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much better off than those who have to the clergy of England ; for though recently caused their tythes to be valu- the dignitaries of that church are ed. Most of the original valuations amply provisioned, it is well known are already exhausted, and of course, that the great majority of those who the burden of augmentations falls much bear the heat and burden of the day heavier upon proprietors whose tythes are by no means favourably dealt have been lately valued, than upon with. those who are possessed of the first Q. 4th. Have the landholders of valuations. In no case, however, can Scotland derived advantage from the stipend exceed the amount of free regulation of the tythe system? tythes, and in numerous instances it A. It is difficult to answer this does not amount to one half of it, the query in such terms as may be applibalance remaining with the proprietor cable to the country at large. Suffice as a fresh fund for a future augmenta- it to say, that in general cases, had tion. The proprietors of land may tythe, as formerly paid, been contihave some cause to complain of the nued, its amount or value at this day Scottish tythe system, as they, in the might safely be estimated at six times first instance, were obliged to buy their of what is actually paid to the clergy tythes from the Titular, or Lords of of the country. But then it must be Erection, at nine years' purchase of held in view, that the tythes were their proven value, and are now sub- originally purchased from the titulars jected to pay the whole of that value or lay-impropriators, and that nine to the clergyman, provided the court years purchase-money was paid for of tythes or teinds in Scotland con- them, which probably at the time was siders an augmentation of stipend to their full value, as land then sold at that extent as expedient and necessary. twelve years' purchase, whilst the inTo the cultivator of land, or, in other terest of money was not less than eight words, to the improvement of the per cent. Now, holding all these circountry, these things, however, are cumstances in view, and taking into not of the slightest prejudice. Hence consideration that a considerable exa rapid progress in agricultural im- pense, and not a little trouble, were provement, for a century back, has tak- incurred in the collection of tythes, it en place in every quarter of Scotland, likely will appear, that

any advantage which could not possibly have occur- gained by the landholders Scotland red, had tythe in kind, or its value in from regulating the tythe system, has money, according to annual valuations, chiefly arisen from the improvements been paid by the occupiers.

which in consequence were afterwards Q. 3d. In what manner was the introduced, and the alteration which commutation effected ? Did the Kirk has since taken place in the value of resist ?

money, as a good part of the tythe A. The commutation, or, more pro- was valued according to the monied perly speaking, the regulation of tythe payments made to the titulars or their in Scotland took place in 1633, in the tacksmen. way already described, though it was Q. 5th. What is the general rate of many years after before it could be clerical stipends in country parishes, carried completely into execution. The independently of the manse and glebe? Kirk did not resist, because, in point and what may be the differences beof fact, its members, with the excep- tween town and country stipends ? tion of a few Bishops, were not in pos- A. As the stipends of the clergy are session of the tythes when the sub- in most cases paid in grain, or, in mission was made to King Charles. other words, paid in money, according By the decreet arbitral afterwards pro- to the annual fiars of grain in each nounced, it is believed, the Kirk was county, it is not easy to say what may very much benefited, for it secured be their amount communibus annis. every clergyman in a competent sti. Perhaps they may be estimated, independ, so far as the teinds or tythes in pendently of glebe, house, and garden, his parish were sufficient for that pur- at something more than £200 per pose. In short, a provision far more annum upon an average, though in liberal than allowed to the Presbyte- many instances they amount to double rian clergy at any former period was that sum. In no case can a stipend at that time bestowed upon thema be less than £150, because, in parishes provision far exceeding what is given where the stipend is less, and no funds remain for an augmentation, a parlia- creasing in Scotland. In point of fact, mentary provision is made in behalf that sect never had such a footing in of the incumbent, which secures him the country as to make its numbers the amount of stipend above mention- an object of inquiry. ed. It is only of late that the stipends Q. 10th. Is there a sufficient supply in towns have been greater than those of candidates for Kirk preferment-or in country parishes, the former being does the moderate rate of stipend usually paid in money, whilst the operate as a check ? greatest part of the other was paid in A. There is always a sufficient supgrain ; therefore, whilst the marketply of candidates for kirk preferment; prices were high, the country clergy- indeed the number of candidates far man, generally speaking, was in the exceeds the demand. As the rate of most comfortable situation.

stipends cannot be considered as moQ. 6th. What is the common ex- derate, no check arises from that cirtent of the glebe land, and the general cumstance to the supply of candidates. estimated value to the clergyman? Q. 11th. In the ordinary course of

A. The legal size of a glebe is four things, do not the established clergy Scots acres ; and if a grass glebe, suf- live on the best terms with their parficient to pasture a horse or cow, is ishioners ? not annexed, a certain sum, to be paid A. In almost every case the estaby the heritors of the parish, was fixed blished clergy live on good terms with by the Parliament of Scotland to make their parishioners. Not having tythes up the deficiency. In numerous in- to draw from them, any cause of difstances the arable glebe exceeds four ference can seldom arise. Perhaps, in acres ; and perhaps the average of no line can a man pass through life glebes may consist of five acres of the more comfortably and agreeably than best land' in the parish to which the he who fills the office of a country glebe belongs. In some cases, the clergyman. glebe extends to seven acres, but this Q. 12th. Is it likely that farmers in rarely happens. The value of a glebe Scotland could be persuaded to pay a may be from £15 to £40, according to tenth of their produce for church circumstances.

tythes—and would they not consider Q. 7th. What may be the general such a regulation as highly discourage average of country parishes, in regarding to industry and enterprise? to population and extent?

A. The farmers of Scotland could A. Country parishes differ far more not be persuaded, by any influence with regard to extent and population whatever, to pay tythe in kind; and than to stipend. In the lowland dis- every one of them would consider a tricts the extent may be from 3,000 measure of that nature as highly disto 7,000 acres, and the population couraging to his industry and enterfrom 500 to 1800 souls. In the high- prise. But, independent of these cirland districts the extent is from 10,000 cumstances, the trouble and vexation to 50,000 acres, and the population occasioned by an exaction in kind, is depends very much upon the system sufficient to show the impolicy and of management that is followed in the absurdity of continuing a burden parish.

merely because it originated in the Q. 8th. What may be the propor- days of barbarous ignorance, when tion between Dissenting Meetings and such a thing as the circulating methe Kirk, exclusive of Episcopal and dium was almost unknown-when Roman Catholic chapels ?

any trade betwixt man and man was A. It is believed that three-fourths chiefly carried on by bartering one of the people in Scotland are steady article for another-and when society adherents of the Kirk, and that fully was in such a state that ecclesiastics one half of those who dissent from it and other stipendiaries must either are more strict Presbyterians than even have been paid in the produce of the those who adhere to the Kirk. The soil, or have remained without any number of Episcopalians and Roman public support. But now, when these Catholics is so trifling that no notice circumstances are wholly changed, the shall be taken of them.

practice of former times ought to be Q. 9th. Are the sects of Methodists departed from, especially as it may be increasing

and from what cause ? done without injury to any one, and A The sect of Methodists is not in to the great benefit of the public.

OF THE ARISTOPHANIC COMEDY. more amusing and characteristic, than

any exhibitions which popular instiThis is a species of composition which tutions, addressed to the senses, can no modern writer seems to have at- furnish. As, in this species of cometempted to revive. Although it was dy, the expression of the countenance among the earliest inventions of the would be of secondary importance, Greeks, and was afterwards superseded masks of the boldest and most fanciful by what they considered as a more re- construction might be used, which fined species of comedy, it is by no would serve to denote the characterismeans barbarous in its nature, but, on tics of the person who wore them; and the contrary, highly philosophical, and an excellent source of pleasantry might apparently well adapted to please cul- also be found in their dresses. The tivated minds.

political parties of England, and the The distinctive principle of the Ar- views and characteristics of the differistophanic comedy is not its personali- ent classes who compose them, would ty, but its practice of investing general form a good subject for an Aristophanideas, in appropriate visible forms, and ic comedy, provided it was handled in turning them into dramatis personæ. a manner somewhat philosophical, and It has often been remarked, that alle- not allowed to sink into the tone of gorical personages are cold, and excite vulgar political squibs. Each class little sympathy, because, so long as might be represented under the form we keep the allegory in view, we are of an individual, with the appropriate reminded that they are not real. This, dress, language, and manners, boldly however, is no argument against the caricatured ; and the plot of the play Aristophanic comedy, which does not might turn upon the solution of their appeal to our sympathies and passions. contentions. A play of this descripIt is addressed to the understanding; tion, however, could not be sufficientits true object being reflection and ly impartial to save it from being conpleasantry, and the diversion produced demned and overset, either by one by the play of general ideas, under party or another. their dramatic garb. Allegory, al- Aristophanes made use of the absurthough unfavourable to sentiment, is dities of pagan theology to heighten well suited to the purposes of pleasant- the burlesque of his pieces, and was ry, which can hardly bring general scarcely blameable for doing so; but ideas into collision, unless by giving in modern times, even the opinions of them a local habitation and a name. fanatics, who view Christianity through If Swift's Tale of a Tub had been a perverted medium, are perhaps an written in the form of a drama, it unfit subject for the stage. The Tale would have been a modern specimen of a Tub does not relate so much to of Aristophanic comedy.

the Christian revelation as to the temTo relish this species of composition, poral conduct of the different sects of an audience would require to be acute, Christians. observative, and susceptible of pleasant- Professions are no longer sufficiently ry, in a high degree, and at the same time pedantic and narrow-minded to anmuch interested in, and familiar with, swer the purposes of the Aristophanic the subjects handled in the piece. All comedy. Their respective characterthese requisites were found among the istics and prepossessions have been so Greeks ; but it is questionable whether much obliterated by the diffusion of they can be found among modern na- knowledge, that there would no longer tions. Madame de Stael, in speaking be any diversion in bringing them inof this subject, observes, that modern to contact. When individuals become nations, from the nature of their in- too knowing with regard to the point stitutions, are not sufficiently habitu- of view from which others contemplate ated to contemplate bodies of men en them, there is an end to comedy, which masse ; meaning, that when we think founds its choicest scenes upon a muof the interests, passions, and opinions tual ignorance of sentiments and feelof particular classes, we do not con- ings, and upon that unsuspecting steaceive these classes, under any visible diness of self-love, natural to minds form, capable of being brought upon which have remained hoodwinked the stage. A lively imagination, how- within their own peculiar sphere. ever, might surely remedy this defect, The principal objection which oce and furnish us with personifications, curs against the Aristophanic species


of comedy is, that philosophical plea- much pleasure as the Greeks in mere santries and satires would not gain so intellectual perceptions ; and the only much as ordinary dramas do from Greek audience which now remains, being acted. Sentiment and passion consists of men of talent and taste, acquire a new warmth and interest in who are sprinkled over the world at the person of a good actor; and his such distances from each other, that looks and gestures take an irresistible they have no chance of meeting withhold of our sympathies ; but every in the confines of a theatre. He that one must have observed, that mere re- looks along the benches of our playpartees or reflections, when they are houses, and observes the fine rows of'. once known by rote, fall very coldly human heads which are nodding afrom the stage, because they are little round him, would do well to rememimproved by looks or gestures. A good ber how much respect is due to huactor, in representing passion, knows man nature : for, if he sees more how to kindle the flame anew in our traces of the porter and ale which we bosoms, although we may have seen have been drinking for so many genethe same piece twenty times before. rations back, than of Athenian perspiAnd there is also a species of humour cacity, there may be found an ample consisting in the exhibition of feeling, excuse for it in our national extraction, contrasted with situation, which gains which certainly has had little to do from the actor, because it hinges up- with those southern amalgamations on sentiment, and cannot be definitely now talked of by philosophers. and adequately expressed in words. But the species of pleasantry, consisting in the play of abstract ideas, capable of being fully conveyed by language, and which is the one peculiar to Aristophanic and allegorical comedy,

(From the German of Schiller.) is rather an intellectual perception than a personal feeling, of such a nature as might more easily be translated into French,

“ CASSANDRA, another work of Schiller's, to be enforced by gesture and sympa- although its poetical language is extremely thy.

bold. At the moment when the festival to An Aristophanic comedy, however, celebrate the marriage of Polyxena and might have all the advantages of a Achilles is beginning, Cassandra is seized melo-dramatic spectacle ; and some with a presentiment of the misfortunes practical pleasantries might be repre- which will result from it,--she walks sad sented by such a brilliant apparatus, and melancholy in the grove of Apollo, and as would prevent them from appear troubles all her enjoyments. We see in this

laments that knowledge of futurity which ing tedious. Allegory would afford Ode what a misfortune it would be to a many subjects fit for the display of human being could he possess the premachinery and decorations, in which science of a divinity. Is not the sorrow of particulars the Greek theatres seem to the prophetess experienced by all persons have been scantily provided. The in- of strong passions and supreme minds ? tellectuality of the piece would thus Schiller has given us a fine moral idea unbe relieved by something addressed to der a very poetical form, namely, that true the senses, and the wonder excited by genius, that of sentiment, even if it escape bold flights of wit and imagination, suffering from its commerce with the world, would be supported by wonders better Cassandra never marries, not that she is

is frequently the victim of its own feelings. adapted to thick and cloudy capacities. either insensible or rejected, but her peneIt cannot be denied, nevertheless, that trating soul in a moment passes the bounda such an exhibition would please only aries of life and death, and finds repose only once, unless it contained such diversi- in heaven." -MADAME de STAEL's Gerfied stores of thought as not to be easie many, vol. i. p. 348. ly remembered.

These remarks are made merely for Joy was heard in Ilium's walls, the sake of discussion. If any writer Ere her lofty turrets fell,were now to succeed in the species of Songs of jubilee filled her halls, composition above-mentioned, his dra- Rests each warrior's

weary sword

Warbled from the golden shell. ma would be known only in the closet, From the work of blood and slaughter ; and would not find its way to the While Pelides, conquering lord, stage. Few nations have taken so Sought the hand of Priam's daughter, Vol. III.


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Crowned with many a laurel-bough, Each present good fleets past antasted
Joyful, rolling crowd on crowd,

The future fills and mads my brain-
To the hallowed shrine they go

Youth's brightest hours in anguish wasted,
The altar of the Thymbrian God.

Take thy treach'rous gift again.
Loudly revelling, swept they on
Through the streets with shonts of gladness, “ Never yet, with bridal garlands,
One heavy heart was left alone,

Have I dared my locks to twine,
That stood aloof in silent sadness.

Since I vowed upon thine altar

Service at thy gloomy shrine. Joyless in the midst of joy,

Youth to me has brought but tears, See, her solitary way

Grief has been my only lot ;To the grove Cassandra bends

What the woes that Troy has borne,
Sacred to the God of Day.

And I have doubly felt them not ?
To its deepest shades she passed,
Wrapt in distant vision,—there,

“ See those hearts with whom my pleasures From her burning brow she cast

Once were shared-a festive crowd, -
The wreath that bound her streaming hair. Treading light Youth's frolic measures-

I only wrapt in Sorrow's cloud. “ Yes! the stream of joy spreads wide, Spring returns to gladden all, Every heart beats light and gay,

But it shines in vain to me, Troy's proud hopes are mounting high,

What bliss knows she who dares to scan
My sister hails her bridal day.

The dark depths of Futurity.
I alone in silence weep,
Fancy's dream deceives not me ;-

“ Happy thou, my sister, lulled Ruin vast, with eagle-sweep,

In the dream of Fancy sweet ; Rushing on these walls I see.

Soon the mightiest chief of Greece,

As thy spouse thou hopest to greet. “ Lo! a torch all fiercely gleaming, See, with pride her bosom heaves, Not the torch which Hymen brings ;

See, her transports swelling high ;
Dark the cloud behind it streaming, Spare, ye Heavens ! in pity spare,
Not of nuptial offerings !

Envy not her dream of joy.
While they deck with hearts elate
The festal pomp,-in boding sound ;-

E'en this heart, tho' withered now,
Hark! I hear the tread of Fate

Loved, and had its love returned ; Come to crush it to the ground.

Long sued the youth,—and in his eye

Love's bright expressive glances burned. “ Yes! they mock my silent grief, O how blest in humble guise, Laugh my bitter tears to scorn,

With a heart like this to dwell ;There alone I find relief

But a shade at midnight hour
To this heart with sorrows torn.

Steps between us,--dark as hell.
Spurned by Fortune's minion train,
Spurned, insulted by the gay ;-

“ Whence, ye paley phantoms, are ye? Hard the lot thou hast assigned,

Come ye from the Queen of Night ? 0, unpitying God of Day.

Where I wander, where I turn me,

Shapes of terror cross my sight. “ Why hast thou thy prophet spirit See, they crowd-a ghastly train ! To a mortal maiden dealt ?

To scowl away youth's lightsome glee ;What can I from this inherit,

Life, in all its weary round,
But woes I never else had felt ?

Holds no longer joy for me.
Why to me the Fates disclosed,
When I cannot shun their force ?

“ Ha! the murderer's flashing steel ! Still the hovering cloud must break, Again ! his darkly-gleaming eye! The day of dread roll on its course.

On right, on left, by terrors closed,

I cannot turn, I cannot fly; Why, where terrors crowd the scene, Nor yet my straining eyes avert, Back the veil of ages throw ?

Fixed in shuddering trance I stand : Where but ignorance is bliss,

It comes ! the fate which crowns my woes.
Only knowledge leads to woc.

A captive in a stranger land.”
Hence, that fearful scene of blood !
Veil it from my aching eyes ;-

Hark! from out the temple's gate,
Dread thought that child of earth should

Ere the priestess checked her breath, dare

Bursts the wild distracted shriek To read thine awful mysteries !

“ Thetis' son lies stretched in death."

Eris shakes her vengeful snakes, “ Give me back those days of blindness, All the Guardian Gods are fled, While this heart yet blithely sung ; Heavy hung the thunder cloud Joy's light carols left me only

Over Ilium's fated head. Since I spoke with prophet's tongue.



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