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EXERCISES IN PARSING ;-INSTANCES OF FALSE ORTHOGRAPHY ;—VIOLATIONS
VIOLATIONS OF THE RULES RESPECTING PERSPICUOUS
AND ACCURATE WRITING.
DESIGNED FOR THE BENEFIT OF
AS WELL AS FOR
THE USE OF SCHOOLS.
BY LINDLEY MURRAY.
FROM THE TWENTIETH ENGLISH EDITION.
PRINTED AND SOLD BY COLLINS & CO.
THE principles of knowledge become most intelligible to young persons, when they are explained and inculcated by practical illustration and direction. This mode of teaching is attended with so many advantages, that it can scarcely be too much recommended, or pursued. Instruction which is enlivened by pertinent examples, and in which the pupil. is exercised in reducing the rules prescribed to practice, has a more striking effect on the mind, and is better adapted to fix the attention, and sharpen the understanding, than that which is divested of these aids, and confined to bare positions and precepts; in which it too frequently happens that the learner has no further concern, than to read and repeat them. The time and care employed in practical application, give occasion to survey the subject minutely, and in different points of view; by which it becomes more known and familiar, and produces stronger and more durable impressions.
THESE observations are peculiarly applicable to the study of grammar, and the method of teaching it. The rules require frequent explanation; and, besides direct elucidation, they admit of examples erroneously constructed, for exercising the student's sagacity and judgment. To rectify these, attention and reflection are requisite; and the knowledge of the rule necessarily results from the study and correction of the sentence. But these are not all the advantages which arise from Grammatical Exercises. By discovering their own abilities to detect and amend errors, and their consequent improvement,
the scholars become pleased with their studies, and are animated to proceed, and surmount the obstacles which occur in their progress. The instructer too is relieved and encouraged in his labours. By discerning exactly the powers and improvement of his pupils, he perceives the proper season for advancing them; and by observing the points in which they are deficient, he knows precisely where to apply his directions and explanations.
THESE Considerations have induced the Compiler to collect and arrange a variety of erroneous examples, adapted to the different rules and instructions of English Grammar, and to the principles of perspicuous and accurate writing. It has not indeed been usual, to make Grammatical Exercises, in our language, very numerous and extensive: but if the importance and usefulness of them be as great as they are conceived to be, no apology will be necessary for the large field of employment, which the following work presents to the student of English Grammar. If he be detained longer than is common in this part of his studies, the probable result of it, an accurate and intimate knowledge of the subject, will constitute an ample recompense.
THE reader will perceive that some of the rules and observations, under the part of Syntax, contain a much greater number of examples than others. This has arisen from the superior importance of those rules, and from the variety requisite to illustrate them properly. When a few instances afford sufficient practice on the rule, the student is not fatigued with a repetition of examples, which would cast no new light on the subject.
IN selecting the instances of false construction, the Compiler has studied to avoid those that are glaringly erroneous, and to fix upon such only as frequently occur in writing or speaking. If there be any of a different complexion, it is presumed that
they are but few, and that they will be found under those rules only, which, from the nature of them, could not have been otherwise clearly exemplified to young persons. The examples applicable to the principal notes and observations, are carefully arranged under the respective rules of Syntax; and regularly numbered to make them correspond to the subordinate rules in the Grammar.
As many of the examples contain several errors in the same sentence, and some of them admit of various constructions in amending them, it has been thought proper to publish a KEY for ascertaining all the corrections; and this has been the more expedient from the work's being designed for the benefit of private learners, as well as for the use of schools. The Key to the part on Orthography might have been omitted, had not some of the sentences contained so many words erroneously spelled, as to render it probable that several of them would, in that case, have been inadvertently passed over: especially by persons who may not have the advantage of a tutor. In forming the Key, it appeared to be more eligible, to repeat the sentences at large, with their corrections, than simply to exhibit the amendments by themselves. In the mode adopted, the work has a more regular and uniform appearance; the correspondent parts may be more readily compared; and the propriety of the corrections will be more apparent and striking.
In a work which consists entirely of examples, and with which the learners will, consequently, be much occupied and impressed, the compiler would have deemed himself culpable, had he exhibited such sentences as contained ideas inapplicable to young minds, or which were of a trivial or injurious nature. He has, therefore, been solicitous to avoid all exceptionable matter; and to improve his work, by blending moral and useful observations with