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19. At what Heights or in what Region of the Airt the Winds blow.
20. To what Distance one and the fame Wind may reach.
Of particular Winds, and Storms or Tempests.
1. Some Winds are constants others not.
2. Some Winds are general, others particular.
3. The Cause of the general Winds.
4. Some Winds periodical and stated; others uncertain and contingent.
5. The periodical Winds enumerated.
6. The Cause of the Etesian Winds.
7. Why the Etesian are not sound in many Places.
8. Some Winds peculiar, others common.
9. Certain winds periodical at certain Hours.
10. Northern Winds most frequent in Places near the North Pole.
11. Four Species of Winds.
12. Certain impetuous and sudden Winds.
13. Their Kinds exemplified.
14. Tornados, or Travados.
15. Cataracts, or Exhydrias.
16. Ecnephias, or lesser Exhydrias.
17. Typhon, or Oranchan.
18. Whether certain Winds burst out of the Earth, or rife from the Water.
19. Whether a certain Wind may rife from the Flood of the Sea and Rivers.
20. the Causes of the Brothers at Sea j or Castor, Pollux, and Helena in Tempests.
21. Why Calms are so frequent in Part of the Ethiopic Ocean, under the Equator; especially on the Guinea Coast.
a 2. Storms and Tempests anniversary in certain Places'.
Of the Definition, Division, Method, &c, of GEOGRAPHY.
T hath been an antient Custom for those that fully treat of any Art, or Science, to premise somewhat of it's Origin, Nature, Constitution, Sec. And this Procedure is not improper, provided it be clear of all sophistical Equivocation; because from such Preliminaries the Reader may conceive an Idea of the Work, or at least the Substance thereof, and ib proceed more advisedly therein. We stiall therefore here offer a few Particulars as to the Nature, Use, and Design of Geography. VOL. I. B The The Definition of Geography.
GEOG RAPHT is that part of mixed Mathematics^ which explains the State of the Earth, and of it's Parts, depending on Quantity, viz. it's Figure, Place, Magnitude, and Motion, with the Celestial Appearances, &c.
B Y some it is taken in too limited a Sense, for a bare Description of the several Countries; and by others too extensively, who along with such a Description would have their Political Constitution. But the Authors who proceed thus are excusable, because they do it only to excite and delight the Reader, who might otherwise be the less attentive to a bare Enumeration and Description of the Countries, without some Knowledge of the Manners, and Customs of the Inhabitants.
The Division of Geography.
W E divide Geography into General and Special, or Universal and Particular. Golnitzius fays, Geography is to be explained externally and internally; but .these Terms are improper, and ill chosen, Universal and Particular being much more pertinent. We call that Universal Geography which considers the whole Earth in general, and explains it's Properties without regard to particular Countries: But Special or Particular Geography describes the Constitution and Situation of each stngle Country by itself which is twofold, viz. Chorographical, which describes Countries of a considerable Extent; or Topographical, which gives a View of some place or small Tract of the Earth.
I N this Book, we shall exhibit Universal Geography, which may be divided into three Parts, Absolute, Relative, and Comparative. In the Absolute
Part we shall handle what respects the Body of the Earth itself, it's Parts and peculiar Properties; as it's Figure, Magnitude, and Motion; it's Lands, Seas, and Rivers, &c. In the Relative Part We shall account for the Appearances and Accidents that happen to it from Celestial Causes: and, lastly, the Comparative Part shall contain an Explication of those Properties, which arise from comparing different Parts of the Earth together (a).
The Subjetl of Geography.
THE Object, or Subject, of Geography is the Earth ; especially it's Superficies and exterior Parts.
The Properties of Geography.
THE Things which seem to be most worthy of Observation in every Country are of three kinds, viz. Celestial, Terrestrial, and Human. The Celestial Properties are such as affect us by reason of the apparent Motion of the Sun, and Stars. These are eight in Number: 1. The Elevation of the Pole, or the Distance of a Place from the Equator. 2. The Obliquity of the Diurnal Motion of the Stars above the Horizon of that Place. 3. The Time of the longest and shortest
0) The Honour of reducing Mistakes, and hath left us a Me
. Geography to Art and System thod of discovering his own. was reserved to Ptolemy, who There is one thing yet very
by adding Mathematical Advan- lame in our Geography, the fix
tages to the Historical Method, ing the true Longitude of
in which it had been treated of Places; and tho' several new
before, has described the World Ways have been lately tried, to
in a much more Intelligible redress this Inconvenience, both
Manner: he has delineated it from exact Pendulums, and from
under more certain Rules, and Observations upon the Immer
by fixing the Bounds of Places, sions and Emersions of Jupiter s
from. Longitude and Latitude, Satellites, yet they have not al
hath both discovered others together proved effectual.
Day. 4. The Climate and Zone. 5. Heat, Cold, and the Seasons of the Tear v with Rain, Snow, Wind, and other Meteors: and tho' these may seem Terrestrial Properties, yet because they chiefly depend upon the Motion of the Sun, and the four Seasons of tne Year, we have reckoned them among the Celestial Matters. 6. The Rising, Appearance, and Continuance, of the Stars above the Horizon. 7. The Stars that pass thro' the Zenith of a Place. 8. The Celerity of the Motion with which, according to the Copernican Hypothesis, every Place constantly revolves. And according to Astrologers a ninth Property may be added; for they assign some Country or other to every one of the twelve Signs of the Zodiac, and the Planets which are Lords of these Signs; but such imaginary Qualities seem superstitious and vain to me; nor do I perceive any reasonable Foundation for them (a). Thus far the Celestial Properties.
W E call those Terrestrial Properties that are observed in the Face of every Country; which are ten in Number. 1. The Limits and Bounds of each Country. 2. It's Figure. 3. It's Magnitude. 4. It's Mountains. 5. It's Waters, viz. Springs, Rivers, and Bays. 6. It's Woods and Defarts. 7. The Fruitfulness and Barrenness of the Country, with it's various kinds of Fruits. 8. The Minerals and Fossils. 9. 7i£i? living Creatures there. 10. The Longitude of the Place: which might be comprehended under the first of these Properties.
(a) Tho' this Art be of great to this Day, venerated in most
Antiquity, it is rejected and Eastern Countries, especially a
exploded by most knowing Peo- mong the Indians; where no
ple of this Age; and only Im- thing is done of any Confe
postors, or some weak Pie- quence, before the Astrologer
tenders to Learning, now pra- determines a fortunate Hour
ctife it, in these Parts of the to undertake it. See Robau/t't
World. It is however, even Pfastcs Part 2. (bap. 27.