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ner, augmented; and the prosperity distinguished himself by some philoof that University increases more sophical works, both in Latin and in and more, like that of the two others. Hungarian.
The Literary Journal of Vienna, According to the Ephemerides of which, after four years' duration, Wiemer, Vienna has eight public liceased to appear at the commence. braries, three of which contain ment of the year 1817, has been con- 438,000 volumes ; viz. the Imperial tinued, since 1818, under the title of Library, 300,000 printed books, exLiterary Annals, and enjoys the par. clusive of 70,000 tracts and disserticular protection of the government, tations, and 15,000 manuscripts; the It is published quarterly. Although university library, 108,000 volumes; foreign literary productions are not and the Theresianum, 30,000. The excluded from this journal, it is number in the other five is not exchiefly occupied by every thing that actly known. relates to the arts and sciences in The Royal Library at Munich posthe Austrian states. The works, of sesses 400,000 vols.; the library at which an analysis is therein given, Göttingen, (one of the most select,) are not, therefore, exclusively books possesses 280,000 works or numbers, written in German, but likewise in 110,000 academical dissertations, the Italian, Hungarian, and even the and 5,000 manuscripts; Dresden, Croatian languages.
250,000 printed books, 100,000 disWe learn from German publica- sertations, and 4,000 manuscripts ; tions, that in the month of Novem. Wolfenbuttle, 190,000 printed books, ber last, all the Physicians not ma- (chiefly ancient,)40,000 dissertations, triculated at the University of Vien- and 4,000 manuscripts ; Stuttgart, na were called together, in order to 170,000 vols. and 12,000 bibles. Berbe officially informed of a resolution lin has seven public libraries, of taken by the Supreme Powers, by which the Royal Library contains which the practice of Animal Magne. 160,000 volumes, and that of the A. tism is generally prohibited through- cademy 30,000 ; Prague 110,000 out the dominions of the Emperor of vols.; Gratz 105,000 vols.; FrankAustria. Several of the Doctors of fort on the Maine, 100,000; Ham. Vienna, who are known to be em- burgh 100,000 ; Breslau 100,000; pirical practitioners of this art, have Weimar 95,000 ; Mentz 90,000 ; been publicly censured, and threat. Darmstadt 85,000; Cassel 60,000; ened with an entire suspension of Gotha 60,000; Marbourg 55,000; their functions, in case of their con- Mell in Austria, 35,000; Heidelberg tinuing to bave recourse to the ope- 30,000; Werningerode 30,000: Neurations of magnetism. Directions burg in Austria, 25,000 ; Krems to the same effect have been given Munster 25,000 ; Augsburg 24,000; to all the Governors of Provinces, as Meiningen 24,000 ; New Strelitz well as to all houses and hospitals es- 22,000, Saltzburg 20,000; Magdetablished for the recovery of health, burgh 20,000; Halle 20,000; Landin the Austrian Monarchy.
shut 20,000. Thus it appears, that Since 1817, there has appeared at thirty cities of Germany possess, in Pesth, a literary journal, entitled, their principal libraries, above three Tudomanyos Gynjtemeny, (the Scien- millions of works or volumes, withtific Magazine,) published by Traf- out taking into account the acadefner, and edited by Mr George Fe- mical dissertations, detached me. jer, professor of dogmatics in the moirs, pamphlets, or manuscripts. University of Pesth, who has already Russia. - The University of Dor
pat has just received a new organi- gate knowledge throughout Greece. zation, for which it is indebted to the A few Greek amateurs have, from indefatigable zeal of its benevolent time to time, represented theatrical and enlightened director, Count de pieces, the produce of which re. Lieven. The number of students presentations is appropriated to the has more than doubled, and nothing benefit of the hospitals of Odessa. is now wanting to give a new impulse They lately gave, for the second to this valuable institution,
time, the Philoctetes of Sophocles, At the University of Moscow, the translated into modern Greek by M. terms have almost all recommenced. Piccolo, a young savant of distinTheir interruption, at the time of the guished merit, who has since comgreat fire, has had, in many respects, posed an original tragedy, called the advantageous results, as well for the Death of Demosthenes. The success professors as for the students. The of this piece was prodigious; the salaries of the former have been in- plaudits were interrupted only by the creased, the sphere of their instruc- iears of the spectators; and the getion has been enlarged, and the va- neral enthusiasm was such, that the rious branches better arranged. The Greeks immediately determined to number of students, last year, a.
form and maintain a company of permounted to upwards of two hundred. formers of their own nation, under The Gymnasium, joined to this Uni. the direction of M. Avraniotti. versity, has been in like manner re- PRUSSIA.— The King has recently opened, and several new preceptors purchased the herbal and the library have already been appointed. of the late Professor Wildenow, in
The Greeks, who form the greater order to present them to the Univerpart of the population of Odessa, are sity of Berlin. M. Wildenow was all animated by an excellent spirit one of the most celebrated botanists for improvement, and display the of the present period, and the author greatest zeal for the general good of of several valuable works on that Greece, their native country. By science. voluntary and abundant subscrip- As the practice of Animal Magnetions, they have established a school, tism is still followed on the Contiand intrusted it to eight able profes- nent, and even studied as a science, sors, at the head of whom are Messrs the class of Physical Sciences of the Genadios and Macris, both high- Academy of Berlin has proposed, ly distinguished as men of science. by order of the Prussian GovernThe Governor of Odessa, Count de ment, a prize of three hundred duLangeron, gives the greatest en- cats, for the best explication of the couragement to the professors and phenomena of Animal Magnetism, the students. Besides the annual and of the experiments made down donations made to the school, four to the latest period, divesting them houses of insurance, established and of the marvellous, which has hithermanaged by Greek merchants, allow to been mingled with them. This a deduction in favour of it from their is placing the subject, where it ought annual profits, the amount of which, to be, in the hands of the intelligent; for the year 1817, was 53,892 rubles, and as the Government has interfered or about L.11,000 Sterling. Several in it, it may be hoped that considermerchants have deposited funds for able light may be obtained, and both the establishment of a printing-office opinion and practice regulated by on a large scale, intended to propa- the sentiments of the judicious.
Sweden. - The Academy of finished four bas-reliefs, intended to Sciences of Stockholm had granted ornament the royal residence of to Professor Nilson, a sum of money Christiansburgh, at Copenhagen. for the purpose of undertaking a tour The King of Denmark has granted in Norway, the principal object of a pension of eight hundred crowns, which was ornithology. Mr Nilson has during two years, to four men of leijust made known to the academy the ters, to enable them to travel isto result of his tour. This interesting foreign parts, for the benefit of narrative abounds with many new making observations. The gentleobservations. Other sums have been men thus honoured are Messrs Rask, assigned by the same academy for philologist; Ingemann, poet; Claumaking, in Sweden, researches rela- zen, divine ; and Henry Goede, of tive to mineralogy and geology, as Kiel, naturalist. Dr Zeise, a natuwell as for prosecuting meteorologi- ralist, and the botanist, Schow, bare cal observations in Lapland.
also obtained additional means to Among the many improvements continue their travels and studies a. which have taken place under the broad. administration of Charles John, the ITALY.—The Count of Bevilacreigning Prince, must be distinguish- qua, at Verona, has published a noed a new collection of Hymns, in- tice of the fragments of Roman Jutended to take the place of those risprudence, discovered among the heretofore in use, which were intro. MSS. of the Library of the Chapduced in 1695 ; also, a new public ter of Verona. These MSS. were version of the Bible; the New thought to be lost, by Mabillou and Testament, part of which is already Montfaucon, in the seventeenth completed ; a New Code of Laws century ; but since that tiine Mafin great forwardness, some of its fei and the Canon Carinelli publishparts being finished ; as
ed a Catalogue of them. A part of Military Institution for the regula. these was carried into France in tion of the Army, chiefly as to its 1797 ; but restored in 1814. economy. The capital also expects We should not be surprised if the to acquire additional facilities for spoliations committed by the French, public instruction of a superior with the returns of the stolen goods, kind, by an important establish- should give occasion to the publicament, under the name of a Gymna- tion of several catalogues of a like sium.
nature. It is not enough that the DENMARK.—The Danish Sculp- learned should know where certain tor, Thorwaldsen, at Rome, has pro- documents and authorities once posed to the government of his coun. were: they desire information, also, try, the purchase of a series of bas- where they now are, and where reliefs, representing the Triumph of they may now be inspected. Alexander. These bas-reliefs were The Theseid of Boccacio has lateordered eight or ten years ago forly been published at Milan, after a the Imperial Palace at Rome; but, complete and correct manuscript. by the course of events, they have There existed before this only three remained on the hands of the artist. editions ; which were not only very The sum asked for them is 15,000 rare, but very incomplete. The scudi. Endeavours are making to Editor is Sig. Giovanni Silvestri. raise this sum by voluntary sub- At Turin is announced, a complete scription.
edition of the Works, or Theatre of M. Thorwaldsen has very lately Shakespeare. Each volume will con
tain two or three plays ; which will tism, who oppose the propagation of be accompanied by prefaces from knowledge and learning. The same the pen of A. G. Schlegel, trans- author has translated into modern lated into Italian, with critical and Greek, and published for the behistorical notes, by M. Leoni. It nefit of his countrymen, Schell's is but just, that while the Italian Elementary Chronology, translated poets form a part of the studies of from the French; and Tenneman's the polite, in all countries, and in our Abridged History of Philosophy, own particularly, our bards should translated from the German. These also become familiar in Italy. We are dedicated to M. Nicolaides, a anticipate much information and Greek merchant, settled at Odessa, pleasure from Mr Schlegel's ac- who has paid the expenses of pubcompaniments.
lishing these works for the advantage Greece.—The progress of that of the rising generation. More than civilization, which is the constant at- three hundred copies of them have tendant or consequence of letters, been given by order of M. Nicocontinues to be rapid. The number of laides, to young students, who have schools of the second order, or Gym- distinguished themselves, by their nasia, augments daily. The princi- promptitude in learning, and by their pal establishments of the kind are at good conduct and fair character. Smyrna, at Kydonios (a small town Letters from Corfu, dated in of eight or ten thousand inhabitants, January last, inform us, that M. opposite the island of Lesbos,) and Gerasimos Pizzamanos, a native of in the island of Chios. A young Cephalonia, and formerly pupil of man, a native of Kydonios, mentioned M. Percier of the French Institution, above, has staid long enough in the and of the French Academy at printing office of M. Didot, at Paris, Rome, has returned from traversing to perfect himself in the art of print- various districts of Greece and Asia ing A daughter of the Profes. Minor, where he has visited numesor of the Gymnasium in that town, rous monuments of antiquity. He named Erianthia, not more than is now at Corfu, with his port
-folio eighteen years of age, has translated filled with a great number of beautiinto modern Greek, Fenelon's work ful drawings. The Government on the Education of Daughters. confided to him the undertaking of The inhabitants of Chios have held furnishing plans for the palace of the meetings for the purpose of raising Grand Master of the new Order of subscriptions in order to establish a St Michael and St George ; and his Public Library.
designs having been adopted, he has M. Koumas, Director of the New also been employed to make drawGreek College at Smyrna, arrived ings for a new Grand College, and some time ago at Vienna, for the pur- for other public establishments; in pose of causing several works to be which, no doubt, he will display adprinted. He has already published the ditional proofs of his natural talent, first two volumes of his Course of Phi- cultivated and improved by extenlosophy, composed in modern Greek; sive study and much reflection; and to which is prefixed a letter to M. F. we may again see the Fine Arts Mauros, containing salutary advice of Greece revive, and perhaps estato his compatriots, and exposing the blish themselves, in their native soil. fallacies of those friends to despo
THE FINE ARTS.
A great deal of common.place cant and rewarded, because they illustrate has been both talked and written on and adorn. The spirit of inquiry is the pretended infancy of the Arts of fatal alike to superstition and des. Sculpture and Painting in Great Bri- potism ; while the arts of poetry, tain; and various theories, all of them painting, sculpture, and even archiunfounded, and many of them absurd tecture, have been employed, to conand nonsensical, have at different secrate and hallow, as it were, the times been invented and put forth to greatest scourges of the human race
. account for this supposed anomaly. Sint Maecenates non deerunt Ma. Freedom, it is said, is congenial to rones,” said Martial ; and the obserthe expansion of the human mind, vation applies felicitously to the point whether in its intellectual or ima- under consideration. The ardent pa. ginative exertions; and it is there. tronage which the Italian Pontiffs fore the more wonderful that in this and nobles extended to the Fine the only free country in Europe, the Arts, rendered excellence in them arts of design should still continue in the certain road to distinction and 80 depressed and inferior a state. affluence. Need we then wonder, Now, assuming the fact to be as these that as the competition was keen, so theorists suppose it, there will be lit- the results were exquisite ? or that, tle difficulty, we think, in accounting with the refined models of ancient satisfactorily for the alleged inferio- greatness, taste, and genius, lying in rity, in genius and execution, of our profusion around them, the artists native artists.
of Italy should have distanced those In despotic governments, like of every other country in Europe ? those of Rome, Venice, and Genoa, How differently are men circum. where the whole genius of the peo- stanced in a free country like our ple is forced into one channel, and own? There the paths to eminence, where fortune and eminence can on. to glory, and to riches are innumely be acquired by the chisel or the rable. The bar, the senate, the pencil, it is natural to expect the field ; science, literature, commerce, highest degree of excellence in the agriculture, each presents its apfew departments in which genius can propriate allurements and rewards. either exert its innate energies, or The national mind, if we may say so, expect a commensurate reward. But is, in some measure, subdivided, and patronage ever follows the bent and each chooses for himself the particu. direction, whether natural or artifi- lar career, in which, from nature or cial, of genius. The same Pontiff adventitious circumstances, he is who caused Tasso be crowned in the most likely to realise the objects of Capitol, consigned Gallileo to the his ambition. Hence but comparadungeons of the Inquisition. The tively few can devote themselves to object of his esteem and regard was the pursuit of the Fine Arts, which, not philosophy but poetry; not the while they require immense labour sober deductions of reason, but the and study, promise only a distant brilliant creations of the fancy. The and precarious reward. But let us former are dangerous, because they look to those arts which are more enlighten; the latter are honoured particularly congenial to a free go