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wore real living flowers in their ears, lection, “ there actually was a scaffold -a small bouquet at each side of the erected round the inside of the Parhead. Well did such gorgeous and liament House for the accommodation resplendent heads deserve to be glorie of such members as wore those huge ously surmounted, and they were so. breeches, and that the said scaffold A hat of that age was a hat indeed. was taken down when, in the eighth It was made of silk, or taffeta, or vel- of Elizabeth, those absurdities went vet—the edges were embroidered with out of fashion.” These enormous gold and silver--the band sparkled breeches, having fallen under the diswith gems--the crown of the hat it- pleasure of the queen, gradually wore self, like the “
spear or shaft of a out of fashion, for I never can believe, steeple,” stood high above the head, with Dr Drake, that they were laid and over all hung a lofty plume of aside all at once, on a certain day, in feathers. Imagine such a ha'm lying the eighth year of her virgin Majesty's on a table beside a hat of the present reign. So violent a change would day! Imagine such a hat entering have most probably produced a revointo Blackwood's back shop, or Mr lution. But that the breeches, hose, Millar's! Imagine it hanging on a peg or gallygaskins, shrunk in bulk, is a at Bill Young's, and gazed on--aye historical fact,--though, in the next reported on--by a Committee of Di- age, they swelled out again into even: lettanti !—The gentlemen's ruffs emu- more than their pristine rotundity, lated those worn by the ladies, till, shewing that, though the mere breech- : in one of her sumptuary laws, they es themselves obeyed the nod of a faswere limited by Queen Elizabeth “ to tidious and arbitrary monarch, the a nayle of a yeard in depth.”* It principle and the passion on and by would lead me into an endless article, which they had been worn remained were I to describe fully and minutely in the soul of the nation, and waited the male dress of those days. Up to only for a male reign to break forth, the eighth year of Elizabeth, the Even during the time that the law was doublet had been of an enormous size; in force against the use “ of bags for and even after that time, Stubbs tells us stuffing breeches,” Bulmer, in his pethat it was so hard-quilted, " that the digree of the English gallant, relates, wearer could not bow himself to the “ that a man was brought before ground, so stiff and sturdy it stood court of justice, charged with wearing about him.” It was made of cloth, or the prohibited article ;" upon which, șilk, or satin, fitting the body like a in order to refute the accusation, he waistcoat, surmounted with a large produced from within “a pair of sheets, eape, and accompanied either with long two table-cloths, ten napkins, four close sleeves, or with very wide ones, shirts, a brush, a glass, a comb, nightcalled Danish sleeves. Over this hung caps, and a complete miscellany of a cloak embroidered with silver and other auxiliaries. In a note to the regold, and sometimes faced with sables, print of S. Rowland's “ Letting of huwhich were
so sumptuous, that a mours blood in the head vaine," by thousand ducats were given for a sin- Walter Scott (1814, Ballantyne), the gle suit. This makes the pelisses or author of Waverley says, “the breeches surtouts of our half-pay officers, which in James I. time swelled to a most unseldom cost above twenty guineas, couth and preposterous size, and were seem very paltry. But what shall be stuffed out with bags and other bomsaid of the BREECHES of the early part bast, and sometimes with bran. Bul. of the reign of Queen Elizabeth? It mer, in the Artificial Changeling, tells would be difficult to handle such a of a gallant in whose immense gullytopic. They were so puckered, stuff- gaskins a small hole was torn by a nail ed, bolstered, and distended with hair, of the chair he sat upon, so that, as he and attained so preposterous a magni- turned and riggled to pay his court to tude, that Strutt relates, on the au- the ladies, the bran poured forth as thority of a MS. in the Harleian col- from a mill that was grinding, without
his perceiving it, till half the cargo was * The divisions of the ruffe were termed
unloaded on the floor.” Even Queen Piccadillies. It is supposed, by the author Elizabeth herself allowed these comof “ London and its Environs described," prehensive breeches to appear on the that a shop for Spanish ruffs, the Piccadilly stage, after they had been banished shop, gave name to the street now so called. from real life, for we know that the
constituted part of the clown's dress, a discussion on a subject of no inconin which character T'arleton was so fa- siderable interest. mous. I presume, that at no period Your statement of the causes of the were they worn by the military. A field present abject state of music in Scotof battle would, in that case, have ex- land is what I have now chiefly to do hibited a singular appearance.
with, and I am sorry to say, that that I find that I have already occupied statement seems to me most unsatistoo much of your valuable pages, and factory. You have discovered that the must therefore leave the farther con- excellence of our native Scottish melosideration of this subject to a future dies (which, as you yourself acknowdiscourse. I have said enough to shew ledge, bear about the same relation to that our present beaux are a rational- the musicof Haydn, Mozart, and Beethlooking set of mortals, in comparison oven, as Chevy Chace does to Paradise with those of the very noblest era of Lost), is the cause of our unsuccessful dramatic poetry in this country. And cultivation of the higher departments as my chief object was to vindicate the of the art of music. One might bave appearance of our young ladies and thought, that the slightest reflection gentlemen from your sarcasms, I hope on the nature of your own comparative that I have not altogether failed to do illustration would have shewn you the 80. I am confident that I have done absurdity of your proposition. Can the ladies ample justice, and if I have you really conceive, that a man's casaid less about the others, perhaps I pability of relishing the beauties of may, ere long, hold half an hour's con- the Iliad could be in any degree moversation in your pages with one whom dified by his having, in early life, like I, in common with all the rest of the our own immortal Scott, listened with world, daily admire passing to and fro enthusiasm to the romantic ballads of before the stately pillars of the Albion his native country? Is not the light Club. Meanwhile, I remain,
of the olden times shed over every JN. CUERPO. scene where his muse loves to linger?
Is there not, as Burns expresses it, a “ sprinkling” of the ancient, romantic, and amatory ballad diffused over the works of many of the most popular poets of the day, and that with the happiest effect? If these questions
are answered, as I think they must be, MR EDITOR,
in the affirmative, where is your the THERE is a pretty numerous class of bry? If even the almost exclusive stuyour readers who, though pleased with dy, in early life, of the ancient homely those masterly and original disserta- ballad can, in numerous instances, be tions on poetry which frequently ap- shewn to have no effect in limiting the pear in your Magazine, justly com- efforts of the first poets of the first plain of your neglect of the sister arts. poetical country in the world, it is imThis they consider as the more extra- possible to conceive that the converse ordinary, as, in some of your earlier should hold in music. Our ancient Notices, you promised them a Series of melodies are, like our ancient ballads, Essayson the Merits of the Living Scot- of a character highly original and tish Painters; and indeed you produ- striking, awakening the most delightced such a specimen in the admirable ful and varied associations, by alternacritique on the genius of Allan, as tions of pathos and gaiety ; but, like gave just cause for regret that its au- them too, they are mixed up with thor had ceased to treat of a subject to much of a broad and vulgar characwhich he was eminently qualified to ter. They have no doubt a very do justice. Music you had almost powerful hold over the imaginations entirely neglected, and I was there- of all ranks in Scotland, but it is by fore both surprised and pleased when no means an exclusive one, for there I saw the paper " On the State of Mu- are many foreign airs of the most resic in Scotland,” which appeared in fined character, even those of Mozart, your last Number. Not that I re- which are familiar to the lower orders garded the essay as containing very of society; such, for instance, is that sound views of the subject of which it air of his, well known to them by the weats, but as affording a beginning to name of Taste Life's Glad Mo
E OF MUSIC IN EDIN-
ments," which they firmly believe to country in which, with every aid be of native origin. In truth, there is from opulence, and a spirit of national no foreign air, be it ever so delicate, emulation, the bigher classes have culs that does not become generally fami- tivated it with so little success. liar in this country, when heard under It is a fact allowed by all foreign favourable circumstances.
musicians, that in proportion to the It is beyond dispute that the cultia population and wealth of Edinburgh, vation of the elegant arts begins in the there is more money expended by the higher ranks of society; thence they upper and middle ranks in the musiin due time descend to the inferior cal education of their children, than orders, till, as is the case in several of in almost any other city of Europe, the southern countries of Europe, a re- We have excellent masters both for fined taste becomes so universally dif- vocal and instrumental music, --some fused, that one may see the Lazza- of them of the very first order of roni of Naples as fully alive to the pe- merit, and many of them conscienculiar beauties of a refined musical air tious in their endeavours to promote as their countrymen of the more ele- the advancement of their pupils. Ask vated classes of society. But advance- any of these gentlemen, how many ment in musical knowledge is yet to young ladies he thinks there are in begin among the higher ranks in Scot- Edinburgh, who may be called good land: we therefore cannot look for players ? I am confident he will an, it in general society. The cause swer that there are not twelve. I of this backwardness in the prosecu- know, Mr Editor, that you will stare tion of the study of an art so generally at this statement, and so will hun. acceptable to the most generous spirits dreds of your readers. They will exthe world has produced, and the prac- claim, What! don't we see Mr Yatice of which was considered by the niewicz playing accompaniments to master spirits of antiquity as equally many of his pupils in large societies, beneficial and delightful, may well be where there are necessarily many good deemed a subject of interesting in- judges ? Would he run the risk of exquiry; but in order to be satisfactory, posing a young lady, by allowing her it must be conducted in a very differ- to sit down to the piano-forte to play ent way from that which yoụ or your a difficult lesson of Beethoven, with correspondent has adopted.
out being equal to the task ? And if he In England, as you yourself have does so frequently (and we all know stated, there is no such thing as a bo- he does), then there must be a greater dy of national melody to impede the number of good players. But let us introduction of classical music, and pause a little. A good performer is there is an ecclesiastical establishment, one who can sit down to the instru: in the service of which music makes a ment, and play all ordinary music very prominent figure; yet I will say, with steadiness, judgment, and feelwithout hesitation, or fear of contra- ing,—who, in accompanying a song, diction by any impartial foreigner, can listen to the singer,--in short, one that, in proportion to its population, who can play at sight, as it is called, Scotland contains a greater share of with tolerable precision, and who does good musical feeling, I mean of relish not require the aid of a master to for classical music, than England. I teach her the lesson note by note. I am aware, that in two, or at most am quite sure that the number posthree, of the central provinces of the sessed of these qualifications is not latter country, a taste for sacred mu- greater than the one I have given ; sic a pretty generally diffused among indeed it is pretty generally allowed the manufacturing classes, and that by the professors, that there are only many of them are capable of executing a very few ladies in Edinburgh, out the old church compositions, in parts, of the profession, who are thoroughly with sufficient correctness; but there at home on the piano-forte. With reis little or none of that love for refined gard to the amateurs, they are pretty instrumental or vocal music, which much in the same situation. I know can stamp the people of these districts that I cannot be contradicted when I as true musicians. Indeed there is no that there is not, at this moment, in country in Europe, the peasantry of Edinburgh, one amateur violin-player, which are so indifferent to melody as who could pretend to play a Scottish that of England, mand, I may add, no melody in good taste, or an accompa.
say, niment to a modern lesson without world of Edinburgh, a young lady much previous study; and I state, sitting down to the piano-forte is the with equal certainty of being correct, signal for general whispering, and very that there is only one amateur violon- often for loud talking. Nobody seems cello-player who is capable of doing it. to care whether the performance is As for flutes, we liave, God knows, e- good or bad; they hear a musical nough of them ; but though there are noise, and take it for granted that it is hundreds of performers, there are not all as it should be. We occasionally, more than three worth listening to, indeed, hear a sonata well played, but and of these only one has reached ex- then it is uniformly something got up cellence.
for the occasion, and by no means It may be thought that I am talk. proves that the performer is a good ing dogmatically, on a subject with musician: for, notwithstanding the ima' which, in a populous town like Edin- perfections of early musical education, burgh, one may be but partially, ac- natural genius, aided by some lessons quainted. Those, however, who have from Yaniewicz, and a good deal of resided in it, as I have done, are aware occasional labour, puts a young lady that no Edinburgh amateur is in use in possession of two or three sonatas; to hide his talent in a napkin! Oc- these are played a thousand times, till casions for display are numerous, and she and all her friends become tired they are seized with the most laudable of them, when, being unable of here avidity. At the private concerts, got self to acquire variety, and her musiup during the gay season to render a cal education being supposed to be rout more intellectual, there are as finished, she generally gives up the many exhibitions of paltry jealousy study in disgust. Her piano-forte beamong the amateurs as ever occur in comes a mere piece of furniture in the the green-room of a provincial theatre. drawing-room, and is seldom opened One refuses to play second tenor,- except to play the Copenhagen waltz, another conceives himself insulted if or Mr Gow's annual sheet of reels, asked to play the second violin, and other music equally delightful and a third assumes the airs of a and difficult ! leader when playing the double bass. It very seldom happens that, in a fa-All this squabbling, too, is about mily of three or four daughters, there nothing worth listening to, the effect is more than one who unites to a of the music being just such as might good ear, and good musical feeling, be expected from such a set of per- habits of perseverance for musical stuformers.
dy. Now one would think, that the Such, then, I maintain to be the application of the good ordinary rule, state of music in Edinburgh, and of which every father of a family follows course in Scotland, -and such, under in directing his sons to particular stuthe present system, must it continue. dies, with reference to the peculiar Mr Logier's pretended miracles have bent of their genius, might here be far turned out miserable impostures, as from improper. He never dreams of every man of reflection predicted ; and educating a son for the bar, who has we are just going on in the old beaten naturally a defective utterance, nor for path of musical education, which, any profession to which he seems to however unavailing it may hitherto have an unconquerable aversion. Yet have been, is at least free from the the same man inost probably compels despicable quakery of the “LOGIER- many of his daughters to devote the IAN SYSTEM."
greater part of their time to the pracYou will have already anticipated, tice of music, who have not the slight, that the sole cause to which I would est relish for it; in short, it is the faattribute the infant state of the art in shion, and every one must play in Edinburgh, is the way in which musi- some way or other. If one happen to cal education is conducted. It never have a musical genius, she has no greatseeins to be regarded as the source of er facilities afforded her than the delightful and rational amusement others, and by the time they all arprivate life ; on the contrary, it is of rive at the age of seventeen or eighthe nature of a mere pageant, got up teen, the father is usually tired of the for the sake of a little display before expense which has been so unproduccompany. In what are absurdly call- tive, and the daughter who might have ed musical parties in the fashionable become a proficient, had she been al
lowed to go on, is obliged to stop short, been overcome, when she was unand necessarily forgets every thing she fortunately removed,” and they will has learned. "This, sir, is the true se- add," that every thing she acquired cret of the wretched state of music in must doubtless soon be forgotten.” Edinburgh. Nobody seems to think I am afraid I am running on withthat perfection is out of the reach of out reflecting on the length to which those who are born with a tolerable my letter is extending; I may sum up, ear, and the system of forcing goes on, however, all I have said on what i but produces no fruit. The fact is, conceive to be the checks to the adthat to make a good musician, much vancement of music in this country in more than correctness of ear is requir- a very few sentences. It is not, as I ed; something of a much rarer, and have already mentioned, for the pleamore valuable quality, and more inti- sure that is afforded by music, as an mately connected with mind than is elegant and rational relaxation and generally believed. That the number amusement in the family circle, that of those who have the natural talent parents affect so great a desire that alluded to is considerable, must be their children should excel in it; on generally admitted, and as so few of the contrary, it is merely for the sake them make good musicians, it follows, of display at occasional parties that that the defect arises from the limited it is studied at all. The teacher, benature of their musical education. ing quite aware of this, necessarily You surely cannot pretend that the abandons all thoughts of grounding excellence of native Scottish melody his pupil thoroughly in the first prins can have any effect in impeding their ciples of the art; and in compliance progress in instrumental music. There with the wishes and expectations of are in fact almost no sonatas founded the parents, sets about teaching her, on Scottish subjects ; the few we have as by rote, one or two sonatas, or a few are unpopular, and it is worthy of ob- songs. In due time, the exhibition of servation, that although the whole bo- the young lady's progress is made: she dy of Scottish melodies passed through is heard with applause three or four the hands of Haydn and Beethoven, times every winter, but having learned they have in almost no instance taken the art mechanically, she advances no them for subjects of Composition. farther; and in due time, that is, imThe singular fact that, while these mediately after marriage, bids adieu great composers have ingrafted many to music for ever. Though to some of their best compositions on the na- this may appear rather a caricature tional melodies of every other country than an accurate portraiture, the fidein Europe, they should have rejected lity of the picture will be very generalthose of Scotland, would seem to indi- ly acknowledged. cate an opinion of their general unfit- You seem to augur much that is ness for combination with regular music. favourable to the progress of music in
As to the practice of vocal music Scotland, from the enthusiasm excited in Edinburgh, it is pretty much the by the festival of 1815. I confess I same as our instrumental. We have
am not so sanguine on this point. It two teachers of this branch of the appears to me, that nine-tenths of art, Miss Schetky and Mr Magrath, those who attended (as indeed you both of distinguished talents, and yourself allow) did so on account of perfectly skilled in (what very few the novelty of the entertainment; and professors, by the by, know any thing that no lasting effect has been producabout,) the art of communicating ed by it, is apparent from the history, knowledge with perspicuity and ele- of the “ Institution for Sacred Music, gance. These teachers had, and still to which you allude. From the anhave, all the most promising pupils, nual reports, it appears that the suband I am sure, are anxious to for- scriptions are a mere trifle ; and that, ward their progress; yet if you will while the public affected to regard its take the trouble to ask either of them progress with something like interest, as to the ultimate progress made the subscriptions, small as they are, by any particular favourite pupil, they could not be procured without giving will tell you, that “ she was ex- public performances, even in the first tremely clever, and was making ra- year after the institution was formed. pid advances to the point at which I know little of its proceedings, but if the difficulty of the art would have the annual report be correct, its Direc