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object, and its from it, a cluster of lofty eminences ther precautions intervenes. Three of these were nsure accuracy. measured, and found to be from 19,099 re computed ac. to 21,150 feet; and two others nearula given by Mr est to the pass, the highest of which 12th volume of was 22,441 feet. The pass
itself was nes; making an found to be 17,598 feet high. Beof the intercept- ing on the frontiers of the British refraction. This dominions, Captain Webb received on by Captain a visit from the Chinese governor of ult of computa- the adjacent province; and having
with different carried a series of levels geometri1:20th, for the cally to the spot fixed on for the rening and adopt- ception of the mandarin, found his n, under which place of encampment 14,434 feet ence of results high. To the south of the encampbe the least. ment is a peak 19,857 feet, succeedeasured by him ed by others of less elevation (one, r of lofty peaks for example, 18,398 feet,) which at. 300 407 and lead to a fifth group of lofty peaks
either side of measured in the course of the sur-s in that group vey, the most elevated of which is from 22,058 to 22,727 feet, the others declining from and three con- 22,238 to 20,923 feet. The loftiest 9,106 to 21,611 point of this group was distinctly vi
sible from Philibhit, as is the highest s still of loftier of the third, and the most southerly ed in and near of the second group. Their elevaeen long. 79° 37' tions, as determined by the mean reaks of this group sult of several admeasurements, were 5,669 feet. Two respectively 22,277, 22,635, and
the east are 22,313 feet. There can be no doubt and a multitude that one of these is the mountain ob
the west have served by Colonel R. H. Colebrooke, be from 10,653 from two stations, Philibhit and tain Webb here Jethpur ; the mean of whose obserhe spot where it vations, calculated on an allowance now, the eleva. of 1-11th of the intercepted arc for 'mined at 11,543 terrestrial refraction, gave 22,768
feet. he loftiest point The loftiest summit measured by encompassed by Captain Webb (25,669 feet) was, in eaks from 17,994 like manner, observed from several
the north-west places ; viz. from the remote station ng ghaut, which of Cassipur, nearly 86 geographical
1816, and the miles ; from Calinath, 47 geographiat. 30° 20' and cal miles; and from Gangoli, 43 geound, by geome. graphical miles. o be 18,871 feet. It appears then, that the results of another pass in- Captain Webb’s laborious researches ituated W.S.W. correspond with the measurements detailed by Mr Colebrooke in the the region of perpetual snow com 12th volume of the Asiatic Re- menced, in South America, at the searches above referred to. The elevation of 4800 metres, or 15,74 · elevated peaks exceed 20,000, and feet; and that, in Mexico, and in the loftiest even 25,000 feet above latitude 19° to 20°, the limit of per: the level of the sea. Further baro- manent congelation commenced e metrical measurements of the most 4600 metres, or 15,091 feet. The elevated accessible peaks are still same intelligent traveller assigns the however wanting *.
height of 2550 metres, or 8365 feet, In the Himalaya mountains, the to the line of perpetual snow in the limit of congelation is considerably latitude of 45o. Deluc also difer higher than in the Cordilleras of the from Professor Leslie. He gire Andes in South America, or in the the height of the line of permanent Alps of Europe. In a communica- snow under the equator at 24% tion to the Asiatic Society from French toises, or 15,565 English Captain Hodgson, who visited the feet, which was actually obsersed remotest accessible fountains of the to be the elevation of the curve at Ganges and Jumna rivers, it ap- the basaltic summit of Pinchincha, pears, that the glacier and wall of half a degree south of the equator; snow from beneath which the Ganges in the mean latitude, according to issues, was by him determined at inferences drawn from observations 12,914 feet above the level of the in France and Chili, from 1500 to 1000 sea. The limit of congelation, then, toises, or about 10,000 English leet
be reckoned in round numbers, at or near the tropics, as at the Peak either at 13,000 feet above the sea, of Teneriffe, 2100 toises; and at or in the parallel of 31°, as inferred near the polar circles, nothing. We from Captain Hodgson's measure- need not, however, be astonished at ment; or at 13,500 feet in that of the discrepancies between theory 30°, as concluded by Captain Webb and observation, when we find that from his observations. The former no two observers are agreed about of these differs from Professor Les- almost any one fact. We may lie's theoretical computation about the same time remark, that the me 1,750, and the latter about 2,000 surements bitherto made in India feet. According to him, the ex- are little better than mere approxi tremes of the permanent curve of mations; and though the coinci congelation are, under the equator, dence between the results obtained 15,207 feet, and at the poles 0; and, by Mr Colebrooke and Captain Webb the height in the middle latitude establishes, that certain peaksaa the 45°, 7671 feet. The intermediate Himalaya range ate the most eleva: degrees are likewise computed; ted points on the earth's surface, hence we have 12,853 feet for the we must wait for further observatropics, and 2419 feet for the polar tions and measurements before we circles.
can venture to speak decidedly as But Baron Humboldt found, by to their absolute heigbt. observation, that, under the equator,
• It is to be regretted, that so few attempis have hitherto been made to ascertain conectly the heights of the most elevated points in the Caucasian chain. The height of Elburus was estimated by Professor Pallas as equal to that of Mont Blanc, and by the Russian Astronomer Wishnefsky at 16,700 French feet, which is 2000 feet higher. This shows hoor little reliance can be placed on any thing that has yet been achieved in this interesting department of science.
VIEW OF GEOGRAPHICAL DISCOVERIES, AND OBSERVATIONS
OF TRAVELLERS DURING THE YEAR.
Cravels in Africa. -- Bowdich's Mission to Ashantee.- Travels in Persia.
Sir William Ouseley.--Moritz Von Kotzebue.--Lieutenant-Colonel Fitzclarence's Journey over land from India.-Mr Oxley's second expedition to the interior of New Holland.
CONSIDERABLE contributions have while, on all these occasions, the been this year made to the science Governor of Cape-Coast Castle had of Geography; and although we are been obliged to purchase the retreat not aware that any thing very im. of the invaders by the payment of portant has been discovered, we large sums of money. To prevent the have been furnished with more ex- recurrence of such disasters, the Gotended, and, in general, more accu. vernor had earnestly requested his rate inforınation, on a variety of superiors at home to authorise a mispoints hitherto involved in obscurity, sion to the King of Ashantee; and and with details of the manners, cus- this request being acceded to, some toms, and conditions of several tribes valuable presents, together with a of whom almost nothing was previ- draft of instructions, were forwarded ously known. On the subject of by the Spring ship of 1817; and on Africa, always one of prominent in the morning of the 22d of April, the terest, we have only to notice the mission, consisting of Mr James, its accouot given by Mr Bowdich of nominal head, Mr Bowdich, a young the Mission to Ashantee, which, writer, Mr Hutchison, also a writer, crude and ill-digested as it is, never- Mr Tedlie, assistant surgeon, with a theless supplies some curious parti- proper number of bearers, Ashantee culars of this warlike and ferocious guides, and two native soldiers, set tribe, and of the court of his sable out from Cape Coast Castle. On the Majesty Sai Tooto Quamina. last day of April, the party reached
The origin and objects of this the banks of a stream called the Boomission were, if possible, to form a sempra, of which Mr Bowdich says, treaty of amity with the King of “ Nothing could be more beautiAshantee, and to prevent those in. ful than its scenery: the bank on the vasions of the country of the rantees, south side was steep, and admitted our allies, which; in 1806, 1811, and but a narrow path; that on the north 1816, had spread general destruc- sloping; on which a small Fetish tion, and been accompanied with house, under the shade of a cachou anparalleled atrocity and bloodshed; tree, fixed the eye; whence it wandered over a rich variety of tint and knife was passed tbrough his checks, foliage, in which light and shade to which his lips were noosed like were most happily blended : the the figure of 8; one ear was cut of small rocks stole through the here and carried before him, the other bage of the banks, and now and then hung to his head by a small bit d ruffed the water; the doom trees skin
; there were several gashes it towering in the shrubbery, waved to his back, and a knife was thrust under the most gentle air a rich foliage of each shoulder blade; he was led with dark green, mocking the finest touch a cord passed through his nose, by of the pencil; the tamarind and men disfigured with immense caps of smaller mimosas heightening its ef- shaggy black skins, and drums best fect by their livelier tint, and the before him; the feeling this horrid more piquant delicacy of their leaf: barbarity excited must be imagined." the cotton trees overtopped the It is not german to our present whole, enwreathed in convolvuli
, and purpose to notice the “ palatori" several elegant little trees, unknown held with Sai Tooto Quamina, and to me, rose in the background, in his caboceers, in which, by his own termixed with palms, and made the shewing, Mr Bowdich acquitted coup d'ail enchanting. The bright himself to a miracle, and even dren rays of the sun were sobered by the forth a compliment from the sooty rich reflections of the water; and monarch, who said, “ he liked his there was a mild beauty in the land. palaver very much,” (a matter is scape congenial to barbarism, which which we are sorry to differ with sa imposed the expectation of elegance high an authority): But the followand refinement. I attempted a sketch, ing passage will give a frightful idea but it was far beyond my rude pen. of some of the customs prevalent cil; the expression of the scene could among the Ashantees, who indeed only have been traced in the profile offer up human sacrifices on almost of every tree; and it seemed to de- every occasion. Whether they are fy any touches, but those of a Claude also addicted to cannibalism, we are or a Wilson, to depict the life of its not informed. beauty."
“ On the death of a King, all the At last they reached the capital customs which have been made for Coomassie, which is estimated at 146 the subjects who have died during miles, (or about 97 miles of direct his reign, must be simultaneously redistance) from Cape-Coast Castle, peated by the families, (the human sa: and which they entered in great crifices as well as the carousals and state. And here they were soon pageantry) to amplify that for the modoomed to witness a spectacle of the narch, which is also solemnised indemost horrid and revolting descrip- pendently, but, at the same time, in tion, and which they soon found to every excess of extravagance and barbe as frequent as it is disgustingly barity. The brothers, sons, and nedreadful and inhuman.
phews of the King, affecting tempo “ Here our attention was forced rary insanity, burst forth with their from the astonishment of the crowd muskets, and fire promiscuously 2; to a most inhuman spectacle, which mongst the crowd; even a man of was paraded before us for some mi- rank, if they meet him, is their vicnutes; it was a man whom they were tim, nor is their murder of him or tormenting previous to sacrifice; his any other, on such an occasion, vi. hands were pinioned behind him, a sited or prevented; the scene cap
rcely be imagined. Pew persons who accompanied the army of Abirank dare to stir from their houses niowa in his political capacity, dy
the first two or three days, but ing at Akrofroom in Aquapim, durigiously drive forth all their vassals ing the campaign, his body was kept d slaves, as the most acceptable with the army two months before it mposition of their own absence. arrived at Coomassie. I could not get e King's Ocras are all murdered any information on their treatment his tomb, to the number of a hun. of the corpse, beyond their invariaed or more, and women in abun- ble reply, that they smoked it well nce. I was assured by several, over a slow fire.” at the custom for Saï Quamina, The population of Coomassie was as repeated weekly for three months, asserted by the Ashantees to exceed d that two hundred slaves were sa- 100,000 souls; but, judging from ificed, and 25 barrels of powder the crowd which he saw collected on ed, each time. But the custom for gala-days and festivals, Mr Bowdich e King's mother, the regent of the thinks it not greater than that of ingdom during the invasion of Fan- Sansanding, which Mr Park estiee, is most celebrated. The King of mated at 30,000. How Mr Bowdich imself devoted 3000 victims, (up- could establish a comparison with ards of 2000 of whom were Fantee Sansanding, which he had never virisoners) and 25 barrels of powder*. sited, he does not think proper to inwabin, Kokoofoo, Becqua, Soota, form us. und Marmpong, furnished 100 vic- The chapter on Geography is sinims, and 20 barrels of powder, gularly obscure and involved. The cach, and most of the smaller towns routes obtained from the Moors may 10 victims, and two barrels of
pow- be correct; but Mr Bowdich is misler, each. The Kings, and Kings taken, in supposing them “ to trace only, are buried in the cemetery at the Niger to the Nile.” It is evident Bantama, and the sacred gold from inspection, that none of them buried with them; their bones pretend to follow the course of the are afterwards deposited in a build. river, but only the usual routes which ing there, opposite to which is the lie very considerably to the northward largest brass pan I ever saw, (for of it. All the information collected sacrifices,) being about five feet in from the Moors by Horneman, diameter, with four small lions on Burckhardt, Jackson, and others, athe edge. Here human sacrifices grees, however, in one point-and are frequent and ordinary, to water the coincidence is remarkable and the graves of the Kings. The bodies deserving of particular attentionof chiefs are frequently carried about that the Joliba or Niger is the same with the army, to keep them for in- river with the Bahr el Abiad, or Nile terment at home, and eminent re- of Egypt. The testimony collected vollers or enemies also, to be ex. by Mr Hutchison, who was left as posed in the capital. Boiteäm, (the resident at Coomassie, and whose father of Otee ihe fourth linguist,) Diary, by the way, is the most valu
• Suetonius tells us that Augustus sacrificed 300 of the principal citizens of Perusia, to the manes of his uncle Julius. We read in Prevost, that 64,080 persons were sacrificed, with aggravated barbarity, in the dedication of a temple in Mexico.