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tact of a fluid (gas), varies in a geometrical even and fine grain, which are capable of progression, the excess of temperature vary, taking a good polish with pumice-stone, and ing also in a geometrical progression. If having the quality of absorbing water, may the ratio of the last progression be 2, that of be used for lithography. the first is 2.35; whatever the nature of the Composition of the Ink.—Heat a glazed gas, or whatever its force of elasticity. This earthen vessel over the fire ; when it is hot, law may also be expressed by saying, that introduce one pound by weight of white the quantity of heat abstracted by a gas in Marseilles soap, and as much mastic in all cases proportional to the excess of the grains ; melt these ingredients, and mix temperature of the body raised to the power them carefully; then incorporate five parts of 1.233.
by weight of shell lac, and continue to stir 6. The cooling power of a fluid (gas) di- it'; to mix the whole, drop in gradually a minishes in a geometrical progression, when solution of one part of caustic alkali in five its tension or elasticity diminishes also in a times its bulk of water. Caution, however, geometrical progression. If the ratio of must be used in making this addition, bethis second progression 2, the ratio of cause should the ley be put in all at once, the first will be for air 1.366; for hydrogen the liquor will ferment and run over. When 1.301 ; for carbonic acid 1.431 ; for olefiant the mixture is completed by a moderate gas 1.415. This law may be expressed in heat and frequent stirring, a proportionate the following manner :
quantity of lamp-black must be added, after The cooling power of gas is, other things which a sufficient quantity of water must be being equal, proportionate to a certain poured in to make the ink liquid. power of the pressure. The exponent of Drawing. This ink is used for drawing this power, which depends on the nature of ing on the stone, in the same manner as on the gas, is for air 0.45; for hydrogen 0.315; paper, either with a pen or pencil; when for carbonic acid 0.517; for olefiant gas the drawing on the stone is quite dry, and 0.501.
an impression is required, the surface of the 7. The cooling power of a gas varies stone must be wetted with a solution of niwith its temperature ; so that, if the gas can tric acid, in the proportion of fifty to one of dilate so as to preserve the same degree of water; this must be done with a soft sponge, elasticity, the cooling power will be found taking care not to make a friction in the diminished by the rarefaction of the gas, drawing. The wetting must be repeated as just as much as it is increased by its being soon as the stone appears dry; and when heated ; so that ultimately it depends upon the effervescence of the acid has ceased, the its tension alone.
stone is to be carefully rinsed with clean It may be perceived, from the above propositions, that the law of cooling, com- Printing. While the stone is moist, it posed of all the preceding laws, must be should be passed over with the printer's ball very complicated; it is not therefore given charged with ink, which will adhere only to in common language, but may be found in those parts not wetted. A sheet of paper, a mathematical form in the body of the me- properly prepared for printing, is then to moir.
be spread on the stone, and the whole comLithography.--The French Academy of mitted to the press, or passed through a rolFine Arts, having appointed a Committee ler. to examine the lithographical drawings of To preserve the drawing on the stone M. Engelmann of Mulhause, in the Upper from dust, when not in use, a solution of Rhine, have reported, that the stone must gum-arabic is passed over it, which can be be rendered capable of imbibing water, and easily removed by a little water. Instead also of receiving all greasy or resinous sub- of ink, chalk crayons are sometimes used stances. The first object can be effected by for drawing upon the stone or upon paper, an acid, which will corrode the stone, tak from which a counter-proof is taken upon off its fine polish, and thus make it suscep- the stone. The crayons are thus madetible of water.
Any greasy substance is three parts of soap, two parts of tallow, and capable of giving an impression upon stone, one part of wax, are all dissolved together whether the lines be made with a pencil or in an earthen vessel. When the whole is with ink; or otherwise, the ground of a well mixed, a sufficient quantity of lampdrawing may be covered with a black greasy black, called Frankfort black, to give it an mixture, leaving the lines in white.
intense colour, is added ; the mixture is Hence result two distinct processes : first, then poured into moulds, where it must rethe engraving, by tracing, produced by the main till it is quite cold, when it will be line of the pencií, or brush dipped in the proper to be used as chalk pencils. greasy
: secondly, the engraving by dots French Kaleidoscopes.-Our readers will or lines, as is done on wood or copper. no doubt have seen the various paragraphs
Impressions of prints may be easily ob- in the French papers respecting the im. tained without any reversing, by transpos. provements on the kaleidoscope, and will ing on the stone a drawing traced on paper have formed their own opinion of the prewith the prepared ink.
tensions of that class of infcrior opticians. All kinds of close calcareous stone, of an We have had occasion to see several of their
instruments, and it is a remarkable fact, system generally, a subscription for a sur. that not one of the makers of those vey has been opened, and plans by Mr Stewhich we have seen have the slightest venson, engineer, are in considerable forknowledge of the principles or construc- wardness. tion of the kaleidoscope. "The very reflec- “ It seems to be desirable, that railways, tors are placed at the wrong angle, the eye for alternate carriage and general use, should wrong placed, and the pictures destitute of proceed on a continued level, or upon sucsymmetry. They are indeed inferior to the cessive levels; and a simple system of lockcommon kaleidoscopes made by the Jews in age (if it may be so called), by which loadLondon, or the beggar boys in Edinburgh. ed waggons may easily be elevated or de
Improvement and Extension of Iron Rail. pressed, from one level to another, would ways.—The Highland Society of Scotland appear to be a desirable attainment. The have recently announced the following pre- edge railway is generally used and prefer mium, viz.
red in Scotland, as causing less friction and A piece of plate, of fifty guineas value, less expense of horse power; and it would will be given for the best and approved es- tend to facilitate the general use of railsay on the construction of rail-roads, for the ways, if, by some simple change, the wheel conveyance of ordinary commodities. In usually employed for the road or street could this essay it will be essential to keep in view, be made also to suit the rail-way, or the how far rail-roads can be adapted for com- railway wheel be made to suit the road or mon use in a country ; the means of laden street, so that the cart or waggon which carriages surmounting the elevations occur- brings the commodity from the colliery or ring in their course ; and whether rail-roads, stone-quarry, the farm-yard, or the manuor the wheels of carriages, may be so con- factory, to the railway, might travel along structed as to be applicable to ordinary it to the termination of the railway, and roads as well as to rail-roads, so that no in- proceed from thence through the streets of convenience shall be experienced on leaving the town to the dwelling of the consumer, either to travel on the other : the essay to be without unloading or change of carriage. accompanied with such models or drawings " The general use of railways by ironas shall be sufficient to illustrate the state- manufacturers, for their own peculiar obments it contains.
jects, qualifies them in an eminent degree to It is desirable that some account should afford valuable suggestions on the best be given of the principal rail-roads in Bri. means of perfecting the railway system ; tain, together with a brief history of their and from a desire to collect the general introduction. The premium not to be de- sense of enlightened and scientific men, we cided until the 10th November 1819. take the liberty of submitting the annexed
And with the same view, the following queries to your consideration, and to request, circular letter has been addressed to the va- if agreeable to you, that you will be pleased rious iron-masters in Scotland and England, to favour us with any suggestions which viz.
may occur to you upon the subject. “ SIR, -Although the railway that is “ Nothing could give a stronger impulse now in contemplation in the vicinity of E. to the iron-manufacture than the complete dinburgh be entirely a matter of local con- success of this scheme. It seems to claim cern, the peculiar plan of it is certainly to the attention of the iron-manufacturers of be viewed in a different light, as an object Great Britain as a body, and to merit their that well deserves the attention of the various individual and collective support.” classes of the community throughout the Edinburgh, March 25, 1818. kingdom. Instead of insulated patches of railway here and there, for particular pur.
Queries. poses, and for the conveniency of private individuals, as is now the case, it is here 1. What is the best breadth of railway, proposed, through the medium of rail- and the best form of a waggon or carriage, ways, to open extensive communications for the conveyance of commodities in geneto branch them out from the metropolis of ral ? Scotland in various directions, and to dis- 2. Supposing the trade alternate, it will tant points and thus to facilitate convey. be desirable that the railway should proceed ance in general by an improved system of on a continued level, or upon successive leroads for heavy carriages.
vels. What are deemed the best means, “ The Highland Society of Scotland have, with reference to economy and despatch, in a very patriotic manner, offered a pre- for elevating or depressing the laden car. mium of fifty guineas for the best essay on riages from one level to another ? the means of attaining so desirable an ob- 3. Supposing the edge railway, which is ject as the introduction of railways for the generally preferred in Scotland, to be adoptpurposes of general carriage.
ed, can a wheel be so constructed as to be " With a view to the establishment of applicable to streets or ordinary roads, as the railway in question, for the conveyance well as to rail-roads, so that no inconve. of commodities to and from Edinburgh, nience shall be experienced on leaving either and thereby to give a commencement to the to travel on the other ?
WORKS PREPARING FOR PUBLICATION.
THE continuation of Sir Richard Hoare's Dr Spiker, one of the librarians of the History of Ancient Wiltshire will, in the King of Prussia, who recently visited this, ensuing season, be presented to the public. country for literary and scientific objects, It is written on the same plan as the South has published, in German, the first volume Wiltshire, and will describe the antiquities of his Tour through England, Wales, and worthy of remark in the northern district of Scotland; a translation of which will be the county, and be accompanied with en-' published here, under the authority of, and, gravings by Messrs Cooke, Basire, &c. with some additional remarks by, the author.
A Description of the Islands of Java, Memoirs, Biographical, Critical, and LiBali, and Celebes, with an account of the terary, of the most eminent Physicians and principal nations and tribes of the Indian Surgeons of the present time in the United Archipelago, is in preparation ; by John Kingdom ; with a choice Collection of their Crawford, Esq. late resident at the court' Prescriptions, and a specification of the disof the Sultan of Java.
eases for which they were given, forming a Messrs Longman and Co. have lately re- complete modern extemporaneous pharmaceived from America an interesting manu- copæia : to which is added, an Appendix, script, containing a Narrative of the Wreck containing an account of the different mediof the ship Oswego, on the coast of South cal institutions in the metropolis, scientific. Barbary, and of the sufferings of the master and charitable. and the crew while in bondage among the The Rev. S. Clapham of Christ-church, Arabs ; interspersed with numerous remarks Hants, will shortly publish the Pentateuch, upon the country and its inhabitants, and or Five Books of Moses illustrated; conconcerning the peculiar perils of that coast ; taining an explication of the phraseology in. by Judah Paddock, her late master. The corporated with the text, for the use of fa. work will be published in the course of the milies and schools.
Underwood's Catalogue of Medical Books The Rev. H. J. Todd has a work in the for 1818-19, with a List of the Lectures de press on Original Sin, Free-will, Grace, livered in London, is in the press. Regeneration, Justification, Faith, Good Anderson and Chase are preparing for Works, and Universal Redemption, as publication their Annual Catalogue of New maintained in certain declarations of our and Second-hand Medical Books, with a Reformers, which are the ground-work of complete List of the Lectures delivered in the articles of the established church. It London, their terms, hours of attendance, will be followed by an Account of the Sub- &c. scription to the Articles in 1604, and an Dr Jones's new translation of the Four historical and critical introduction to the Gospels into Welsh, will be published in a whole.
few days. M. Kotzebue is preparing for publication Sermons, in two volumes, by the Rey, his account of the Russian Embassy to Per- Charles Moore, are in the press. sia, which will appear at the same time in Robert Southey, Esq. has in the press, in London and Weymar.
two octavo volumes, Memoirs of the Life of Dr James Johnson, author of "The In. John Wesley, the founder of the English fluence of Tropical Climates on European Methodists. Constitutions," &c. will speedily publish a Mr G. Russell, of his Majesty's Office of small work, entitled, The Influence of Ci. Works, has in the press, a Tour through vic Life, Sedentary Habits, and Intellectual Sicily in 1815 ; performed in company with Refinement, on Human Health and Hu. three German gentlemen of considerable liman Happiness; including an Estimate of terary attainments. the balance of enjoyment and suffering in Mr H. B. Fearon will soon publish, in the different gradations of society.
an octavo volume, Sketches of America, beShortly will be published, Memoirs on ing the narrative of a journey of more than the Present State of Science and Scientific five thousand miles through the eastern and Institutions in France ; containing a des. western states, criptive and historical account of the Royal Two volumes of Sermons, by the late Garden of Plants; the Royal Institute ; Rey. E. Robson, thirty-seven years curate the Polytechnic School ; the Faculty of of St Mary, Whitechapel, selected from his Sciences; the College of France; and the MSS. by the Rev. H. C. Donnoughue, are Cabinet of Mineralogy : the Public Libra- in the press. ries; the Medical School ; and the Hospi- Mr John Chalmers, author of a History tals ; with plans of the latter, never before of Malvern, is printing a History of Worpublished, &c. &c. : illustrated by nume- cester, abridged from the histories of Dr rous plates and tables ; by A. B. Granville, Nash and Mr Green, with much additional M.D. F.R.S. F.L.S. M.R.I., &c.
information. VOL. III.
Mr Henry Thomson will soon publish, and Misery are produced or prevented by Remarks on the Conduct of a Nursery ; in- our present system of prison discipline; by tended to give information to young mo- Thomas Fowell Buxton, Esq. M. P. thers, and those likely to become such. Reports of Cases Tried in the Jury Court,
Mr A. T. Thomson has in the press, in an from the Institution of the Court in 1815, octavo volume, the London Dispensatory; to the sittings at Edinburgh ending in containing the Elements and Practice of March 1818. Materia Medica and Pharmacy, with a tran- Mr Brydson, Edinburgh, is preparing for slation of the London, Edinburgh, and immediate publication, in 4to, a new work Dublin Pharmacopeias.
on Distinctions of Rank, as belonging to The Rev. Fred. Nolan is preparing a the Governments of Modern Europe, and Grammatical Analysis (on a plan altogether derived from the Political and Military Innew) of the French, Italian, Spanish, stitutions of the Feudal System. A part of Greek, Latin, Hebrew, and Syriac Lan- this treatise, under the title of Heraldry, guages, with a Classed Vocabulary; to be was formerly laid before the public, and printed in a duodecimo volume.
met with a favourable reception. The preThe third edition of the late Dr Saunders' sent publication will include, 1. An historiTreatise on Diseases of the Eye, with a short cal deduction of the feudal system, in its account of his life by Dr Farre, will soon territorial structure, and distinctive military appear.
constitution termed Chivalry—the former The fifth edition of the History of the consisting of fiefs, or feudal possessions in British West Indies, by Bryan Edwards, land, the latter of incorporeal fiefs, or feudal continued to the present time, in four octavo possessions in dignity, rank, and precedence. volumes, with a quarto one of maps and 2. A view of the government of the British plates, is expected early in next month. kingdoms, ir, reference to the general de
sign of this work. 3. Of distinctions of EDINBURGH.
rank as inseparable from the establishment
of society. 4. The specific degrees of genA most accurate Compendium of the Fa- tlemen and esquire, the dignity of knightculty Collection of Decisions, from its com- hood, and the pre-eminent dignity of the mencement in 1752 to the Session of 1817 ; peerage, belonging respectively to the poliby Mr Peter Halkerston, solicitor in the tical department of the feudal system, and Supreme Courts.
designated by titles and symbols of ChivalMartin's Voyage to St Kilda in 1697, ry, which symbols are here exemplified in a and Supplement to the Feuds and Conflicts series of vignette armorial engravings. of the Clans, from an original MS. in 1656. The Appeal, a tragedy; as performed at
A new edition of Inquiry whether Crime the Theatre-Royal, Edinburgh.
MONTHLY LIST OF NEW PUBLICATIONS.
Conder on Protestant Nonconformity, 2 ANTIQUITIES.
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mon by the Hon. and Rev. Edward John Memoirs of the public and private Life Turnour, A.M. 2s. of John Howard, the philanthropist ; com- Discourses on several Subjects and Occapiled from his private diary and letters, the sions ; by the Rev. W. Hett, M. A. 2 vols journal of his confidential attendant, the 8vo. 18s. communications of his family and surviving On the Being and Attributes of God; by friends, and other authentic sources of in- Wm Bruce, D.D. 8vo. 8s. formation; most of it entirely original ; by The Spirit of the Gospel; or the Four James Baldwin Brown, Esq. of the Inner Evangelists Elucidated, by explanatory obTemple, barrister at law, 4to.
servations, historical references, and miscel
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ORNITHOLOGY. which are now added, the Russia and Le- The Natural History of the Birds of Pa. vant dues ; duties of scavage, package, and radise, Toucans, and Barbus, followed by baillage ; and pilotage and dock rates ; to- that of the Promerops, Guepiers, and Cougether with the American navigation laws roucous ; by F. Levaillant. Thirty-three and tariff. The statutes brought down to livraisons, 3 vols folio. the end of 58. Geo. III. and the other parts
PHILOSOPHY. to September 1, 1818; by Charles Pope, Essays on the Proximate Mechanical controlling surveyor of the warehouses in Causes of the general Phenomena of the U. Bristol, and late of the customhouse, Lon niverse ; by Sir R. Phillips, 12mo. 3s. 68. don, 8vo. £1, 15s.
The First Part of the Philosophical TransThe other additions embrace an en- actions for 1818. £1, 10s. larged statement of all the regulations at present affecting our West India and Ame- The History of the County Palatine of rican possessions; the Liverpool dock laws; Chester ; by J. H. Hanshall, editor of the and a variety of miscellaneous matters.-- Chester Chronicle, parts 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6.