Women and Achievement in Nineteenth-Century Europe
This major new history of European women's professional activities and organizational roles during the 'long' nineteenth century examines what women could and could not do if they sought activity, purpose, or recognition beyond their own homes. Linda L. Clark surveys women's achievements in literature, art, music, theater, charity, education, medicine, law, and public administration, and examines the relationship between women's professional and philanthropic activity and the rise of feminist organizations. She shows that, despite continuing legal, cultural, and familial obstacles, thousands of ambitious women pursued professional activities for reasons that often combined economic need with aspirations to do meaningful work and gain public recognition. Detailing women's accomplishments from England to Russia, this unique survey enables readers to connect individual life stories with larger political, social, and economic contexts between 1789 and 1914 and is essential reading for students of modern European history, women's history, and gender studies.
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actresses afﬁliates Aletta Jacobs aristocratic Austrian baccalauréat beneﬁted British Cambridge career Catholic century charities Clara Schumann coeducation Comédie Française critics daughter Dutch Emilia Pardo Bazán England English Europe European father female feminism feminist ﬁfteen ﬁgured ﬁnancial ﬁrst woman ﬁve founded France French Revolution French women gender George Sand German German women girls hospital husband inﬂuence inspectresses Italian Kaiserswerth later literary London male Marie marriage married middle-class mother Napoleon nineteenth nineteenth-century novels numbers nuns nurses NUWSS ofﬁces ofﬁcial organizations painter Paris percent political primary schools professional Protestant published Quoted reform religious Revolution roles Russian salon secondary schools secular sexes sister social socialist Society Staël suffragists teaching theater University Press Vigée-Lebrun voting wife women artists women authors women doctors women teachers Women Writers women’s education women’s groups women’s rights women’s suffrage WSPU