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Periodical, or Trade-Winds, were never dreamt of by them. 12. The noble Property of the LoadStone, which shews the North and South, was unknown to them; tho' they knew it's Virtue of attracting Iron. And Anaximander, who lived about 400 Years before Christ, was the first that attempted to give the Dimensions of the Earth (a).

The Excellency of Geography.

THERE are three Things that recommed the Study of Geography, 1. It's Dignity; and in that it greatly adorns Man, the Inhabitant of the Earth endowed with Reason above all other Animals, to understand the Nature of Countries, and the Constitution of the Earth. 2. It is as well a pleasant, as an innocent Recreation. 3. There is an absolute necessity for the Knowledge of it; because neither Divines, Physicians, Lawyers, Historians, nor other Men of Letters, can well proceed in their Studies, without interruption, unless they have some Knowledge of Geography; as it hath been observed by others, and illustrated by several Examples.

HERE follow two Tables, whereof the first may serve for the Contents of this Book; which

(a) The Moderns have de- much of the Globe undiscover

tected many Errors of the An- ed. There is a vast Southern

tients, and very much improved Continent, as yet scarce looked

Geography, by opening a Pas- into. The northern parts oW«

sage to a New World, and by rica, are yet undiscovered. Asri

discovering that those Parts of ea, tho' it hath been compassed

the Old which were thought round and round from the Me

uninhabitable, to be inhabited i diterranean to the Red Sea, yet

the Torrid Zone is known to be little more than it's Coasts are

temperate, and, by refreshing throughly known, except Egypt

Showers and constant Breezes, and Ahajsia. It's inland parts

and cold Nights; and the Globe have been either not surfici

jtself has been compassed by fe- ently viewed or imperfectly

veral, both Englijb and Foreign described. Sailors. But there yet remains


contains Universal Geography: the other shews the Order that ought to be observed by those that treat

of Special Geography.

W E divide Universal Geography into three Parts, viz.

I. THE ABSOLUTE PART, subdivided into six Sections, whereof

SECTION I. contains two Chapters of PRELIMINARIES.

Chap. I. The Introduction or Preface.
Chap. II. Some Geometrical Propositions of use
in the Work.

SECT. II. In which the Nature of the Earth is explained, in five Chapters.

Chap. III. Of the Figure of the Earth.
Chap. IV. Of it's Measure and Magnitude.
Chap. V. Of it's Motion.
Chap. VI. Of it's Situtation in the System of the

Chap. VII. Of it's Substance and Matter.

SECT. III. In which the Constitution of the Earth and it's Parts are explained, in four Chapters.

rChap. VIII. Of the Division of the Earth by

\ Water.

<^Chap. IX. Of Mountains in general.

)Chap. X. Of the Differences of Mountains.

CCbap. XI. Of Woods, Desarts, and Mines.


SECT. IV. Of Hydrography, in which the Constitution of the Waters, and their Properties are explained, in six Chapters.

"Chap. XII. Of the Division of the Waters by

the Earth. Chap. XIII. Of the Ocean and Sea. J Chap. XIV. Of the Motion of the Sea, viz. it's j Flux and Reflux.

Chap. XV. Of Lakes, Meres, and Morasses. Chap. XVI. Of Rivers. [ I Chap. XVII. Of Mineral Waters.


C Chap. XVIII. Of the extraordinary Changes of ^ the Sea into Land, and dry

[C Places into watery.

SECT. VI. of the Atmosphere.

C Chap. XIX. Of the Atmosphere and Air.

*> Chap. XX. Of Winds in general.

l^Chap. XXI. Of the different forts of Winds.

II. THE RELATIVE PART explains the Celestial Properties, in nine Chapters.

: sChap.XXU. Of the Celestial Properties in general.

Chap. XXIII. Of the Latitude of the Place, or

the Elevation of the Pole. Chap. XXIV. Of the Division of the Earth into Zones.

Chap, XXV. Of the Length of Days, and the Division of the Earth into Climates.


! Cbap. XXVI. Of, Light, Heat, and the Seasons r Of the Year.

Cbap. XXVII. Of Shadows, and how the Inha1 1 bitants are divided according

to them.

Cbap. XXVIII. Of comparing the Celestial Phænomena, in different Places. Of the Antœciy Periæci and Antipodes.

Cbap. XXIX. Of the Difference of Time in different Places.

Cbap. XXX. Of the different Rising of the Sun and Moon, and other Phænomena.

III. THE COMPARATIVE PAR? considers the Particulars arising from comparing the Phænomena of one Place, with those of another.

"Chap. XXXI. Of the Longitude of Places. Cbap. XXXII. Of the Situation of Places in respect of one another. Chap. XXXIII. Of the Distances of" Places. Cbap. XXXIV. Of the Visible Horizon. Cbap. XXXV. Of Navigation, in general, and Ship-Building. J Cbap. XXXVI. Of Lading and Ballasting of i & Ships.

Cbap. XXXVII. The Nautical Directory, Part

1. Of Distances. Cbap. XXXVIII. Part 2. Of the Points of the Compass.

Cbap. XXXIX. Part 3. Of a Ship's Course. Cbap. XL. Part 4. Of the Ship's Place in her •L Voyage.


Special Geography exhibits three kinds of Particulars. Ten of them are Terrestrial.

J" i. The Limits and Bounds of the Country.

2. The Longitude and Situation of Places.

3. The Figure of the Country.

4. It's Magnitude.

5. It's Mountains; their Names, Situations, Altitudes, Properties, and Things contained in them.

6. It's Mines.

7. It's Woods and Defarts.

8. It's Waters; as Seas, Rivers, Lakes, Marshes, Springs; their Rife, their Origin, and Breadth; the Quantity, Quality, and Celerity of their Waters, with their Cataracts.

9. The Fertility, Barrenness, and Fruits, of the Country.

[10, It's living Creatures.

The Celestial Properties are eight.

1. The Distance of the Place from the Equator and Pole.

2. The Obliquity of the Motion of the Stars above the Horizon.

3. The Length of the Days and Nights.

4. The Climate and Zone.

5. The Heat and Seasons: Yv^ind, Rain, and other Meteors.

6. The Rising and Continuance of the Stars above the Horizon.

7. The Stars that pass thro' the Zenith of the Place.

8. The Celerity with which each Place revolves, 'according to the Copernican System.


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