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SOUTH AMERICA, THE UNITED STATES, AND INDIA.
Macgregor's defeat at Puerto Bello, - State of affairs in Venezuela.-Opening
of the campaign of 1819.-Capture of San Fernando d'Apure.- The Royalists in New Grenada defeated. -- Attempt on Angostura.-Battle of CantanTa and defeat of the Royalists. - March of Bolivar across the chain of the Cordilleras.- Decisive battle of Boyaca.– New Grenada and Venezuela united under the name of the Republic of Columbia.-Recapture of San Fernando.--State of the Belligerents.—Peru.-Chili.—Buenos Ayres.Brazil.-- United States.—The Floridas.-Conduct of General Jackson censured.—Finances.-State of the country.—East Indies.—Death of Setoo, Chief of the Pindarries.- Capture of Åseerghur. - Second escape of Appah Sahib.—Expedition against the Pirates of the Persian Gulf.
The events of the war in South Bello; but the Spanish General, America, during the year 1819, turn- Hore, who commanded in the neighed the scale in favour of the Inde: bourhood, being informed of the inpendents, and rendered their ultimate subordination that prevailed among triumph no longer doubtful. Disap. these banditti, the exactions pracpointed of succours from the mother tised on the inhabitants, and the utcountry, opposed to an active and ter neglect of all precaution, assementerprising enemy, combating in fa. bled a few hundred followers, and vour of a cause which could excite no marched to Puerto Bello, which he enthusiasm, and compelled to strug- entered on the night of the 30th of gle not merely against the enemy in April, or the 1st of May, without the field, but against secret treason, opposition. Not a single piquet had and a hostile population ; without been stationed without the walls, or money, without resources, and almost sentinel on the ramparts. The surwithout hope ; the Royalists were prise was accordingly so complete, beaten in every battle, driven from that Macgregor only saved himself the strongholds they had hitherto by leaping from a window in his occupied, and nearly reduced to the shirt, and swimming to a vessel in last extremities.
the roads. With the exception of a The surprise and total rout of small body under Colonel Raffler, Macgregor's detachment can scarce- who, having retired to the fort, obly be considered as forming any ex- tained a capitulation, the greater ception to this general statement, in- part of his detachment were either asmuch as it had no influence what killed or dispersed. In the month ever on the fate of the subsequent of September, he made a similar atcampaign. That adventurer, with tempt on Rio de la Hacha, to the a small body of followers, whom he west of Maracaibo, which he likewise had succeeded in inlisting in this surprised, but from which he was country, contrived, by a coup de driven out a few days afterwards, by main, to get possession of Puerto the Spaniards, who put to death the
remainder of the English volunteers Torre, Morales, and Calzada, a. who accompanied him on that occa: gainst San Fernando d'Apure, the sion. But we must proceed to record Gibraltar of the llanos, and the key events of a more important and de- of the Orinoco. Paez, who com. cisive character.
manded at San Fernando, having onBy the former successes of Morillo, ly about two or three thousand light New Grenada had fallen under the cavalry, was in no condition to stand yoke of Spain, and was now govern. a siege, and accordingly evacuated ed by the Viceroy Samano. This the place, which was taken possession conquest had proved of the greatest of by Torre on the 26th of January. importance, as it furnished consider. At this period, the royal army con. able supplies of men, money, and sisted of seven regiments of infantry, provisions. But the spirit of inde. three regiments of cavalry, and a pendence had only been checked, numerous artillery ; in all about not extinguished. Towards the close 3500 men. On the 4th of Februaof last year, insurgent parties had ry, it effected the passage of the made their appearance in the pro- Árauca, in spite of several brilliant vinces of Tunja and Casanara ; and charges of cavalry by Paez, who, the secret agents of Bolivar were however, retired immediately after, busily at work in fomenting and en- his orders being to avoid a general couraging the dispositions which the action. people were known to cherish. By Bolivar, who, in the meantime, had these means, a corps of cavalry, a. been re-elected President of the mounting from 12 to 15,000 men, Republic of Venezuela, seeing that was soon organised, under Don Fran- it was impossible to prolong the cisco de Santander, and formed in- campaign in the plains, by reason to a separate body, to keep in check of the approach of the rainy season, the forces of New Grenada during resolved, according to his original the approaching contest between design, to carry the war into New Bolivar and Morillo.
Grenada, where that season On both sides preparation had shorter, and where he had reason been made, if possible to terminate to expect supplies of men, money, the war in this campaign : The ob- and provisions. Penetrating his ject of Morillo being, to penetrate, intention, Morillo lost no time in by the llanos or plains, as far as An. taking up a strong position in the gostura, the capital of the Venezue- island of Achaguas, formed by the Jan Republic; and that of Bolivar, Apure, which cuts off the commu. to attack the places on the side of nication with New Grenada, and Caraccas, the seat of the government, from which he expected to be able and to attempt the conquest of New to communicate with all the divi. Grenada in person.
sions of his army, as well as with the At the end of 1818, the Royal different countries to be attacked or Army rested on three points, San- defended. Unfortunately for the ta Fé, Varinas, and Calaboso ; the success of this plan, the royal army corps
of Santa Fé being destined to of New Grenada, amounting to a. act against Santander, and effect the bout 3500, was defeated by Santan. submission of the province of Casa. der with the loss of 1500 men, and
In opening the campaign of the greater part of its artillery and 1819, Morillo moved with the three baggage. divisions commanded by Generals The object of Bolivar was now to
effect a junction with Santander; standard, put himself at the head of and for this purpose he made a move his men, and led them to the charge. ment on the left Aank of Moril. Animated by the example of their lo's position, defeated the division of leader, they advanced with irresistiGeneral Torre, and leaving Paez ble impetuosity, totally routed the with his Lancers to harass Morillo, Spanish column, and took its military entered the province of Varinas, chest, baggage and colours. where, on the 13th of June, he es- As soon as Bolivar had establishtablished communications with San. ed his communications with Santantander; an event which totally der by the Orinoco, the Apure, changed the face of affairs, and the and the Meta, the insurrection in relative situation of the contending New Grenada assumed a formidable parties. Morillo had remained in appearance. Several detachments of all about two months in his position royalist troops passed over to the in the isle of Achaguas ; but the Independents, and deputations from difficulty of procuring subsistence, Socoro, Tunja, and Pamplune, rethe approach of the rainy season, paired to the camp of Santander, and the bold march of Bolivar, com- who was only six days' journey from pelled him to abandon his original Santa Fé, to make a tender of their plan, and to fall back on Caraccas, services. In consequence of these where he employed himself for some favourable dispositions, Bolivar pretime in endeavouring to augment his pared to enter New Grenada. The force by every possible, and almost difficulties which he had to surmount, desperate means.
in the prosecution of this hazardous In this situation, he resolved on undertaking were of the most foran enterprise, which, had it proved midable and appalling description. as successful in the execution as it He had to scramble over the savage was bold in the design, must have rocks of the Cordilleras, to cross been attended with fatal consequen- rapid rivers formed by the torrents ces to the cause of the Independ- of rain which fell incessantly, and to ents. A corps of 1500 chosen men, sustain attacks in positions where under Colonel Arana, were directed a hundred resolute men might have to proceed to Angostura, where the stopped the advance of ten thouVenezuelan Congress was still sitting, sand. On the fourth day of his and to endeavour to surprise the march, he had lost his baggage; his capital, which was well known to be park of artillery had been destroy. destitute of all means of defence. ed; and the beasts of burden bad The Colonel had reached within a perished from fatigue. In a word, few days' march of his destination, after more than a month's march and the Congress were preparing to across the Cordilleras, which sepaevacuate it, when General Marino rate the country of Casanara from approached from the side of Cuma- that of Santa Fé, he arrived, on the na at the head of about 1700 picked 1st of July, in the fertile valley of men. The hostile divisions met at Sogamoso, near the city of Tunja, Cantanra, near San Diego, where a where he found the royal army of furious encounter immediately took New Grenada, encamped on the place. The Independents at first re- heights which command the valley. coiled from the steady and destructive Harassed as he was, Bolivar did not fire of the Royalists, who were all ve- hesitate a moment to attack it, and teran troops; but Marino, seizing a by a well-directed charge of cavalry, and the intrepidity of some turning the English companies *, who rushed up ing the terr the heights with their bayonets, he exposed, he succeeded in dislodging them from surrender. their strong position, and capturing a who had o great number of prisoners, a quantity companies of arms and provisions, and the mi- and a few c litary chest.' The Spaniards, com- repulsed bmanded by General Barreyro, re- guard, but tired in tolerable order on Santa attack; till Fé de Bagota, by the route of Sa. at all poin maca; and Bolivar, whose object pendents co was to cut off their communications field. with Santa Fé, and, if possible, This was bring on a general battle, lost no the Indeper time in following them. On the 7th The whole of August, he came up with them killed or ta near Venta Quemada, and that day with his lieu decided the fate of New Grenada. and nearly
Just as the videttes of the repu. the hands o blican army appeared in sight, the calculated first division of the royal army, more than reached the bridge of Boyaca. Bar the battle of reyra, thinking them only a corps gained with of observation, ordered them to be loss, prove attacked by his cazadores, while the dependents main body of the army continued Grenada, as its march. By a rapid movement, for those of Bolivar, with the whole of his in- On the 1 fantry in column, took possession tered Sant of a height which commanded the umph, and position, and forced the enemy ple with lou to deploy in his turn, pass the ed as their bridge, and take up a position on
which they the opposite side. After several son to con partial attacks, the royal army made extraordina a movement towards its right, years befo which however was stopped by the from the carabineers and the English compa- Morillo, wl nies; and then the action became every thing general along the whole line. Ge- he received neral Anzuategui, who commanded sides three the centre of the Independents, the Vicero forced the Royalists to retire to Bolivar the height, where they endeavour. victory to ed for some time to maintain them. the most r selves ; but having succeeded in
of it was, t About 1000 men, enlisted at London, and subsequently -joined Bolivar, at the commencement of this memorable man
of New Grenada and Venezuela into pied Varinas and Guanara with about one state, under the title of the Re- 4,000; and Marino and Saraza were public of Columbia ; an event memo- stationed near the coast with native rable in itself, and brought about troops and the Irish legion, which solely by the wisdom and conduct of had lately arrived under Devereux'; Bolivar, who appears to possess all consisting in all of 5,000 men, the the qualities necessary for the sin- élite of the army. On the 24th of gular situation in which fortune has December, Bolivar left Angostura placed him. At the same time that for the purpose of opening a camthis union was ratified by the Con. paign which had been planned on a gress of Venezuela, it was resolved grand scale; flattering himself that that a new capital should be built, he should reach Caraccas by the midand named after the man who had dle of February, and even be able to established the independence of his co-operate with the Independents of country; and that, while its build. Peru, by means of the corps which ing was in progress, the General he had sent fro'n Popayan to Quito, Congress of Columbia should assem- where General Anzuategui met with ble in the central city of Rosario de but little resistance. Cucuta.
To carry on the campaign against While General Bolivar was occu- this formidable body, and to occupy pied with the political organization his strong places, the capital of the and the union of New Grenada and Government, and nearly the whole Venezuela, Paez was as active as the coast from Carthagena to Cumapa, rainy season would permit. Morillo General Morillo had only between had left about 500 men in the fort 9 and 10,000 men, most of them of San Fernando d'Apure, and, on Creoles, upon whom no dependance the river, a vessel mounting ten could be placed. In this critical guns, which commanded the naviga. predicament his only resource was tion, and assisted in the defence of to dispatch one of his aides-de-camp, the place. By a vigorous attack, Colonel Leon d'Oterga, to Spain, to Commodore Diaz carried the vessel represent the necessity of immediate on the 30th of September; and, on supplies of troops; but he only arthe 15th of October, Paez took pos- rived in time to be a witness of the session of San Fernando, which the revolution of the 1st of January 1820, Spaniards had evacuated in such to which we formerly alluded. haste that they had time neither to The independent cause this year destroy the works nor to carry off the made little progress in Peru 'and ammunition. In this manner, the on. Buenos Ayres. Lord Cochrane made ly loss sustained during the campaign two unsuccessful attempts on the was retrieved, while the Royalists Spanish frigates Venganza and Eswere defeated at every point, and meralda in the harbour of Callao, driven from every position which they and Buenos Ayres was so torn by had occupied at its commencement, intestine broils and factions, that with the solitaryexception of Cumana. the director Puyerredon, no longer
The Independents were now in a able to struggle with this violence, situation to procure recruits at plea. resigned his office on the 9th of June, sure for the army, and money and and returned to his original rank of provisions for its subsistence. The a colonel in the army. General Don principal -division, under Bolivar, Jose Rondeau , was appointed his consisted of 6,000 men ; Paez occu- successor. The democratical fac