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receiver is full of the sand, sea water is triangle, and the excess of the hypothenuse poured on the top; and this, in its way above the other leg, to construct the triangle. down, carries with it the salt left by the He answered two or three problems relating evaporation. When it runs out below at a to the maxima of numbers and of geomesmall hole, it is a very strong brine; this is trical magnitudes with ease, and took the reduced to salt by being boiled in vessels fluxions, which were not difficult, correctly. about three feet wide and one deep. The When the age of this child is compared cakes resulting from this operation are an

with his scientific attainments, we can look inch and a half in thickness.

on him in no other light than as a literary Mr Gough has favoured the public with phenomenon, who promises to become an the following account of a child nine years ornament to one of the British universities, old, at present residing in Kendal. Thomas unless his progress should unfortunately be Gasking is the son of an industrious and checked by indigence, or the vigour of his ingenious journeyman shoemaker, of Pen- mind should be enfeebled by some sinister rith; and I now proceed to notice his lite, accident. rary attainments, which he has acquired in New South Wales.-A discovery has been the course of two years. He has learned to made in New South Wales, which must read correctly and gracefully; he writes a materially affect the future advancement of good hand with surprising expedition ; and that colony. “ A river of the first magni. he has made some progress in the English tude” has been found in the interior, rungrammar. The boy went through this part ning through a most beautiful country, rich of his education in a day-school at Penrith; in soil, limestone, slate, and good timber. but he is indebted for his mathematical A means of communication like this has knowledge to the tuition of his father, who, long been anxiously searched for without though in low circumstances, has laudably success, and many began to entertain an dedicated his hours of leisure to scientific apprehension that the progress of colonizapursuits, as I am informed. Little Gasking tion in New Holland would be confined to seems well acquainted with the leading pro- its coasts. positions in Euclid ; he reads and works Mr Oxley, the surveyor-general, was sent algebra with the greatest facility, and has out with a party in an expedition to the entered upon the study of fluxions.

I am

westward of the Blue Mountains, to trace aware that this report will appear incredible the course of the lately discovered river to those who are acquainted with the differ. Lachlan, and to ascertain the soil, capabilient subjects which have been enumerated ; ties, and productions, of the country through but the following instance of his wonderful which it was expected to pass in its course proficiency will, in all probability, remove to the sea. Mr Oxley left Bathurst on the any doubts that competent judges may en- 30th April 1817. He proceeded down the tertain. A stranger gentleman, who was Lachlan until the 12th May, the country invited, with myself, to examine the boy, rapidly descending until the waters of the requested him to deinonstrate the thirteenth river rose to a level with it, and, divided proposition of the first book of Euclid ; into numerous branches, lost itself among which he did immediately. The demon- the marshes. Mr Oxley quitted the river stration of the twentieth proposition of the on the 17th May, taking a S.W. course tosame book was next proposed : he drew out wards Cape Northumberland. He conti. the figure; and though he failed in his first nued this course until the 9th June, when attempt, he soon recovered the train of rea. he was induced to change his course to soning, and went through the demonstration north. On this course he continued till the correctly. Being asked, if he had two sides 230 June, when he again fell in with a of a triangle and the angle included given, stream, which he could with difficulty rehow he would proceed to find the third cognise as the Lachlan, it being little larger side ? the process appeared quite familiar to than one of the branches of it where it was him, and we found, upon inquiry, he was quitted on the 17th May. He kept along acquainted with logarithms, and was able to the banks of this stream till the 8th July, use them. In spherical trigonometry, he when the whole country became a marsh solved two cases of right-angled triangles by altogether uninhabitable. This unlooked Lord Napier's rules. His skill, and the for and truly singular termination of a river rapidity of his operations, in algebra, created filled the party with the most painful sensamore surprise than his knowledge of geo- tions. They were full 500 miles west of metry ;--he solved a number of quadratic Sydney, and nearly in its latitude ; and it equations with the greatest ease, and ex- had taken them ten weeks of unremitted tracted the square roots of the numbers which exertion to proceed so far. Returning down resulted from his operations. Several ques. the Lachlan, he recommenced the survey of tions were put to him which contained two it from the point on which it was made the unknown quantities; these he also answered 23d June. The connexion, with all the without difficulty. Being asked if he had points of the survey previously ascertained, been taught the application of algebra to was completed between the 19th July and geometry, he answered in the affirmative, the 3d August. It was estimated that the and immediately solved the following pro- river, from the place where first made by blem :-Given one leg of a right-angled Mr Evans, had run a course, taking all its

a

windings, of upwards of 1200 miles, a June, a water-spout of immense diameter length of course altogether unprecedented, inundated great part of the arrondissement considering that the original is its only sup

of Auxerre. The rain, accompanied by ply of water during that distance.

large hailstones, fell in torrents for thirty " Crossing at this point,” says Mr Oxley

minutes. The whole harvest in nineteen in his Report, " it was my intention to take communes is destroyed. In some quarters a N.E. course to intersect the country, and the water was six feet deep; at Fontenai a if possible to ascertain what had become of house was thrown down, and four children the Macquarrie River, which it was clear killed, and several other edifices were much had never joined the Lachlan. This course damaged. led us through a country to the full as bad New Discovery in Optics. A very in. as any we had yet seen, and equally devoid teresting and important discovery is said to of water, the want of which again much have been made on the increase and prodistressed us. On the 7th August the scene jection of light, by Mr Lester, engineer.--began to change, and the country to assume Mr Lester being engaged at the West India a very different aspect. We passed to the Docks for the purpose of applying his new N.E. of the high range of hills which on mechanical power, The Convertor, to cranes, this parallel bounds the low country to the by which the labour of wenches is performnorth of that river. To the N.W. and N. ed by rowing, &c. ; on taking a view of the the country was high and open, with good immense spirit vaults, he was forcibly struck forest land ; and on the 10th we had the by the inefficient mode adopted to light satisfaction to fall in with the first stream

those very extensive and wonderful depôts, running northerly. This renewed our hopes which is by a cast-iron cylinder of about of soon falling in with the Macquarrie, and two feet in diameter, and two feet deep, we continued upon the same course, occa- placed in lieu of a key-stone in the centre sionally inclining to the eastward, until the of each arch ;-these cylinders are closed at 19th, passing through a fine luxuriant coun. their tops, and each furnished with five platry well watered, crossing in that space of no-convex lenses (bull's eyes) of Messrs Pel. time nine streams, having a northerly course latt and Green's patent, which are admir. through rich valleys, the country in every ably adapted to the conveying of light in direction being moderately high and open, all situations, except down a deep tube or and generally as fine as can be imagined. cylinder, where the refraction they produce

" No doubt remained upon our minds (in consequence of their convex form) bethat those streams fell into the Macquarrie, twixt the angles of incidence and reflection, and to view it before it received such an ac. prevents the rays from being projected into cession was our first wish. On the 19th, the place intended to be lighted. This rewe were gratified by falling in with a river fraction throws the light upon the concave running through a most beautiful country,

sides of the cylinder, where it is principally and which I should have been well content- absorbed, instead of keeping the angles of ed to have believed the river we were in incidence and reflection equal. search of. Accident led us down this stream

From these observations Mr Lester con. about a mile, when we were surprised by its cluded, that a lens might be so constructed junction with a river coming from the south, as to prevent this refraction, and commenced of such width and magnitude as to dispel

a course of experiments for that purpose. all doubts as to this last being the river we

He succeeded by obtaining the proper angle had so long anxiously looked for. Short as

of the incidental rays with a mirror, and our resources were, we could not resist the finding the scope of the cylinder sufficiently temptation this beautiful country offered copious to admit the reflected rays into the us, to remain two days on the junction of vault, provided the refraction of the lens did the rivers, for the purpose of examining the

not intervene. The same angle produced vicinity to as great an extent as possible.

by the mirror he endeavoured to retain upon “ Our examination increased the satis- the sides of the lens, by giving it a differfaction we had previously felt.

As far as

ent form, a peculiar part of which he intende the eye could reach in every direction, a

ed to foliate. But having met with insurrich and picturesque country extended, a

mountable difficulties in this process, he conbounding in limestone, slate, godd timber, cluded, from the striking appearance of siland every other requisite that could render very light upon the interior surface of that an uncultivated country desirable. The soil part he intended to silver, that metal would cannot be excelled ; whilst a noble river of represent the light by retaining that form, the first magnitude afforded the means of and, brought down below the edges of the conveying its productions from one part to lens, might produce the desired effect. In his the other. Where I quitted it, its course attempt to accomplish this purpose, by holdwas northerly, and we were then north of ing the body in a vertical position between the parallel of Port Stephens, being in latitude 32° 45' S. and 148° 58' E. longitude.

The course and direction of this river is One of which is nearly an acre and an to be the object of an early expedition. half in area, and it is supported by 207 groin

Destructive Water-Spout. On the 18th ed arches and 207 stone pillars.

the eye and a candle, a flash of light was flames into one flame, of equal brillancy instantly produced, by representing the with the real flame of the candle. For the fame of the candle magnified to the size same law of nature by which the flame is reof the whole of the inner surface of this presented a thousand times in as many mirpiece of metal, and gave an increased light rors so united, it would be represented in upon the wall opposite to him. After this one flame if the mirror be made of a proper discovery, he had several pieces of metal form, and placed in a proper position to reformed, retaining the same angle, but of ceive the rays of light that emanate from various diameters, and found, to his great the candle in the direction of the angle of surprise, that, although their area were great- this peculiar formed mirror. ly increased, the representation of the fame As the light of a small candle is visible at still filled them without the least diminution the distance of four miles in a dark night, in the quality of the light, but with an in- what must the diameter or circumference of creased light against the wall, in proportion that zone of flame be that is produced by to the increased area of the surface of the this discovery from one of the gas lights in metal.* How far this power and effect may the streets of London ? Thus two lamps or extend, is not a present ascertained ; but it stations wouid be sufficient to light the is believed, that a zone of light of the same longest street, when its position approaches quality and effect may be produced to an in- to a right line, as the diameter of the zone conceivable extent. Some idea may be may be made of the same diameter as the formed of the powerful and important re- street; and as the rays of light that are insults that may be derived from this discove- creased by this invention diverge from the ry, by reasoning philosophically on its prin- luminous body, all parts of the street would ciples :-Let a candle, or any other light, be be filled with light. Many are the minor represented in a mirror at a given distance advantages that will be derived from its apfrom the flame, and the eye of the spectator plication to domestic purposes, for writing, be placed so as to view its reflection nearly reading, and working by candle or lamp in the cathetus of incidence. Let him mark light. This, like Dr Brewster's kaleidoscope, the quantity of light represented in the mir. is another instance of the effects to be proror, and such will be its true quality when duced by mirrors. forming a zone of represented flame of double It appears that the great impediment to the diameter of the distance betwixt the real improvement and discovery in this branch of flame and the mirror.

the science of optics, has arisen from the If a candle be placed before a mirror, its difficulty of foiling glass to the various forms flame will be represented ; and if a thouand necessary, in lieu of which we have been mirrors are placed in a given circle round a compelled to use metallic substances. These candle, the candle will be represented a difficulties once removed, a vast field of imthousand times, and each representation portant discovery will be opened on the naequal in brilliancy, if the mirrors are at ture and effect of light. May not many of equal distances from the flame. Suppose the phenomena that are observed in the air, that the thousand mirrors were united in such as halos round the sun, be produced by such a form as to bring all the represented this principle, the rays falling upon a dienser

medium than air, and thus producing a This invention is not confined solely to zone of light, &c. light, but the increase of heat keeps pace We have given the preceding account of with the increase of light, and both in the Mr Lester's discovery, without being able ratio of the area of the surface.

thoroughly to understand it, or to perceive The apparatus is so constructed as to be that it contains any principle; but we have placed upon a candle, and sinks down with no doubt that this arises from the brevity the flame, without either flooding or waste. and obscurity of the statement.

a

WORKS PREPARING FOR PUBLICATION.

LONDON.

ces to Lady Morgan's work on France, has

just put to press his Sketches of the PhiloTre Philosophy of Chemistry, which does sophy of Life. not consist in being an Improvement on the M. Kotezebue is preparing for publicaOpinions of others, much less a Copy of tion, liis Account of the Russian Embassy them, but is an entire New System of the to Persia. It will appear at the same time Science of Nature ; by T. H. Pasley, II. M. at London and Weimar. Dock-yard, Chatham.

Another National Novel, from the pen of Sir Charles Morgan, already so well Lady Morgan, is now in the press, entitled, known to the literary world by his appendi. Florence Macarthy. A correspondent obo Voz. III.

41

serves, that the style of Romance, of which Bible, already in part published, will be the author of the Wild Irish Girl was the conspleted in Five Parts, at One Guinea original inventor, still remains in her exclu- each ; the Volume of Modern European sive possession ; for though Miss Edgeworth Languages, in Five Parts, at 18s. each ; has depicted with great fidelity and incom- and the Polyglott Common Prayer, of Eight parable humour the manners of the lower Languages, in Five Parts, at 10s. 6d. each. classes of the Irish, and though the author With the above Quarto Edition, are reof Waverley has left in perishable monu- gularly published, separate Pocket Editions ments of Scottish peculiarities, yet the illus- of the Bible, in Hebrew, Greek, Latin, and tration, by example, of the consequences of English ; French, Italian, Spanish, and great errors in doinestic policy, with a view German; and also of the Common Prayer, tu internal amelioration, has not apparently in Greek, Modern Greek, Latin, English, entered into the plans of those authors. Italian, Spanish, French, and German ; or

The Rev. Mr Evans of Islington, has in any Two Languages may be interleaved in the press, the Progress of Human Life, or one Pocket Volume. Shakspeare's Seven Ages of Man ; illustrat- Directions for the Treatment of Persons ed by a Series of Extracts, in Prose and who have taken Poison, and those in a State Poetry, upon the plan of his Juvenile Tour- of Suspended Animation, &c.; by M. P. ist and his Excursion to Windsor, with a Orfilla; translated from the French. view to the rising generation.

Observations on the Symptomas and SpeMr Chamlent, author of a History of Mal. cific Distinctions of Venereal Diseases ; in. vern, is engaged in a History of Worcester, terspersed with Hints for the more effectual which is now in the press ; it will contain Prosecution of the present Inquiry into the the principal matter of Nash and Green, Uses and Abuses of Mercury in that Treatwith the addition of much original informa- ment; by Richard Carmichael, M. R. I. A. tion, and a copious Index.

one of the Surgeons of the Richmond Hos. The Telegraphist's Vade-Mecum, a more pital, House of Industry, Dublin, &c. simple, comprehensive, and methodical Te- A Succinct Account of the Contagious legraphic Work than any hitherto offered, Fever of this Country, as exemplified in the is announced for publication, by Mr Joseph Epidemic now prevailing in London, with Conolly, author of the Telegraphic Diction- the appropriate Method of Treatment, as ary, and Essay on Universal Telegraphie practised in the House of Recovery ; to Communications, for which he has received which are added, Observations on the Nathe gold and silver medals from the Society ture and Properties of Contagion, tending to of Arts.

correct the popular Notions on this Subject, John Galt, Esq. is preparing the Second and pointing out the Means of Prevention ; Part of the Life of Benjamin West, Esq. by Thomas Bateman, M.D. F.L.S. Physi

The Introduction to the Critical Study and cian to the Public Dispensary, and ConsultKnowledge of the Holy Scriptures; by ing Physician to the Fever Institution in Thomas Hartwel} Horne, A.M. illustrated London, &c. with maps and fac-similes of Biblical Manu- Letters on French History, for the Use of scripts, in 3 vols Svo, is nearly ready for Schools; by J. Bigland, author of Letters publication.

on English History, &c. Mr John Nichols is preparing for publi- Transactions of the Literary Society of eation, in 3 vols 8vo, the Miscellaneous Bombay, 4to, with numerous engravings. Works of the late George Hardinge, Esq. A Second Memoir on Babylon ; contain

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Rennel, published in the Archæologia ; by Mr Chalmers has in the press, an Abridge. Claudius James Rich, Esq. ment of Todd's Edition of Dr Johnson's Dawson Turner, Esq. will soon publish Dictionary

the remaining portion of his Coloured Fi. Speedily will appear, Sermons, by the Rev. gures, and Descriptions of the Plants referC. R. Maturin, Curate of St Peters, Dublin, red, by Botanists, to the Genus Fucus. in Svo.

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Account of the Life, Writings, and Character, of the late Dr Alexander Monro, deli,

vered at the Harveian Oration at Edinburgh EDINBURGH.

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An Account of the Small Pox, as it apPreparing for publication, an Essay on peared after Vaccination, will shortly apthe Office and Duties of the Eldership in pear, by Alexander Monro, M.D. Professor the Church of Scotland ; to which is added, of Anatomy in the University of Edinburgh ; an Account of the Management of the Poor including, among many cases, three which in the Parishes of Paisley, Greenock, &c. occurred in the author's own family. with various observations on the Compara- A Geographical and Statistical Descriptive State of the Poor Laws in England and tion of Scotland, is in the press ; by James Scotland,-on the Different Plans proposed Playfair, D.D. F.R.S. and F.A.S.É. Prinfor behoof of the Poor,-on the Assembly cipal of the United College of $t Andrew, Report of the State of Pauperism in Scot and Historiographer to the Prince Regent. land,--and on other topics connected with An Historical Account of Discoveries and the several subjects of Charity, and the Mo- Travels in Asia; by Hugh Murray, F.R.S.E. ral and Political State of the Lower Classes will speedily be published.

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