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THE third kind of Observations to be made in every Country, we call Human, because they chiefly respect the Inhabitants of the Place ; and these are also ten in Number 1. Their Stature, Shape, Colour, and the length of their Lives; their Origin, Meat, and Drink. 2. Their Arts, and the Profits which arise from them ; with the Merchandise and Wares they barter with one another. 3. Their Virtues and Vices, Learning, Capacities, and Schools. 4. Their Ceremonies at Births, Marriages, and Funerals. 5. The Language which the Inhabitants use. 6. Their Political Government. 7. Their Religion and Church Government. 8. Their Cities and famous Places. 9. Their remarkable Histories. 10. Their famous Men, Artificers, and the Inventions, of the Natives.
THESE are the three kinds of Occurrences to be explained in Special Geography; and tho' the last Sort seem not so properly to belong to this Science, yet we are obliged to admit them for Custom fake, and the Information of the Reader.
IN Universal Geography (which is the Subject of this Book) the absolute Division of the Earth, and the Constitution of it's Parts, will first be examined; then the Celestial Phænomena, in general, that are to be applied to their respective Countries, in Special Geography; and lastly there will follow in the Comparative Part such Considerations as occur from comparing the Phænomena of one place with another.
The Principles of Geography.
THE Principles from which Arguments are drawn for proving Propositions in Geography are of three forts. ' 1. Geometrical, Arithmetical, and Trigonometrical Propositions. 2. Astronomical Precepts and Theorems (tho’ it may seem strange we should have Recourse to the Celestial Bodies, which are distant from us so many Millions of Miles, for understanding the Nature of the Earth we inhabit). 3. Experience; because the greatest Part of Geography, and chiefly the Special, is founded only upon the Experience and Observations of those who have described the several Countries.
The Order of Geography.
THE Order we have thought most convenient to follow in General Geograpby, is already mentioned in the Division and Explication of it's Properties ; yet there remains a Doubt as to the Order to be observed in explaining these Properties : viz. whether we should apply them to their relative Countries in which they are found, or refer the Countries themselves to the Properties accounted for, in general. Aristotle, in his first Book of Animals, moves the same Doubt; and argues at large, whether the Properties should be adjusted to the general Account of Animals, or the Animals ranked under the Account of their Properties. The like Difficulty occurs in other Parts of Philosophy. However we shall here first explain some general Properties; and after apply them to their respective Countries.
The Proof of Geography. In proving Geographical Propositions we are to observe ; that several Properties, and chiefly the Celestial, are confirmed by proper Demonstrations : But in Special Geography (excepting the Celestials) almost every Thing is explained without Demonstration ; being either grounded on Experience and Observation, or on the Testimony of our Senses : nor can they be proved by any other Means. For Science is taken either for that Knowledge which is founded on things highly probable; or for a certain Knowledge of Things which is gained by the force of Argument, or the Testi mony of Sense; or for that Knowledge which arises from Demonstration in a strict Sense, such as is found in Geometry, Arithmetic, and other Mathematical Sciences; excepting Chronology and Geography ; to both which the Name of Science, taken in the second Sense, doth most properly belong.
THERE are also several Propositions proved, or rather exposed to view, by the artificial Terrestrial Globe, or by Geographical Maps ; most of which might be confirmed by a strict Demonftration ; tho' omitted on Account of the Incapacity of somo Readers. Other Propositions cannot be fo well proved, yet are received as apparent Truthis. Thus tho' we suppose all Places on the Globe, and in Maps, to be laid down in the fare Order as they really are on Earth ; nevertheless in these Matters we rather follow the Descriptions that are given by Geographical Authors. Globes and Maps, indeed, made from such Observations, serve well enough for Illustration, and the more easy Comprehension of the Thing.
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The Origin of Geography.
THE Origin of Geography is not of late Date, nor was it brought into the World as it were at one Birth ; neither was it invented by one Man: but it's Foundations were laid many Ages ago. It is true, indeed, the old Geographers were employed only in describing particular Countries, either in whole, or in part. The Romans, when they had overcome and subdued any Province, used to ex
pose the Chorography thereof to the Spectators in their Triumphs delineated upon a Table, and flourished round with Pictures. There were also at Rome, in the Portico of Lucullus, several Geographic cal Tables exposed to public View. The Senate of Rome, about one hundred Years before the Birth of CHRIST, sent Geographers and Surveyors into the several parts of the Earth, that they might measure the whole; tho' they scarce visited a twentieth Part of it. Neco, also, King of Egypt, many Ages before CHRIST, commanded that the Extremities of Africa should be diligently searched into ; which was performed by the Phænicians in the space of three Years. Darius commanded that the Mouths of the River Indus, and the whole Æthiopic Sea, to the eastward, should be diligently examined into. Alexander the Great, as Pliny tells us, in his Apatic Expedition, carried along with him two Geographers, Diogenes and Beto, to measure and delineate to him his Journies ; from whose Journals and Observations the Geographers of succeeding Ages borrowed many Things. And tho' the Study of all other Arts was almost abolished by the Wars, Geography and Fortification were improved thereby.
NEVERTHELESS the Geography of the Antients was very imperfect, and commonly full of false Relations ; because they knew little or nothing of those Places of the Earth which are of moft Consequence to be known ; or at least they had no certain Experience about them. For, i. all America was entirely unknown to them. 2. So were the remotest Northern Countries, 3. The South Continent and the Country of Magellan. 4. They knew not that the World could be failed round, or that the Earth was surrounded by the Ocean, in an uninterrupted Continuity : Some indeed of the Antients I confess were of this Opinion, but I deny they had any Çertainty of it. 5. They knew not
that the Torrid Zone was inhabited, by an almost infinite number of People. 6. They were ignorant of the true Measure of the Earth, tho they writ a great deal on that Subject. 7. They did not think that Africa could be failed round, (b) because the South Parts thereof were unknown to them. 8. Both the Greeks and Romans wanted true Descriptions of the Countries remote from them, and have left us a great many forged and fabulous Stories, concerning the People that live in the Borders of Asia, and those that inhabit the Northern parts of the Earth (C). 9. They were ignorant of the general Motion of the Sea, and the Difference of Currents in particular Places. 10. The Grecians, even Aristotle' himself, did not know the Reason of the Ebbing and Flowing of the Sea, 11. Few of them understood the Variation of the Winds; and the
(6) It is likely the antient Et alibi, cauda villosa homines Egyptians had some Knowledgę nasci pernicitatis eximia. The of the extream Parts of Africa, Arimaspi are famous for having as appears from what Herodotus only one Eye fixed in the midrelates, viz. “ That Neco, King dle of their Foreheads, between " of Egypt, (2200 Years ago) whom and the Griffons there “ having furnishedcertain Phæ. is a continual War carried on " nicians with Ships ; these set- about their Metals. In another o ting Sail for the Red-Sea, and Place there are a sort of grinning " coasting along Africa, doub- Apish People, born with long “ led the Cape of Good Hope; hairy Tails, and very swift of «s and after two Years spent Foot. From which Romantic “ in the Voyage entered the stories of Pliny, Sir J. Mande“ Streights of Gibraltar, in the ville took his lying Reports, of " third. Herod. Lib. 4.. his meeting in his Travels,)
(c) C. Plinii Nat Hist. Lib. 5 with these very People, and alChap. 8. Blemmyis traduntur ca- so some, in the Torrid Zone, that pita abelle, ore & oculis pectori to guard themselves against the afixis. The Blemmai are said to Schorching Heat of the Sun, had be without Heads, having their one of their Feet lo large, that Mouths and Eyes fixed in their by lying on their backs, and Breasts. Ibid. Lib. 7. Cap.2. Ari- holding it up against the Sun, maspi uno oculo in fronte media would screen them against it's insignes : quibus afsidue bellum immoderate Heat; with other Ele circą metalla cum Gryphis. the like whimsical Relations,