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their maritime habits for any active When we look back then, sir, úpon exertions on shore, and in the other, this strange tissue of errors, misconof the oppressed, dispirited, and effe- ceptions, prejudices, delusions, and minate peasantry of Spain and Portu- absurdities, in which, during the whole. gal, whom, with equal felicity, we had continuance of this unexampled con, characterized as decidedly incapable test, all of us have been so deeply ineither of acquiring the discipline, or of volved; when we reflect upon the displaying the courage necessary for ungraceful arrogance, presumption, war, outmanæuvre, one after another, and self-sufficiency, with which we all those redoubted captains, and de- have frequently decided upon topics feat those formidable legions, that had which many of us, both from the naso long proved the terror of Europe, ture of our education and from the that he would drive them from the habits of our private lives, were comstrongest positions, capture their artil- pletely unfitted to understand,--upon lery, pursue them into their own the disgusting abuse and scurrility, country, and seize upon some of the and the bitter sarcasm and division, richest provinces of France,-that the with which we have uniformly treated Germans, whom, in the same style of each others opinions, while we had in profound penetration, we had pro- reality but one object in view, and nounced to be irrecoverably sunk into when the only proper question bethe most hopeless and unfeeling apa- tween us, with respect to the means of thy, would on a sudden rally round its attainment, seems to have been their princes with all the feudal en- which of us was the most profoundly thusiasm of the 12th century, and that ignorant of the subject, or the most these princes would lead them to vic- glaringly and ridiculously in the wrong; tory with a skill worthy the great but above all, on the singular and unFrederick, and in a spirit of heroic ar- equalled felicity by which we have at dour of which the Swedish Charles length arrived at the point of our muneed not have been ashamed, -that tual destination by paths of which the Emperor of the Moscovites, after neither of us had even suspected the rivalling the gallantry of Richard Cour existence,---can we possibly hesitate for de Lion in the field, would enter Paris one moment in consigning to perpeat the head of the wild tribes of his tual oblivion these political asperitjes, country with the paternal feelings of unfounded prepossessions, and useless Henry IV.-that he would convoke unmeaning illiberal jealousies and athe senate, desire them to form a free aversions by which our private society constitution, and tell them that he has been so long embittered and dividwould employ the Cossacks from the ed, and which, in effect, are no more Don and the Volga, to give effect and worthy of being remembered than the support,--that the great Emperor Na- blunders of a drunken squabble, where, poleon, who had been repeatedly prov- after the parties have kicked, cuffed, ed to be invincible, would be conduct- and abused each other, till their ed to a place of confinement, like a strength and spirits are exhausted, it wild beast in a cage, by British and generally appears that there was either German officers,--that he would seek no cause for the quarrel, or that the protection under the uniform of Aus- combatants were on the same side. tria, express a wish to become a sub- If we have in reality the firmness ject of England, be compelled to steadily to adopt this resolution, to mount the white cockade, and to join convert to its true purpose the mea in the acclamations of the populace for morable lesson we have received, and the restoration of Louis XVIII. ;-if to introduce, into our future differany gentleman, I say, sir, had been ences of political opinion, something pleased to favour us with a few pre- of that decency, "forbearance, and dictions of this sort, his friends, in gentlemanlike urbanity of argument, the midst of their amazement, would which the superior information and probably have been too prudent to civilized manners of the present day hazard a reply, but they would have are so peculiarly fitted to inspire, perinevitably taken private measures for haps even the blood and treasure ascertaining in what situation his pro- which bas been lavished during this perty was placed, that they might be stern scene of slaughter and desolation enabled to adopt the necessary precau- may not hereafter be considered as altions for securing the possession of it together unprofitably thrown away. to his family.

H

ON CALUMNIES AGAINST THE LIVING.

work;

man.

Christian world. It is true, that we

have had our Mrs Buchan in Scotland, MR EDITOR,

and Joanna Southcote in England, In your Magazine for January, a pa- who could work upon the hopes and per appeared, which, under the plausi- the fears of the credulous, but such ble pretext of defending the dead from deplorable deceit and delusion very the voice of calumny, turned out to rarely occur. Enthusiasm, of a bold be a most virulent attack upon two and magnanimous kind, requires, in eminent living individuals, who, in general, so many sacrifices, and is their respective departments, have so repulsive to the native selfishness been the zealous and devoted advo- of the human character, that where caters of liberal and enlightened Chris- Christianity is concerned it is indeed tian principle: T'he writer of this has a rare virtue. It seems somewhat renot passed unnoticed in a subsequent markable, by-the-bye, that enthusiasm Number of your

but though he is esteemed a noble quality in every has been refuted in a manner indica- department of inquiry, except where tive both of acuteness and Christian we might be most prepared to expect forbearance, yet a few additional ob- it. Who does not love and admire servations may not be superfluous, the enthusiastic love of military glory, when it is considered, that the subject of professional eminence, of philosois of the most interesting nature, in- phical investigation, of poetic genius ? volving topics of no less magnitude How strange, that the laws which apthan those of the Divine administra- pear to the world so admirably adapttion and the ultimate happiness of ed to regulate our intellectual consti

tutions, and to concentrate every laIf there are “ monopolizing reli

monopolizing reli- tent energy, should be viewed as gionists,” as Euthus insinuates, “who phrenetical impulses whenever a man's consider all their fellow-men as the nobler destiny begins to occupy his dust, and themselves as the salt, of reflections, and excite the sublimest the earth,” it is the more to be la- emotions of his heart! One would mented. Whatever be their faults, imagine that, if there be any thing however, they originate not in their noble and elevating in enthusiasm, it adạerence to evangelical religion, but is when a man is led to expatiate in in the imperfections of their own cha- thought over the track of eternity, racters. That such characters as Euthus and the magnitude of those great and alludes to exist, is undeniable; but universal interests which lie within this no more invalidates the moralis- the compass of religion.” ing and exalting influence of the prin- But leaving general observation, let ciples they professedly recognise, than us examine the remarks of Euthus on the existence of ignorant or misguided Mr Wilberforce. The crime, it seems, political fanatics can disprove the be- with which Mr Wilberforce is charge neficial effects of the great and impor- able is, that of “ assaulting the good tant principles on which the liberty of name of Dr Robertson with malethe subject, and the safety of the mo- volence, and of blowing the breath of narch, depend. Euthus would have unmerited scandal upon his fame !" been entitled to the thanks of your It is impossible to appreciate too highreaders, had the object of his remarks ly the literary character of Dr Robertbeen to point out the inconsistency son. He is, doubtless, the most eleof men's professions with their con- gant, and perhaps the most instrucduct, and to reprobate, with appro- tive, of modern historians. But as it priate feeling, the selected objects of does not necessarily follow, that behis censure.

He might have taken an cause an author possesses great excelexcursive range over the whole aggre- lencies, he is therefore faultless ; so, gate of Christian society, and deli- on the other hand, it is neither very neated all their faults, and affection- candid nor very legitimate reasoning, ately advised them to ameliorate their to ascribe the animadversions of a conhabits. He need not thus have con- scientious writer to motives the most fined his or servations to raving enthu- unworthy and degrading. Had Eusiasts. If we may judge from appear- thus consulted the appendix to that ances, there are not, at present, very very interesting account of Dr Robertformidable symptoms of the general son with which Mr Stewart has fam prevalence of this distemper in the voured the world, he would have

upon his fame.”

- abuse

found some reason to modify the terms has so far explained his sentiments as to in which he has chosen to speak of render it almost unnecessary to remark, Mr Wilberforce. He would have dis- what, however, to prevent misconstruction,

he must here declare, that so far from apcovered, from the perusal of that

gentleman's letters to Dr Robertson, that proving, he must be understood decidedly

to condemn, a hot, a contentious, much Mr Wilberforce entertained for his

more an abusive manner of opposing or of character sentiments of the highest speaking of the assailants of Christianity. esteem and veneration, and that no The apostle's direction, in this respect, canman would have been less likely than not be too much attended to.

• The serhe, to “ assault the good name of Dr vant of the Lord must not strive, but be Robertson with malevolence, or to gentle unto all men ; apt to teach, patient ; blow the breath of unmerited scandal

in meekness instructing those that oppose themselves ; if God peradventure will give

them repentance to the acknowledging of From the extreme virulence of Eu.

the truth.'” 2 Timothy ii. 24. 25. Viere thus's remarks, such as have not seen

of Christianity, chap. vi.) Mr Wilberforce's book would naturally conclude that he has brought a- Let the reader judge whether Eugainst Dr Robertson some unfounded thus is justifiable in the charge, involving a high degree of which he has poured upon the great moral turpitude. Indeed, the most and good of his own' times."

We charitable inference we can make is, ask him, whether this acute and deepthat Euthus cherishes a feeling of ly Christian writer has evinced “

any such superstitious reverence for the malevolence, or unmerited scandal,in departed, that the slightest insinuation any thing he has here said? Does he not of their liability to error, carries with declare that it is with pain he has asserted it, to his mind, all the horrors of im- this? Does he not even apparently apo. piety; yet even thus we can scarcely logise for the observations he has made, explain, how asseverations, so strong by referring to an apostolical precept, and blameable as those which Euthus the very allusion to which seems to has employed, are compatible with his involve a wish, if not a conviction, that pretended esteem for the general cha- the conduct he has censured may have racter of the man he thus calumniates. resulted rather from a mistaken conBut it is time that Mr Wilberforce ception of the precise limits of Chris should speak for himself.

tian charity, than from any disregard In his work on the spirit of Chris- to the interests of truth and righteoustianity, that illustrious man expresses

Mr Wilberforce has not disaphis sincere regret, that there should proved of Dr Robertson's writings in have existed such a close and intimate a loose indefinite manner, but has connexion between professed unbe- given distinct, and, to many, the most lievers and those who recognise the satisfactory reasons for is disapprobaauthority of revelation, " considering tion. We would ask uthus, if Dr themselves as more closely united to Robertson's account of the Reformathem by literature, than severed from tion, how distinguished soever by its them by the widest religious differences.” excellence as a literary composition, In a note connected with this subject, does not admit of improvement? Will Mr Wilberforce adds,

Euthus maintain, that the philosophic

discernments, and unrivalled eloquence, “ It is with pain that the author finds of our great historian, might not have himself compelled to place so great a writer been rendered more deserving of geneas Dr Robertson in this class. But to say ral admiration, if, in the course of his nothing (he continues) of his phlegmatic account of the Reformation (a suhject which statements, the one had been occawe should have thought likely to excite in sionally devoted to the developement any one, who united the character of a of the principles by which the Divine Christian divine with that of an historian, administration is obviously conducted, some warmth of pious gratitude for the good and the other in warming the heart providence of God); to pass over also the with impressive displays of the Divine ambiguity in which he leaves his readers as to his opinion of the authenticity of the goodness? Not that he has entirely Mosaic chronology, in his disquisitions on

neglected to do this, but surely his the trade of India ; his letters to Mr Gibe most devoted admirer must acknowbon, lately published, cannot but excite ledge, that these topics might have emotions of regret and shame in every sin- been introduced much more frequentcere Christian. The author hopes, that he ly, in the course of his investigations,

ness.

than they have been. Is it not also rence to such allies in the pursuits of true, that a more explicit reference philosophy, led the same author to might have been made to the authen- expunge from subsequent editions of ticity and validity of the Mosaic chro- his Theory of Moral Sentiments a panology, if any reference was made at ragraph, which would have done more all? There can exist no doubt, in any to ennoble and endear his philosophic unprejudiced mind, of Dr Robertson's character in the eye of the Christian belief of the truths of revealed religion; moralist, than the most ingenious reaand although, in a disquisition upon sonings which he has adduced in supIndia, he was perhaps not necessitated port of his truly fascinating and eleto vindicate the Mosaic chronology gant theory. Without, however, enfrom the speculations of sceptical geo- larging on the imperceptible, but no logists, or professed infidels, yet it is less dangerous, influence to which all not the less desirable that he had.ex- are exposed who make intellectual supressed his decided conviction of this periority the exclusive object of their important truth, and thus added his reverence, it is surely more charitable unequivocal testimony to those of pre- to trace any defects in Dr Robertson's ceding inquirers.

statements to such feelings, than to As to Dr Robertson's correspond- any premeditated design. We cannot ence with Mr Gibbon, if it does not but regret, however, that he has not excite the emotion of shame (which is contemplated the Divinity more frea very complex feeling), it certainly quently, in all the extent of His preought to occasion regret.

In these siding and controlling energy. We letters, it is indeed to be lamented cannot but regret, that, amidst his. that Dr Robertson did not assume a anxiety to trace effects to their causes, firmer and more decisive aspect, and and his wonderful penetration in asthus shew, that while they were con- certaining them, he has not brought nected by the ties of friendship (a more prominently before the eye of friendship mutually resulting from the contemplation the agency of the Eteraffinity of their literary pursuits), they nal Mind subordinating alike the great were widely dissimilar in their views and the little to the immutable arrangeof Christian truth and moral obliga- ments of perfect wisdom. All this Dr tion. Is it not possible that this dis- Robertson might have done, without tinguished and amiable writer was in- ning his character either as a histimidated, in some degree, from inva- torian or a philosopher, while his works riably expressing his own sentiments, would have been appealed to by disby the apprehension of encountering tant posterity, as combining every the opposition or the sneer of these quality which can endear the scholar and similar contemporaries? What- and the Christian. But more than ever be in this, it is evident, that too enough has been advanced, to shew much intercourse with the enemies of that Mr W. has not in the least dethe truth exposes a man to peculiar tracted from the talents or the worth temptations; and if, in the present of our illustrious countryman, and condition of humanity, it requires the that the remarks which have called most unremitting vigilance to rise su- forth so much indignation on the part perior to the common evils “ which of Euthus amount merely to this, that flesh is heir to," a still harder conflict Dr Robertson's memory would, in the must be endured for the ascendancy opinion of Mr Wilberforce, have been of Christian principle, when it comes encircled with a still more resplendent in frequent contact with genius and lustre, if he had recognised the paratalent devoted to the support of so- mount authority of Christianity more phistry and irreligion. What, but an uniformly in his writings and his indistinct or feeble perception of the friendships. grand and distinguishing features of The attack of Euthus on Mr Foster Christian morality, together with a is equally unjust.“ This able writer," blind veneration for the character of says Euthus, “ has devoted one of his his friend, could have induced the essays to shew that evangelical religion profound and ingenious Dr Adam has at all times been despised by men Smith to identify the historian of of taste and genius.” It is not intended England with all that is attainable in to fill your pages with quotations from human perfectibility ? There can be Mr Foster; but when your readers little doubt, that an excessive defe- refer to the essays of this profound

writer, they will be somewhat sur- turning to the instructions of Jesus prised to find that there is no such Christ and his apostles, would feel assertion in the book. Mr Foster, in estrangement or disgust; and he has the course of a disquisition on the more explicit and solemn references to dislike of men of taste to evangelical the grand purpose of human life, to a religion, and the circumstances which future judgment, and to eternity, than have operated to produce and strength- almost any other of our elegant moralen it, adverts to the influence of the ists has had the piety or the courage common systems of education on the to make.” So much for the candour general character, and takes occasion of Euthus. to contrast the schools of polite litera- The ascendancy which such authors ture with the school of Christ and his as Addison and Johnson have so geneapostles (if the expression may be rally obtained over the public mind, so used), and to reprobate with manly far from forming a barrier against the indignation, but at the same time with subjection of their principles to a rigid great discernment, the highly unchris- examination, seems to furnish the best tian ethics of some of our most ad- apology for any attempt to invalidate mired writers. He has not been de- their claims to this superiority. To a terred by the high and merited fame believer in revealed religion it is suof even. Addison and Johnson, from perfluous to say, that there is one and pointing out what he conceived to be but one standard, from which there defective in both. And what, we can be no appeal. All the speculations would ask, is so very reprehensible in of moralists, however ingenious or all this? Mr Foster, assuming, as he sublime, if, when weighed in the well deserves to do, the lofty tone of a balance of the sanctuary, they are Christian moralist, shews, that the pe- found wanting, must be rejected as culiar and prominent features which unscriptural, and consequently as undistinguish the religion of the New safe. A man in possession of an auTestament from every human system thenticated communication from “ the have been often thrown into the shade, Father of Light” is not at liberty to while a superstructure has been reared pay an undue deference to any human of elements which neither reflect the authority, even though it may have light nor diffuse the warmth of “ a obtained the unqualified approbation hope full of immortality.” And is of the proudest names in the records there no truth in this statement ? of science and wisdom. He may, and Have Addison and Johnson invari- if he has any susceptibility of taste or ably discovered that sublime simpli- of feeling, he must, venerate superior city of Christian sentiment and feeling talent, and yield to the “inspirations throughout their writings, which it is of genius," and feel grateful, that the grand prerogative of the religion while he is forced to contemplate in of the Bible to excite and cherish? the world the baseness of some purWe are quite aware of the uncommon suits and the insignificance of others, excellence which distinguishes both his beclouded vision may be relieved these writers, and conceive that the by surveying the luminaries of the man who does not appreciate their la- world—those men of vigorous intelbours and revere their memory is un- lects and elevated views, who, preworthy to be reasoned with. Yet eminent in the pursuits" to which these men are heathens, Euthus exult- the charms of lofty contemplation have ingly exclaims, in the opinion of Mr allured” them, have illustrated what John Foster! This is a gross mis- was formerly obscure, evinced a magstatement. Of Mr Addison Mr Foster nanimous contempt of whatever is says, “ that he wrote a book expressly associated with meanness or vice, and in defence of the religion of Christ," diffused over their appropriated de(Query, Is this to be a heathen ?) partments of investigation the concenthough it is added, with great pro- trated rays of genius and learning. It priety, “ but to be the dignified advo- must not be forgotten, however, that cate of a cause, and to be its humble there are assigned limits, beyond which disciple, may be very different things. we must not venture. It is possible, With regard to Dr Johnson it is said, that after we have made great advances “ But few of his speculations compa- toward an appropriation of sentiment, ratively tend to beguile the reader and and feel that our moral perceptions are admirer into that spirit which, on on the very verge of a sympathetio Vol. III.

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