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quitted, were the claims of appeal to effectual. The motion was agreed be allowed. On these grounds," to, and a committee appointed. The said his Lordship, “such a proceed. committee gave in their report early ing ought not to be suffered to take in June, on the 22d day of which, place, unless their Lordships were the bill, which had undergone conprepared to say, that their fellow. siderable modifications, was read a subjects should not be benefited by third time and passed. an acquittal in all the forms of the A bill was also introduced this law; that after having been committed session for the amendment of the by a magistrate, indicted by a grand bankruptcy laws, read a second time jury, and, finally, declared innocent on the 2d of April, and committed by a petty jury, they should still be on the 19th of May. The object of liable to a renewal of the charge ; this bill was to remedy the inefficienand that they should be deprived of cy of the existing law, and to prothe advantage of that important vide some check on fraudulent bankmaxim of the law, which says, That ruptcy, which, as will be seen by the no man is to be tried twice for evidence of Mr Basil Montague bethe same offence.” After passing fore the Committee on the Criminal through the usual forms, the bill Law, had increased to an extent perfinally became law, and this barba- fectly unprecedented, notwithstandrous and unchristian method of as- ing, or rather in consequence of the certaining guilt or innocence was nominal, but never enforced, severity happily abolished.
of the law. The proposed renewal of the in- On the 9th of March, Mr Brand solvent Debtors' Act was opposed brought forward a motion for leave
by petitions from various quarters, to bring in a bill to amend the laws # representing it as injurious in its o. for the preservation of game. In
peration to the fair trader, and pre- support of his motion, the honourjudicial to commercial confidence. able gentleman went at considerable
That such is the case, to a certain length into the game laws, pointing s extent, is undeniable; but there can out their inconsistencies and absur
be as little doubt, that the excessive dities, their oppressive and unjust
severity of the English law against operation, the mischiefs with which s unfortunate debtors requires mitiga- the enforcement of them is attend. i tion; and that, in Scotland, where ed, their total inefficiency in restrain.
the law has guarded against the wan- ing poachers from destroying game, ton cruelty of capricious creditors, their tendency to corrupt the morals fair trade and commercial confidence of the lower classes, and the imposare as firmly secured as in any coun- sibility of their attaining the object try upon earth. The number and they had in view, while the punishweight of the petitions presented, ment inflicted was so severe, and so
however, rendered inquiry necessary; radically at variance with the sentij
and, accordingly, on the 16th of ments of the community. These March, the Attorney-General moved remarks led to a pretty lengthened for the appointment of a Select Com. discussion ; but leave was ultimately mittee to consider the state of the granted, and the bill introduced, read law relative to the discharge of in- a second time on the 19th of March, solvent debtors, the act of the 53d and recommitted on the 14th of and 56th of the King, and to report May, when the bill was thrown out to the House their opinions as to the by a majority of 119 10 59. means of rendering those acts more On the 9th of February, Mr Sturges Bourne moved for the re-ap. with five years, or otherwise, as migte pointment of the Committee for the bedeemed most expedient in the con investigation of the poor laws, with mittee. This new regulation would injunctions to report their opinions simplify greatly the whole subject, thereon from time to time. The mo- without interfering with what Fert tion was agreed to; and on the 25th known by the name of derivative of March leave was granted to the settlements. A separation of an same gentleman to bring in a bill aged pauper from his friends and for regulating the settlement of the neighbours would then be avoided; poor. The evils attending the pre- provided within a certain period he sent system he described as three went before a magistrate, and made fold :-). The enormous expenses oath to his residence. In case of incurred by parishes, in prosecuting dispute, he proposed that an appeai or defending appeals, and in remov- should lie, not to the quarter-sessions, ing paupers ; 2. The injustice under but to two magistrates, by which which parishes laboured, to which much expensive litigation would be old paupers were sent back, after spared. Another point to be settled they had spent their youth and should be, what period of absence strength elsewhere; 3. The hardship should defeat the settlement: be upon the paupers who, having re- thought sixty days too short, and sided many years, and formed con- should suggest that the blank should nexions at à distance, were sent be filled up with ninety days. This home to their parishes, and separated was the general outline of the meafrom all their friends and consola. sure submitted to the consideration tions, to die in a remote poor- house. of the House. This last was by far the greatest evil, On the 25th of March, the same though all three required removal
. gentleman also obtained leave to Some maintained, that the better bring in a bill to prevent the mis. mode would be to do away with set. application of poor-rates. This bill tlements entirely, and to make the had been under the consideration of maintenance depend upon the na- last Parliament; but there had not tional funds; while others contended been sufficient time for the correc. that the settlement ought in all tion and modification of its objeccases to be reduced to the place of tionable clauses. Its main object birth : the first of these proposals was to prevent one of the great evils would be open to innumerable and arising out of the present system, insurmountable objections, and the namely, the payment of the wages last would at least not remedy two of labour out of the poor rates. The of the three evils he had pointed first and most obvious result of this out. What he proposed was, that baneful practice is to engender a as settlement was now gained by re- spirit of idleness on the part of the sidence combined with other circum- Jabouring classes ; and to destroy stances, in future it should be acquir. that ambition to better their circumed by residence only, but the difficule stances, which is the foundation of all ty was to fix what period of residence domestic virtue and public happishould confer a settlement. In the ness. In the second place, this misbill he should introduce, he should application of the rates operates propose that three years' residence as a bounty to the manufacturer, in a parish should gain a settlement and tends either to augment his proto a pauper ; but as a blank would be fits at the expence of the capital and left in the bill, it might be filled up industry of others-wages and profits
ways varying in an inverse ratio- Government bad shown, in this re
to enable him to undersell those spect, the utinost supineness and inno are compelled to pay such wages difference. But his principal charge
the labourer or operative as shall against Ministers was, that, from the ord him the complete means of sub- first hour the treaty of peace was stence, without having recourse to signed, they had entirely neglected ny other fund to supply the defi- every measure to improve the interency. In the latter case, a higher nal situation of the country. In proof ite of wages must be paid, and con. of this, he referred to the existing quently the rate of profits lowered state of trade ; contended, that as no ) ihe same amount; or, what comes commercial treaties had been entero the same thing, the manufacturer ed into, and that the commercial aust encounter a competitor, who interests of the country had been 3 enabled, by the pernicious effects neglected ; and accused Ministers of this system, to undersell him in of not only throwing every obstruche market. There can be no doubt, tion in the way of the establishherefore, we think, that this bill ment of South-American Indepen. was calculated to produce great and dence, but of destroying every hope important benefit, first, to the la- of commercial advantage from that bouring, and, secondly, to the ma- quarter. He next adverted to the nufacturing, classes of the commu- finances of the country. On Januanity. Its being lost is accordingly ry 5. 1816, our funded and unfunded a subject of regret to all those who debt was L.860,000,000; yet Minishave given the smallest attention to ters bad made no efforts to cope with this highly important subject. It so formidable an adversary. "Their was thrown out, on the third reading, system, if system it might be called, by a majority of 69 to 46.
was one of borrowing and postponeOn the 18th of May, Mr Tierney ment. He then alluded to the subbrought forward his motion on the ject of the resumption of cash paystate of the nation. In his speech ments; but here we need not follow
on this occasion, which was of great him, as we have already shewn how - length, the right honourable gentle. that great and necessary measure
man drew the most melancholy pic. was effected. The right honourable Eture of our condition, both as re- gentleman went into a great variety
spected the state of our agriculture, of other details, all of which, he as-
ry, in the recent arrangements, they from them that cordial support which had in view only to restore her to they had hitherto received. that great space which naturally be- This being merely a party qos longed to her. It was not against tion, and evidently brought forss France, but against the Revolution, for the purpose of making an expe that we had been contending; and riment on the feeling of the Hous, it was owing mainly to this circum. it does not seem necessary to deta stance that our efforts had been fi. the particulars of the numerous and nally crowned with triumph. His declamatory speeches that followed Lordship then proceeded to ridicule that of the noble Lord. It is sufficient the tactics of the gentlemen in oppo. to state, that, on a division, the sition, and put it fairly to the House, tion of the right honourable gentis whether, in the course of a long and man was negatived by a majority of arduous Administration, the present 857 to 178. Ministry had forfeited the confidence On the 26th of May, Sir Charis of the country, or been guilty of Monck brought forward his prom any such eminent failure as might sed motion on the subject of the justify the nation in withdrawing cession of Parga * to the Turks
Parga is a small town, situate on the coast of Epirus, on a rock about 240 fees é height, jutting into the Ionian Sea, and opposite the southern end of Corfu, or the nortbest extremity of Paxo; on the summit of which rock is a building, which Colonel de Bass calls “ a sort of citadel.” The territory of Parga extends along the coast about three sila on each side of the town, and about iwo into Albania ; and the population amounts to be tween three and four thousand. Till the recent discussions in Parliament, it was bar ly known ; and, so far as we have observed, is not noticed in any books of geograpby, set down in maps. Our information respecting it is chiefly derived from the works of some late travellers in Greece and Epirus, particularly those of Mr Hobhouse and Dr Holland
As to the question brought before Parliament by Sir Charles Monck, we do not remesber an instance where so much absurd clamour and misrepresentation bas been raised and circulated, not only in the absence of authentic information, but in the face of the most to torious and irresistible facts. By the treaty of 1800, concluded between the Porte and Res sia, the Seven Islands were erected into an Independent Republic, and Butrinto, Parga. Pre veza, and Vonitza, ceded to the Porte in sovereignty for ever ; and, in the end of 1800, Pary passed under the Turkish dominion, and continued so for nearly six years. In 1806, ma broke out between Russia and the Porte; and in 1807 the Ionian Islands were delivered up to France, by an article in the treaty of Tilsit; and a garrison of 300 men was placed in Parga, by Berthier, Governor-General of Corfu. Ali Pacha, however, demanded the cession of the place to the Porte ; which was only prevented by the earnest intercession of the Parguinotes themselves, who naturally dreaded the fate which had befallen Preresu
, Vonitza, and Butrinto. In March 1814, the lovian Islands fell into the hands of the Eng. lish ; and, soon after, the Parguinotes surrendered their fortress to the English, uoder General Campbell, without, however, any stipulation that they would " follow the fate of the Ionian Islands,” but only that they should continue provisiunally under British protection till their final destination should be arranged at the conclusion of a general peace. In a letter dictated a few days before his death, General Campbell most positively denied ibat any officers were ever authorised by him, either verbally or otherwise, “ to enter into any engagement on the part of the British Government, or to give any assurances to the Parguinoles
, with respect to Parga remaining permanently under the protection of Great Britain." At the Congress of 1815, the sovereign protection of the Ionian republic was offered to Great Britain ; and in the November of that year, a treaty was signed, by which these islands, and their dependencies, as described in the treaty of 1800 between Russia and the Ottoman Porte, were solemnly placed under the protection of his Britannic Majesty. Thus Parga formed no part of the Ionian Republic; and, therefore, beyond those good offices prompted by humanity, we had no right whatever to oppose the cession of Parga in terms
he object of his motion, he said, had undertaken to plead; and alas to vindicate, to a great num- though conscious of the inadequacy or of persons who were threat of his abilities, he would do his best led with the loss of them, those in endeavouring to discharge the du. ivileges which we ourselves pos. ty which had devolved upon him. ssed in so eminent a degree, and The motion which he intended to hich were so highly prized; namely, submit to the House was for the proecurity of person and property, and duction of certain papers, to show berty for every one to practise reli- under what conditions Parga had ion according to his own opinion. surrendered to military occupation le believed they were not as yet in 1814, under what terms the Brieprived of those rights which they tish commander received that occu. eld so dear; but when he reflected pation, and what promises of protecin the measure in contemplation, it tion were held out to the inhabitants. vas impossible for him to say that in the year 1800, the Russians and hey were in full possession of them. the Turks entered into a treaty, by They were to be obliged either to re- which the independence of the Grepain in the country of their fathers, cian islands was recognised, under o be slaughtered by a merciless ene- the name of the Septinsular Repub. ny; or to expatriate themselves, to lic. By the treaty of Tilsit, in 1807, eave their property to be plundered, the Grecian islands were given up ind to abandon the churches in by the Russians to the French ; and which they had been brought up in it was worthy of being remarked, that Christian liberty. Such was the si- afterwards a right honourable gentletuation of the people whose cause he man (Mr Canning,) in an official note
of the treaty above referred to. The speech of Sir Charles Monck, therefore, proceeds upon a fundamental error, which vitiates all his conclusions. But this, perhaps, is not its worst fault. He hardly refers to, or assumes, a single fact that has not been found to be false. The Pacha's army of 20,000 men were, he tells us, defeated at Aja, a village within the li. mits, by the brave Parguinotes, and the Pacha's nephew slain. That 300 or 400 Pargui. notes should defeat 20,000 well-disciplined Albanians is not very probable, although the story was believed and circulated by Colonel de Bosset, the most credulous of mortals; but the real truth is, that the nephew of the Pacha was shot by a Parguinore lying in ambush; and this is the whole matter; the battle and the victory being a mere piece of fiction imposed upon De Bosset. The pretty little episode, too, of the British flag being smuggled into the citadel under the petticoats of a woman is likewise as false as it is ridiculous ; the flag having been introduced by four stout fellows disguised in women's clothes, who overpowered the sentinel, killed a French commissary, and boisted the English colours. No less
false is the theatrical story of the disinterment, by the Parguinoles, of the bones of their s forefatbers; and, in short, all and every part of the machinery of this notable fiction, got
up for the purpose of casting odium on our Government, who, in its whole conduct to these people, as is evident from the equivalent received for their property, when the surrender took place, by such of them as did not choose to live under the Ottoman yoke, appears to have been actuated by an enlarged and generous spirit, and to have, in fact, gone farther than they were strictly warranted, in order to protect these people against that vengeance wbich they had so often provoked. As to the Parguinotes themselves, they are described by Mr Hobhouse as the worst of the Albanians ; and by Lord Byron as pirates, -" The pirates of Parga who dwell by the waves." And of many of the songs of the coun. try not the worst evidence of national character—the burden is, “ KAPTEIS 2018 Tapya; KA1070s woli Mapya: Robbers all at Parga ; Robbers all at Parga.” The cant about " Christian Parga," therefore, can only mislead the ignorant, or gratify the credulous, but appears in its true colours when the real state of the facts is once laid before us.