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from carrying off poor Christian wo- have indeed lost nothing, and I am men. A detachment of these honest not sorry to have missed hearing of defenders of our religion, noticing an your grievances, for I like much better old woman, a young girl, and the your gayeties.” “ As for gayety," anhandsome Amurat, who had thought- swered the Minstrel, “thank Heaven, lessly kept on his turban, arrested all I am well enough provided with that, three. Heavens! what must have and with patience too, as you shall been the surprize of my wife, when hear. she found the commander of the troop “ When I saw my wife and childwas no other than the officer, her for- ren return so melancholy in the evenmer friend. When recovered from her ing, I was much surprised, and calmastonishment, she had recourse to her ly asked them whence they came? ancient blandishments; but perhaps My wife, gentlemen, does not want the season of love was passed, or that effrontery, and nothing embarrasses the commander in such a holy service her ; she plainly told me the whole of had repented his former amours, for her plot, the carrying away my treashe said to her, in a tone to convince ure, the meeting of the holy brotherher that her smiles were vain, 'Ma- hood, and added what had been the dam, I am very sorry for you ; but I price for her fetters being struck off
. am forced to execute my office : it Vastly well, madam,' said I, and it pains me, I assure you, to deliver you is I then who pays for your folly; we up to the holy inquisition; and in have not now a maravidi, and
your spite of my pity, you must permit me prank has made so much noise, we to put on handcuffs.'
My dear Don cannot longer remain here,- What's Pedro,' replied my wife, “is there no to be done Resume your bagpipe, method to soften you ?' None, ma- replied she, you know that that is dam,' answered the officer. • What, our faithful nurse.' not even with this gold,' continued my “ I resumed my pipes, and went wife. The sight of gold has a charm, playing away on all the high roads of the effect of which is more rapid than Spain: but, sirs, one cannot hunt two light or thought. The hardened feat- hares at once; the time which I had ures of the stern countenance of the given to physic was prejudicial to my officer were instantly softened into first profession, which requires consmiles. He pocketted the gold, and stant and perpetual cultivation. Add sent my wife, daughter, and the two to this, that I was become somewhat brats, back to me again in Murcia. asthmatical, and could no longer draw But he was inflexible in detaining the out those fine and jlengthened tones handsome Amurat, in spite of the cries which, in my younger days, went to and lamentations of Ernestine, when the heart. The pipe, they say, resemhe tore him from her.” At the reci- bles love, and youth is required in tal of this scene by the Minstrel, the both. I hastened therefore to quit amiable girl began to sob as loudly as Spain, and on our arrival at the Pye at the moment of separation.
renees, we clambered over those black Evening prayers being ended, the and formidable rocks, and crossed steward hastily returned to the hall those immense heaps of snow, that for strangers; but was not a little as- have lain there since the creation of tonished to find all in tears, whom so the world, as well as we could, and very lately he had left full of gayety, saw France once again. We prostrated when he had gone to attend his duty ourselves before the first hower-deat chapel. Ah, what sudden mis- luce we saw. Were I to say that fortune can have happened unto you, my talents received greater honour in then, during the recital of three France than in Spain, I should lie; psalms, and the performance of a sin- but this I am bound to say, that in gle obituary?" “ Reverend father,” France they were more ready to assist replied the Minstrel, “ you have lost us with their charity. nothing by your absence; it was only “On approaching Berry, I recolthe relation of innocent amours of lected that my wife had told me that this simple girl, and some trifling cha- her relations held a very respectable grins which I experienced myself, that situation at Châteauroux." At these I have been telling during the time words this discreet woman, wearied you were psalm-singing.” “Oh, if it for some time by all the indiscretions is only that,” said the steward, “I of her husband quitted the apart
HISTORY OF THE BERNACLE AND
ment, under pretext to amuse her count is given by Gerard, in his Herdaughter, and to make the boys play bal : on the pipes. When she was gone, the
“ Having travelled from the grasses Minstrel thus continued, "Sirs, my growing in the bottom of the fenny waters, wife is a liar-no one had ever heard the woods and mountains, even unto Li. of her, nor of her relations, nor of the banus itselfe ; and also the sea and bowels great state they kept at Châteauroux. of the same, wee are arrived at the end of It would seem that she had never be the conclusion of the same to end with one
our history, thinking it not impertinent to fore, any more than myself, set foot in of the marvels of this land (we may say of Berry. Believe women who please on the world). The history whereof to set their word. My reverend father, you forth according to the worthinesse and rarihave acted wisely not to marry:
tie thereof, would not only require a large The Cambresian nodded his head and peculiar volume, but also a deeper
search into the bowels of nature, than my by way of civility, thinking on the extraordinary adventures he had heard. intended purpose will suffer me to wade in. But let us for a while leave the Hall the history thereof rough hewen, unto some
to, my sufficiencie also considered ; leaving of Guests at Vaucelles, and speak of excellent man, learned in the secrets of naother works connected with the sub- ture, to be both fined and refined : in the ject.
mean space take it as it falleth out, the na. ked and bare truth, though unpolished. There are found in the north parts of Scotland, and the islands adjacent, called Or. chades, certaine trees, whereon do grow certaine shells of a white colour tending to
russet, wherein are contained little living One of the most singular instances of creatures; which shells in time of maturity credulity on record, is that contained doe open, and out of them grow those in the early history of the Tree Goose little living things, which, falling into the or Bernacle. There is nothing pecu- water, do become fowles, which we call liar in the habits of this bird which barnacles; in the north of England, brant would seem to account, in a sufficient- geese ; and in Lancashire, tree gecse : but ly satisfactory manner, for the origin and come to nothing. Thus much by the
the other that do fall upon the land perish of those fictions which for so long a period constituted its natural history, mouthes of people of those parts, which
writings of others, and also from the and yet its alleged mode of production may very well accord with truth. certainly surpasses in absurdity even • But what our eies have seen, and our the exploded doctrine of fortuitous hands touched, we shall declare. There is generation. According to the accounts a small island in Lancashire, called the to which we allude, this bird was not
Pile of Foulders, wherein are found the produced, as in ordinary cases, from broken pieces of old and bruised ships, some the egg of an animal like itself ; but wracke, and also the trunks and bodies with
whereof have been cast thither by shipderived its origin, either from a sea
the branches of old and rotten trees, cast up shell found growing upon floating there likewise ; whereon is found a certain timber and the trunks of trees, from spume or froth, that in time breedeth unto foam or slime generated on the ocean, certaine shells,' in shape like those of the or from certain fruits, which, falling muskle, but sharper pointed, and of a whitinto the water, were there metamor- ish colour ; wherein is contained a thing in phosed into geese. These opinions forme like a lace of silke finely woven as it
were together, of a whitish colour, one end were not, like many others, confined to the vulgar and uneducated. Grave shell,
even as the fish of oistres and mus
whereof is fastened unto the inside of the historians handed down to posterity, kles are: the other end is made fast unto as a truth, a fable which derived its the belly of a rude masse or lumpe, which origin from ignorance and credulity. in time commeth to the shape and forme of Naturalists did not hesitate to copy a bird: when it is perfectly formed the the relations of preceding writers, or shell gapeth open, and the first thing that to increase their currency by the appeareth is the foresaid lace or string, next weight of their own authority; while
come the legs of the bird hanging out, and physiologists, without inquiring into
as it groweth greater it openeth the shell by the truth of the facts advanced, rea
degrees, till at length it is all come forth,
and hangeth onely by the bill; in short soned regarding them with as much
space after it commeth to full maturitie, and confidence as if they had formed the falleth into the sea, where it gathereth foundation of an established law of feathers, and groweth to a fowle bigger nature. The following curious ac- than a mallard, and lesser than a goose, VOL. III,
having blacke legs and bill or beake, and couvés," Few subjects in natural feathers blacke and white, spotted in such a history have been so much involved manner as is our magpies, called in some
in error, or have given rise to a greatplaces a pie-annet, which the people in Lancashire call by no other name than a
er diversity of opinion, than this. At tree goose ; which place aforesaid, and all the present period it appears absurd those parts adjoining, do so much abound that such opinions should ever have therewith, that one of the best is bought for been uttered, or, being so, that they three pence. For the truth hereof, if any should have been deemed worthy of a doubt, may it please them to repaire unto serious refutation. Yet the fact is me, and I shall satisfie them by the testi- certain, that a few centuries ago, there monie of good witnesses. “ Moreover, it should seem that there is have descended to our own times, who
was scarcely an individual whose works another sort hereof, the history of which is did not either give credit to this fictrue, and of mine own knowledge ; for travelling upon the shore of our English tion, or at least feel inclined to do so. coast, between Dover and Rumney, I found We shall now give a few extracts from the trunk of an old rotten tree, which (with the different authors who have treated some help that I procured by fishermen's of this singular subject, at the same wives that were there attending their hus. time acknowledging our obligations to bands' returne from the sea) we drew out of the posthumous work of Monsieur the water upon dry land. Upon this rotten
de Graindorge, entitled,
“ Traité de tree I found growing many thousands of l'origine des Macreuses,” published at long crimson bladders, in shape likeunto puddings newly filled, before they be sod- Caen by Dr Malouin, in the year den, which were very clere and shining.
1680. At the nether end whereof did grow a shell
Among the earliest notices of this fish, fashioned somewhat like a small mus. opinion, is that given by Sylvester kle, but somewhat whiter, resembling a Giraldus, in his Topography of Ireshell fish that groweth upon the rocks about land : Garnsey and Garsey, called a lympit; many “ Sunt et aves multæ quæ bernacæ voof these shells I brought with me to Lon- cantur, quas mirum in modum contra nadon, which, after I had opened, I found in turam natura producit. Non ex earum them living things without forme or shape; coitu ut assolet ova gignuntur, non avis in in others which were neerer come to ripe. earum procreatione unquam ovis incubat, nesse, I found living things that were very unde ei in quibusdam Hiberniæ partibus, naked, in shape like a bird ; in others, the avibus istis tanquam non carneis quia de birds covered with soft downe, the shell carne non natis jejuniorum tempore vesci halfe open, and the bird ready to fall out, solent. which no doubt were the fowles called bar
Some years later, Vincent of Burnacles." He adds, in regard to the period of of certain birds which appear to have
gundy, bishop of Beauvais, speaking their exclusion,
been Bernacles, makes the following “ They spawne as it were in March or
observation : Aprile; the geese are formed in May and June, and come to fulness of feathers in the “ De iis itaque certum est, quod in orbe moneth thereafter."
nostro circa Germaniam nec per coitum gig. How such a fable could have origi- nunt neque gignuntur : sed neque earum nated, it is not very easy to deter- concubitum apud nos ullus hominum vidit
, mine. The reasons which seem to
unde et carnibus earum in quadragesima
nonnulli etiam Christiani in nostra ætate in have induced authors to seek the ori- locis, ubi avium hujusmodi copia est uti sogin of these birds elsewhere than in lebant : sed Innocentius Papa in Lateranenthe ordinary course of nature, are the si Concilio Generali hoc ne ulterius fieret large flocks of them which are occa- vetuit.” sionally observed along the coasts and It is somewhat surprising that Al. islands of the northern parts of Scot- bertus Magnus, than whom so few land and some other countries, where were more attached to every thing exthey are at the same time never known traordinary and supernatural, should to deposite their eggs or rear their have been the only person of this peyoung; and this circumstance, com- riod who continued adverse to the prebined with the peculiar appearance of vailing belief. He condemns it as a the bernacle shell, no doubt, in the vulgar error, and adds, that the only first place, gave rise to the belief at reason for supposing that these birds one time so common, more especially derive their existence from certain among the elder French writers,“
trees or shells, or from wood in a state cette sorte d’oyes naissent sans pere of decay, is founded on the general beet sans mere, sans etre ny pondus ny lief, “ quòd nemo unquam vidit eas coire vel ovare.” The truth of this out doubt or challenge. They even alleged circumstance in their history went so far as to publish engravings of he contradicts on his own authority, this goose-bearing tree, with fruit in a treating it as quite absurd, " quia ego state of maturity, ready to wing its et multi mecum de sociis vidimus eas fight into the air, or dive among the et coire et ovare, et pullos nutrire.” subjacent waves. Such representations
In this opinion he was, some time may be found in the works of Aldroafter, followed by Kircher (whom one vandus, and among the figures of has so seldom occasion to accuse of plants by Pena and Lobel.* being incredulous), who doubted the Munster, in his Universal Geograrelations of preceding writers and of phy, mentions, that he found in Scothis contemporaries, and gave it as his land certain trees, the fruits of which, idea, that the eggs of these birds may on becoming mature, dropt into the occasionally float from the northern seas
In Gerard's Herbal, there is an engravtowards our coasts, and there hatching ing of the dragon tree, with a section of the upon planks, trees, and the bottoms of fruit, in the interior of which is represented ships, might thereby have given rise to a fierce dragon, the figure of which is said the origin of the fable. To make use to be always contained therein. He gives of Mathiew Wright's well-known ex- the following description of it :-“ This pression when he was about to be hang- strange and admirable tree groweth very ed, we really think the remedy worse
great, resembling the pine tree, by reason it than the disease.
doth alwaies flourish, and hath its boughs M. Graindorge observes,“ Un mede- which are bare and naked, of eight or nine
or branches of equal length and bignesse, cin Anglois suivant l'opinion commune
cubits long, and of the bignesse of a man's dit, Nidum barniclæ aut ovum nemo arme: from the ends of which do shoot out vidit, nec mirum, cum spontaneam leaves of a cubit and a halfe long, and full habent generationem : et si le passage two inches broad, somewhat thick, and rais. qu'on attribüe a Isidore etoit de luy, ed up in the middle, then thinner and thinmais il ne se trouve point dans ses
ner like a two-edged sword : among which ouvrages, il y auroit bien plus long- come forth little mossie flowers, of small
moment, and turn into berries of the bigtemps que cette opinion auroit cours.
nesse of cheries, of a yellowish colour, round, Regarding the growth of the ber
light, and bitter, covered with a threefold nacle there were, properly speaking, skin or film, wherein is to be seen, as Mon. three opinions entertained by the old ardus and divers others report, the form of naturalists, all of which, however, are a dragon, having a long neck and gaping founded on one belief, that this bird mouth, the ridge or back armed with sharp is produced by a mode of generation prickles, like the porcupine, with a long tail known in the schools under the name and four feet very easy to be discerned; the of equivocal or spontaneous. Accord- figure of it we have set forth unto you acing to the first idea, it was maintain- cording to the greatness thereof, because our ed, that along the shores of Britain derstood ; and also the leafe of the tree in
words and meaning may be the better unthere are certain trees which, in due his full bignesse, because it is impossible to season, bear birds instead of fruit. be expressed in the figure; the trunk or Those who espoused the second doc- body of the tree is covered with a tough trine, asserted that these birds spring bark, very thin and easie to be opened or up from the surface of decayed planks, wounded with any small toole or instruto which they are fixed by the beak, ment ; which, being so wounded in the dog and from which they detach them- days, bruised or bored, yields forth drops of selves, as soon as they are full fledged, called dragon's
tears, or sunguis draconis,
a thick red liquor, of the name of the tree and capable of providing for their own dragon's blood : divers have doubted whethsustenance; others again who inclined
er the liquor or blood were all one with to neither of these theories, laboured cinnabaris of Dioscorides (not meaning that to establish the existence of certain cinabar made of quick-silver); but the reshells (the conchæ anatiferæ of au- ceived opinion is, they differ not, by reason thors) in which these birds were form- their quality and temperature worke the like ed, and from which they were excluded effect. This tree groweth in an island which whenever they had attained perfection. the Portugals call Madera, and in one of the
It is amusing to observe with what and as it seems it was first brought out of implicit
confidence these absurd fictions Africke, though some are of a contrarie were received for a long period of time, opinion, and say that it was first brought and handed down progressively by dif- from Carthagena in America, by the bishop ferent writers, for the most part with of the same province.”
water, and were converted into living concerning the Scots barnacle. In our
Arnoldus observes :
we enter by crossing a small arm of the
ocean from Tain to Dornoch. So from According to Chassaveur, in his catalogue de la Gloire du Monde, there thence we travel into Cathness and the
county of Stranavar, where a rude sort of grows by the banks of a river in Scot- inhabitants dwell (almost as barbarous as land a vast tree, the ripe fruits of which Cannibals), who, when they kill a beast, drop of in the form of ducks; those boil him in his hide, make a caldron of his which fall upon the ground decay, but skin, browis of his bowels, drink of his such as fall into the water do both blood, and bread and meat of his carcase. swim and fly. On which Antony of Since few or none amongst them hitherto Torquemuda, who, being a Catholic, have as yet understood any better rules or naturally coveted a greater supply of methods of eating. More north, in an angle
of Cathness, lives John a Groat, upon an those birds which are allowed during isthmus of land that faceth the pleasant Lent, observes, that many people wish Isles of Orkney, where the inhabitants are there were more trees of this species blest with the plenty of grass and grain, bethan one.
Jacobus A conensis agrees sides fish, flesh, and fowl in abundance. with Chassaveur in thinking, that such Now that barnicles (which are a certain sort as drop on the ground must necessari- of wooden geese), breed hereabouts, it's past ly perish, quoniam in aquis est nu- dispute ; and that they fall off from the trimentum earum et vita.” The leaves limbs and members of the fir-tree is quesof a tree which grows by the banks of the ocean (or any other river or humitactive
tionless; and those so fortunate to espouse an Irish river, of which Julius Cæ- soil), by virtue of Solar heat, are destinated sar Scaliger speaks, seem to be more
to live ; but to all others so unfortunate to independent in respect of their locali- fall upon dry land, are denied their nativity. ties, as those on the land become birds, “ Th. Can you credit your own report, or those in the water, fishes. A similar do you impose these hyperbole's ironically fancy has occurred to Du Bartas in the upon the world, designedly to make Scotlines quoted by M. Graindorge.
land appear a kingdom of prodigies ? “ J'entens l'arbre aujourd'hui en Inturne
“ Ar. No, certainly ! and that there is vivant,
such a fowl I suppose none doubts it; but Dont le feuillage epars par les soupirs du if he does, let him turn to Cambden, Speed,
or Geerhard's Herbal, and there he shall vent, Est metamorphosé d'une vertu feconde
find, that in Lancashire thousands were Sur terre en vrais oyseaux, et vrais Poissons gathered up adhering to the broken ribs of sur l'onde.'
a ship wrecked upon that coast ; but these And in another passage he alludes the like accident happened in Kent some
are not like the barnacle-geese I speak of: more directly to the prevailing belief time past, and in many other parts of Engregarding the bernacle or macreuse: land, &c. so that few ingenious and intelli“ Ainsi le vieil fragment d'une Barque se gible travellers doubt a truth in this matter; change
and the rather because, if sedulously exaEn des Canards volans, ô changement et- mined, it discovers a want of faith to doubt
what's confirmed by such credible authority, Même corps fut jadis arbre verd, puis vais- But if eyesight be evidence against contra
diction, and the sense of feeling argument N'aguere Champignon, et maintenant oy- good enough to refute fiction, then let me
bring these two convincing arguments to In a curious old book, called maintain my assertion ; for I have held a “ Northern Memoirs, calculated for barnicle in my own hand, when as yet unthe Meridian of Scotland," written in fledged, and hanging by the beak, which,
as I then supposed of the fir-tree, for it grew the year 1658, by Richard Franck, from thence as an excrescence grows on the Philanthropus, there is a discussion members of an animal; and as all things between Theophilus and Arnoldus, have periods, and in time drop off, so does