parts thereof were unknown to them. 8. Both the Greeks and Romans wanted true Descriptions of the Countries remote from them, and have left us a great many forged and fabulous Stories, concerning the People that live in the Borders of Asia, and those that inhabit the Northern parts of the Earth (c). '9. They were ignorant of the general Motion of the Sea, and the Difference of Currents in particular Places. 10. The Grecians, even Aristotle himself, did not know the Reason of the Ebbing and Flowing of the Sea. 11. Few of them understood the Variation of the Winds i and the

(b) It is likely the antient Et alibi, cauda vilhfa homines Egyptians had some Knowledge nasci fernicitatis eximiœ. The of the extream Parts of Africa, Arimafpi are famous for having as appears from what Herodotus only one Eye fixed in the midrelates,i>iz> " That Neco, King die of their Foreheads, between. "of Egypt, (2200 Years agoJ whom and the Griffons there

having fumi(hedcertainPi><y- is a continual War carried on

"nicians with Ships; these set- about their Metals. In another

"ting Sail for the Red-Sea, and Place there are a sort of grinning

"coalling along Africa, doub- Apish People, born with long

"led the Cape of Good Hope; hairy Tails, and very swift of

"and after two Years spent Foot. From which Romantic

"in the Voyage entered the stories of Pliny, Sir J. Mande

"Streights of Gibraltar, in the ville took his lying Reports, of

"third. Herod. Lib. 4. his meeting (in his Travels J

(c) C- Plinii Nat Hist. Lib. 5 with these very People, and alCbap. 8. Blemmyis traduntur ca- so some, in the Torrid Zone, that pita abejfe, ore dis oculis petlori to guard themselves against the ajftxis. TheBlemmaiixz said to SchorchingHeatoftheSun, had be without Heads, having their one of their Feet so large, that Mouths and Eyesfixed in their by lying on their backs, and Breasts. Ibid. Lib. 7. Cap.2. Ari- holding it up against the Sun, tnafpi uno cculo in fronte media would screen them against it's injtgnes: quibus ajjidue iellunt immoderate Heat; with other tjfe circa metalla cum Grypbis. the like whimsical Relations.

Periodical,

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