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tact of a fluid (gas), varies in a geometrical even and fine grain, which are capable of progression, the excess of temperature vary, taking a good polish with pumice-stone, and ing also in a geometrical progression. If having the quality of absorbing water, may the ratio of the last progression be 2, that of be used for sithography. the first is 2.35; whatever the nature of the Composition of the Ink-Heat a glazed' gas, or whatever its force of elasticity. This earthen vessel over the fire ; when it is hot, law may also be expressed by saying, that introduce one pound by weight of white the quantity of heat abstracted by a gas in Marseilles soap, and as much mastic in all cases proportional to the excess of the grains ; melt these ingredients, and mix temperature of the body raised to the power them carefully; then incorporate five parts of 1.233.

by weight of shell lac, and continue to stir 6. The cooling power of a fluid (gas) di- it; to mix the whole, drop in gradually a minishes in a geometrical progression, when solution of one part of caustic alkali in five its tension or elasticity diminishes also in a times its bulk of water. Caution, however, geometrical progression. If the ratio of must be used in making this addition, bethis second progression bé 2, the ratio of cause should the ley be put in all at once, the first will be for air 1.366; for hydrogen the liquor will ferment and run over. When 1.301 ; for carbonic acid 1.431 ; for olefiant the mixture is completed by a moderate gas 1.415. This law may be expressed in heat and frequent stirring, a proportionate the following manner :

quantity of lamp-black must be added, after The cooling power of gas is, other things which a sufficient quantity of water must be being equal, proportionate to a certain poured in to make the ink liquid. power of the pressure. The exponent of Drawing. This ink is used for drawing this power, which depends on the nature of ing on the stone, in the same manner as on the gas, is for air 0.45; for hydrogen 0.315; paper, either with a pen or pencil ; when for carbonic acid 0.517; for Olefiant gas the drawing on the stone is quite dry, and 0.501.

an impression is required, the surface of the 7. The cooling power of a gas varies stone must be wetted with a solution of ni. with its temperature ; so that, if the gas can tric acid, in the proportion of fifty to one of dilate so as to preserve the same degree of water ; this must be done with a soft sponge, elasticity, the cooling power will be found taking care not to make a friction in the diminished by the rarefaction of the gas, drawing. The wetting must be repeated as just as much as it is increased by its being soon as the stone appears dry ; and when heated ; so that ultimately it depends upon the effervescence of the acid has ceased, the its tension alone.

stone is to be carefully rinsed with clean It may be perceived, from the above propositions, that the law of cooling, com- Printing. While the stone is moist, it posed of all the preceding laws, must be should be passed over with the printer's ball very complicated; it is not therefore given charged with ink, which will adhere only to in common language, but may be found in those parts not wetted. A sheet of paper, a mathematical form in the body of the me- properly prepared for printing, is then to moir.

be spread on the stone, and the whole comLithography. The French Academy of mitted to the press, or passed through a rol. Fine Arts, having appointed a Committee ler. to examine the lithographical drawings of To preserve the drawing on the stone M. Engelmann of Mulhause, in the Upper from dust, when not in use, a solution of Rhine, have reported, that the stone must gum-arabic is passed over it, which can be be rendered capable of imbibing water, and easily removed by a little water. Instead also of receiving all greasy or resirous sub- of ink, chalk crayons are sometimes used stances. The first object can be effected by for drawing upon the stone or upon paper, an acid, which will corrode the stone, take from which a counter-proof is taken upon off its fine polish, and thus make it suscep- the stone. The crayons are thus made tible of water. Any greasy substance is three parts of soap, two parts of tallow, and capable of giving an impression upon stone, one part of wax, are all dissolved together whether the lines be made with a pencil or

in an earthen vessel. When the whole is with ink; or otherwise, the ground of a well mixed, a sufficient quantity of lampdrawing may be covered with a black greasy black, called Frankfort black, to give it an mixture, leaving the lines in white.

intense colour, is added; the mixture is Hence result two distinct processes : first, then poured into moulds, where it must rethe engraving, by tracing, produced by the main till it is quite cold, when it will be line of the pencil, or brush dipped in the proper to be used as chalk pencils. greasy ink : secondly, the engraving by dots French Kaleidoscopes. Our readers will or lines, as is done on wood or copper. no doubt have seen the various paragraphs

Impressions of prints may be easily ob- in the French papers respecting the im. tained without any reversing, by transpos. provements on the kaleidoscope, and will ing on the stone a drawing traced on paper have formed their own opinion of the prewith the prepared ink.

tensions of that class of inferior opticians. All kinds of close calcareous stone, of an We have had occasion to see several of their

water.

:

Deaths.
General.
Captain.

Ensign.
Lord Muncaster, of late 4 Royal Leman, Royal. Afi. Corps Vernon, 80 F. 2 Aug. 1818
Vet. Bn. 29th July 1818
Majors.
Lieutenants.

Surgeons. Walmesley, 8: F. 17th do. Ferguson, 10 F.

Crake, 67 F.
Elder, h. p. 31 F.

Rolfe, 58 F.
24th May 1818 Schooles, 81 F.

7th July Butcher, h. p. 92 F.

16th Aug
M'Connell, 75 F.

Armstrong, City of Dub. Mil. Green, h. p. Portu. Service

COMMERCIAL REPORT.-Sept. 11th 1818.

Sugars. The market for Sugar has, during last month, been upon the whole lively, and the prices good. There has been some fluctuation in prices, but nothing of a magnitude to alter the general results. The stock on hand in London is 11,000 casks less than at the same period last year. As the greater proportion of the crops from the West Indies are now arrived, the prices can hardly fail to be maintained, if not to become higher. The crops this year in the Colonies have been unusually late, owing to the exces. sive wet weather in the early part of the season, which always injures the succeeding crop. When the first rains commence in June, if the canes cannot be got soon and regularly Weeded, they get overrun with weeds, which prevent them from becoming as thick on the ground as they otherwise would. When employed în taking off the latter part of the crop at this period, as has been the case this season, this labour cannot be attended to.

In consequence of which, an evil is sustained which cannot be remedied. The following crop, if good, can never be any thing uncommon. Sugars, therefore, may be expected to keep high prices from this cause alone, independent of any other cause which may occur to raise them.-Coffee. The prices of this article, as might have been expected, have fluctuated greatly. Prices have, however, given way considerably, and the market is at present heavy and dull

. The stock on hand in London, is at present 5,400 tons, being 4,300 less than at the same period last year. The market for this article is likely to fluctuate considerably for some time, as the breath of speculation may move it, till it finds its proper level, and it is ascertained how far the supply is adequate to the demand.

At present, it is a very unsafe article for the speculator to meddle with.--Cotton. The prices of this article have remained steady, and been fully supported, notwithstanding the total stagnation which had taken place in the spinning business in the chief manufacturing districts in England. Now that the unpleasant dispute between the masters and workmen are settled, or in a fair train of being so, it may reasonably be presumed, that Cotton will maintain its price, and the demand continue in full, if not in increased, activity. The quantity imported this year, exceeds that to the same period last year, by 130,000 bags. The crops in America are represented as having suffered considerably from excessive dry weather in June and July. The prices in the East Indies are raised to an unprecedented height, by native speculators, in consequence of the great demand from Europe. The consequences are likely to prove very injurious to those engaged, or newly engaging in that trade, as it is scarcely to be expected that they can obtain the high prices in this country, to which the first cost, freight, and charges, entitle them. The consequences also may be very various, in a political point of view, to our national interests in India. Cotton exported to Great Britain, from that portion of our empire, is allowed duty free, while for internal consumpt it bears a considerable tax. The produce of our Cotton manufactures is allowed to be imported duty free into India, while their own productions are heavily taxed. This cannot fail to make a deep and unfavourable impression upon the minds of the more active and intelligent classes in India ; namely, the labouring and commercial bodies, to our interests, which they must consider as partial and oppressive to them.-Corn. Notwith- standing the favourable appearance of the Grain last month, it advanced in price. During last week, the prices have been steady, and the sales of Flour limited. The probability is, that Grain has reached its highest price for this season.-Irish Provisions. In the article of Beef few sales have been made. The holders, however, anticipate higher prices, from the high prices of Pork. This article is in brisk demand.- Tobacco. The prices for some days remain steady, and the demand good. A report was industriously circulated some weeks ago, of the great scarcity of this article, both in America and the different markets in Europe. This probably originated with some interested speculators, but it does not appear to have had the effect on the market which they anticipated.--Hemp, Flax, and Tallow. The latter article has been in great demand, and at a very considerable advance. Hemp is also in considerable request. Flax may be stated as formerly.-Rum, Brandy, and Hollands. The price of Rum has lately advanced, but the prices at that advance are now become nominal. Brandy is more in demand, and at advanced rates. Owing to ex. cessive dry weather, the vintage in France is greatly fallen off in quantity, which must have the effect of keeping the price of Brandy high. Geneva is without variation.Dye. *oods. Logwood has continued in demand. Considerable sales have been made in

Pimento. Ashes have been in good demand, and sold at advanced prices. Carolina Rice in bond, has brought from 45s. to 46s. Lemon Juice has been inquired for. Oil, of al. most every description, has advanced in price, and considerable business has been doing in several kinds. Saltpetre is now chiefly in the hands of second holders, who are demanding advanced prices. There is little variation in the prices of other articles of commerce. East Iudit Indigo goes off steadily. Thick American Tar has sold at 17s. 6d., and Stockholm at 17s. 9d. per barrel. Molasses have again advanced in price, but the sales are not brisk at our present quotations.

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67

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per lb.

08 14

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PRICES CURRENT.-Aug. 29, 1818.
SUGAR, Musc.
LEITH. GLASGOW. LIVERPOOL. LONDON.

DUTIES. B. P. Dry Brown, cwt. 80

to

78 to 81 74 to 82 80 to Midl. good, and fine mid. 86

90 82
90 83

89 83
F ne and very fine,
92

£1 10 0 96

90

93 88 Refined, Doub. Loaves, 150 155

155 Powder ditto,

124
126

124
Sin, le ditto,
120 122 (119 124 124

126 122 Small Lumps 116 118 114 116 126

128 120 Large ditto, 114 115 110

112 114

119 114 Crushed Lumps,

66
67 70

72 MOLASSES, British, cwt.

45

42
41 6

44 COFFEE, Jamaica cwt.

07 67

1 Ord. good, and fine ord. 144 156 142 154 146

155 144 148 Mid. good, and fine miri. 158 172 156

170 157
168 158

161 Dutch, Triage and very ord. 134 146

- 134
146 120

135 Ord. good, and fine ord. 148 156

143 156 148 156

0 0 74 Mid. good, and fine mid. 158 172

158
168 165

170
St Domingo,
154 158

155 158 158

161 PIMENTO (in Bond) Ib.

1140 11
114

11 11 SPIRITS,

0 097 Jam. Rum, 16 0. P. gall. 3s 8d 3s 10d 3s 9d 3s 100 3s 6d 4s Od 3s 8d 3s 9d Brandy,

90
10 0

8 2

8 6 SB.S. Geneva, 3 5

0 17 048

3 9 0 Grain Whisky,

(F.S.)

0 17 1112 7 6 80

14 6 0 0 WINES, Claret, 1st Growths, hhd. 50

B.S. 2143 18 0 54

£50
£55 Os. F.S.) 148

4 6 Portugal Red, pipe. 48

52 10 Spanish White, butt. 34

38 0

(B.S. LE 95 11 0 $ Teneriffe, pipe. 30

28

34 0 F.S.J 98 16 0 Madeira, 60

SB.S.

96 13 0

F.S. 99 16 6 LOGWOOD, Jam. ton. £9 0

8 15 9

8 10 8 15 8 15 9 Honduras,

99
8 8 9

8 15 9 0 9 0 0 Campeachy,

09 14 10

10 0 10 10 9 10 10 0 9 15 10 FUSTIC, Jamaica, 11

10 0 11 10 11 12 Cuba, 11 14 015 0 13 10 15 0

1 INDIGO, Caraccas fine, lb. 9s 6d Ils 6d 8 6 9 6

11 11 6

0 TIMBER, Amer. Pine, foot. 2 2

0 43 2 3 2 7 2 9

0

2 44 Ditto Oak,

4 5 4 Christiansand (dut. paid)

0 2 2 2

5 6.3 Honduras Mahogany 1 4 1 8 0 10 18 1 3 1 4 1s 240 ls 40

3 16 St Domingo, ditto

1 2 3 0 19 2 3
19 2 2

8 14 TAR, American, brl.

15 17 15 0 20

SB.S. 1 1 4 3

F.S. 1 2 113 Archangel,

22
23

17 6 18 0

20 PITCH, Foreign, cwt. 10

11

12

B.S.)

8 TALLOW, Rus. Yel. Cand. 85

(F.s.) 1 10 82 87 88 6 89

0 3 Home Melted,

83
80

72

74 HEMP, Riga Rhine, ton.) 48

49 50 51

£50

B.S.) 0 9 11 Petersburgh Clean,

47
48 50 51 48

50 49 FLAX.

(F.S.

0 10 0 Riga Thies. & Druj. Rak. 76 77

80

82
Dutch,
60 120

80
81

0 0 Irish,

56
€1

F.S. 0 0 778 MATS, Archangel, 103. 105 115

110

BS. 1 5 9 BRISTLES,

F.S. 1

4 117

(B.S. 0 3 63 Petersburgh Firsts, cwt. 15.0

14 15 F.S.)

0

3 115 ASHES, Peters. Pearl, 50

52

52

B.S. 0 4 6% Montreal ditto,

F.S.

0 6
58
60 56
58 57

62

63
Pot,

52
54

50
51 54

0 1 7 DIL, Whale,

tun. 42
38

45
Cod.
80 (p. brl.)

45 TOBACCO, Virgin. fine, Ib. 11

12 111
12 09 0 11

1s id ls 2d Middling,

10
99 104 0 75 0 87

10 Inferior,

0 3 10 9

10 COTTONS, Bowed Georg.

94 0 7

93

1 10 Sea Island, fine,

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10 4 good,

3 6 3

3 4 middling,

3 3 3 5 2 0 2 6 8 Demerara and Berbice,

1 104 | B.S. 0 8 7

2 0 2 3 1 10 2 3 1 11 2 2 West India,

F.S.

17 2 2 0 9 Pernambuco,

1 10 1 7 111

2.1 2 2 Maranham,

2 1 221 1 111 2 032 0 201

-- NO OS

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per 100 lbs.

Weekly Price of Stocks, from 4th to 25th August 1818.

4th.

11th. 18th, 25th.

2725

1055

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Bank stock,

275

275 2734
3
per cent. reduced.

781
78

767 nära 76 3 per cent. consols,

772 771 764 75% 4 per cent. consols,

971 971

961

958 5 per cent. navy ann.

106 106

105 Imperial 3 per cent. ann. India stock, bonds,

92
94 85 87

84 Exchequer bills,

19
19
19

19 Consols for acc.

774 773 764

754 American 3 per cent.

new loan, 6 per cent. French 5 per cents. cavone

179 f. 70 cts. Course of Exchange, Sept. 8. Amsterdam, 37: 10 B. 2 Us. Antwerp, 11:16. Ex. Hamburgh, 35: 1. 2. Us. Frankfort 1441. Ex. Paris 25: 10. 2 Us. Bordeaux, 25: 10. Madrid, 384 effect. Cadiz, 382 effect. Gibraltar, 34. Leghorn, 501. Genoa, 46. Malta, 50. Naples, 524. Palermo, 129 per oz. Rio Janeiro, 67. Oporto, 58. Dublin, 10. Cork, 10. Agio of the Bank of Holland, 2.

Prices of Gold and Silver, per 02.—Portugal gold, in coin, £- Foreign gold, in bars, £- New doubloons, £4. New Dollars, -s. d. Silver, in bars, 5s. 4fd.

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ALPHABETICAL LIST of Scotch BANKRUPTCIES, announced between the 1st and

31st August 1818, extracted from the Edinburgh Gazette. Chalmers, David & Co. linen and woollen-drapers

DIVIDENDS. in Lockerbie, and David Chalmers, the principal partner of that Company

Donaldson, George, draper in Edinburgh; by W Fergus & Kidston, wholesale grocers in Glasgow, Scott, accountant, Edinburgh and George Fergus and Thomas Kidston, the in- Donald, William, merchant, Greenock ;* by the dividual partners of said Company

Trustee 230 Sept. Gardner, J. & J. mathematical instrument-makers Mitchell, Alex. farmer and cattle-dealer in Fiddes

in Glasgow, and John Gardner, senior, and John beg of Foveran; by David Hutcheson, advocate, Gardner, junior, the partners thereof as indivi- Aberdeen duals

Miller, James, merchant, Glasgow; by Robert AitMitchell, John, merchant in Glasgow

ken, merchant there Miller, Alex. & Co. merchants, St Andrew Street, Sim, Walte , & Co. grain-merchants, Aberdeen,

and Kirkgate, Leith, and Alex. Miller and James and Walter Sim, brewer and grain merchant Borthwick, the individual partners of that Com- there; by John Duguid Milne, advocate there pany

Tailor, John, late merchant, Arbroath; by John Scandret, James, painter and glazier in Peterhead Airth, merchant, Arbroath-10th Sept. Wilson, John, senior, grocer in Glasgow

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Tuesday, September 1. Beef (17) oz. per lb.) Os. 7d. to Os. 8d. Quartern Loaf Os. 11d. to Os. Od. Mutton

Os. 7d. to Os. 8d. Potatoes (28 lb.) Os. 10d. to Os. Od. Lamb, per quarter

2s. 6d. to 4s. 6d. Butter, per lb. 1s. d. to Os. Od. Veal

Os. 8d. to Os. 10d. New Salt do. per st. 22s. Od. to 24s. Od.
Pork
Os. 6d. to Os. 8d. Ditto

per
lb.

1s. 4d. to Is. 6d. Tallow, per stone Ils. 6d. to 12s.6d.

dozen ls. Od. to Os. Od.

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HADDINGTON.SEPTEMBER 4.

OLD.
Wheat.
Barley.

Oats.
Pease.

Beans. 1st....... 44s. Od. j 1st...... Os. Od. | 1st....... 28s. Od. 1st,......32s. Od. 1st, .34s. Odi. 2d, ......38s. Od. ( 2d, ...... Os. Od. 2d, ...... 26s. Od. | 2d, ...... 28s. Od. 2d,......30s. Od. 3d, ......3ls. Od. | 3d,...... Os. Od. | 3d,...... 23s. Od. 3d, ......25s. Od. | 3d........27s. Od

NEW.

Wheat.
Barley.
Oats.
Pease.

Beans. 1stge.....44s. Od. 1st,......41s. Od. 1st,...... 275. Od. 1st,...... Os. Od. 1st,...... Os. Od. 2d, ..42s. Od. 2d, ......37s. Od. 2d, .24s. Od. | 2d, ...... Os. Od. 2d, ...... Os. Od. 3d, .38s. Od. | 3d,

......31s. Od. | 3d, 21s. Od. 3d, ...... Os. Od. 3d,. Os. Od.

Average price, £1:19:9:7-12ths. Note.-The boll of wheat, beans, and pease, about 4 per cent. more than half a quarter,

or 4 Winchester bushels ; that of barley and oats nearly 6 Winchester bushels.

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London, Corn Exchange, Sept. 4.

Liverpool, Sept. 5.
Wheat,
S. d. $. d.

S. d. s. d.
per 70 lbs.
68 to 76

to

Rice, p.cwt.
Foreign Wheat, 60 to 70 White Pease
Fine

11 0 to 12 6 Flour, English,
72 to 74 Boilers

80 to 88

English
-New

to 12 0 to 12 6 p.280 b.fine

70 to 86 -Superfine .. 76 to 78 Small Beans

Scotch . 10 9 to 11 6 Seconds .. to/ -New 80 to 82-Tick. 65 to 70

Welch
-Fine.

to

11 0 to 11 6-Irish English, White,

72 to 78

Irish (old) 8 6 to 10 O American ..46 0 to 48 0 New. 64 to 74 New ..., 82 to

-New 11 0 to 12 0 -Sour. 39 0 to 41 0 -Fine 76 to 79 Feed Oats ... 26 to 30

Dantzic Superfine . . 82 to 84-Fine .. 31 to 32

12 0 to 12 6 Clover-seed, p. bush. Wismar i 11 9 to 12 3 White

to Rye (new) 42 to 50 -Poland ... 30 to 32

American

to Barley (new) 40 to 50

32 to 36

. 11 0 to 11 9 - Red

Quebec Fine. 48 to 54 -Potato... 33 to 35

11 0 to 11 3 Oatmeal, per 240 lb.

38 to 40 | Barley, per 60 libs. -Superfine . .53 to 66 - Fine

English 40 0 to 45 0 Malt,

70 to 75

English 7 0 to 8 6 Scotch ..... 66 to 80 Fine Flour,

... 38 0 to 40 0 Scotch

Irish -Fine .... 82 to 86 Seconds 65 to 70

to

33 0 to 38 0 Irish

6 6 to 70 Hog Pease(new)60 to 66 Bran .

17 to 18

Butter, Beef, &c. Maple .....66 to 68 Fine Pollard : 16 to 40|| Malt p.9gis. 11 6 to 13 0

Rye, per qr.

Butter, per cwt. s. go

Foreign 42 0 to 50 0 Belfast
Seeds, &c.Sept. 8.

138 to 0 Oats, per 45 lb.

Newry

136 to 0

Eng. pota. 4 6 to 5 0 Drogheda 0 to 0 Mustard,Brwn,15 to 24 Hempseed

70 to 76|| Welsh

... 4 3 to 4 7 Waterford (new) 0 to 0 -White . 7 to 17 Linseed, crush. 65 to 75|Scotch . 4 6 to 4 10 Cork, 3d

0 to 0 Tares. . 12 to 17 Ryegrass .5 to 32 Foreign 4 0 to 4 10 -New, 2d, 138 to 0 Turnips . 12 to 20 New Clover,

Irish

4 3 to 4 10 Beef, p. tierce 85 to 95 -Red -Red, 28 to 130 Beans, pr qr.

60 to 63 -Yellow,

to White 50 to 130 English 80 0 to 84 O Pork, p. brl. 95 to 105 Carraway 48 to 56 Coriander . . . 18 to 22) Foreign . . 750 to 80 0 Bacon, per cwt. Canary, 100 to 130 New Trefoil 14 to 63| Pease, per quar.

-Short middles 70 to 72 Rapeseed, £46 to £52.

· Boiling : 70 0 to 78 01-Long do. . . . 0 to 0 Average Prices of Corn of England and Wales, from the Returns received in the Week

ended 29th August 1818. Wheat, 80s. 1d.-Rye, 52s. 5d.-Barley, 53s. 3d.--Oats, 34s. 3d.-Beans, 70s. 5d.-Pease, 62s. 8d..

Oatmeal, 36s. 8d.-Beer or Big, Os. Od.

S.

S.

S.

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p. barrel

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Average Prices of British Corn in Scotland, by the Quarter of Eight Winchester Bushels,

and Oatmeal, per Boll of 128 lbs. Scots Troy, or 140 lbs. Avoirdupois, of the Four

Weeks immediately preceding the 15th August 1818. Wheat, 67s. 10d.-Rye, 58s. 3d.-Barley, 44s. Od.--Oats, 30s. 11d. --Beans, 48s. 10d. Pease, 49s. 6d.

Oatmeal, 25s. 100,-Beer or Big, 39s. 9d.

METEOROLOGICAL REPORT.

The month of August commenced with dry weather, which continued with little interruption throughout. Excepting some light showers on the 1st, 7th, 10th, 17th, and 21st, scarcely exceeding in all one tenth of an inch, there fell no rain till the 25th. On that day, and on the 27th and 28th, there fell altogether about half an inch, but the whole quantity still bears a very small proportion indeed to that of August last year. The temperature of the month has been uniformly elevated, the average being nearly 23 degrees above that of the corresponding month 1817. The Thermometer rose twice above 70, frequently to 66, and every day to 60. The Barometer was steady at an elevation of about 30 during the first three weeks, so steady, indeed, that on some days the elevation or depression of the mercury in the space of twelve hours, was imperceptible even in Adie's delicate Barometer. The Hygrometer was also generally high, the average being about 7 degrees above that of August last year. It will be seen from the abstract, that the mean of the maximum and minimum temperatures for the month, differs from that of 10 and 10 only by about three-tenths of a degree; and that the point of deposition, according VOL. III.

5 A

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