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the harper's wife died, and that her soul was led to Hades. Then, as they said, the harper became so sorrowful that he could not remain among other men, but betook himself to the .woods, and sat among the mountains, and both night and day wept and played on the harp, so that the woods trembled, and the waters stood still, and the stag shunned not the lion, nor the hare the hound, and no animal felt either hatred or fear of the rest, and all for the delight of the sound. Then it seemed to the harper that nothing in the world was any longer pleasant to him, and he thought he would go to Hades' gate, and begin to beguile those who were there with his harp, and beg them to give him his wife again.

When he had long and long played on his harp, then called out the king of the dwellers in Hades, and said, “ Let us give this fellow his wife, for he has earned her by his harping." He commanded him then-as, indeed, he knew before—not to look back after he was on his way out, and said that if he looked back, he should lose his wife. But then, one cap scarcely lay a command on love! Alas ! alas ! Well, Orpheus then led his wife with him until he came to the boundary between light and darkness. And so the woman after him was following. And when he came forth to the light, he looked back after his wife, but she immediately vanished from his sight.

This story teaches every man who wishes to flee from the darkness of hell, and to come to the light of the true God, that he should not look back at his old sins, so as to practise them again as fully as he did before; for whosoever, with full will, turns his mind to the sins that he before forsook, and practises them then, and fully takes pleasure in them, and never thinks to forsake them, loses all his former good, except he afterwards makes amends.

ARCHBISHOP ÆLFRIC.
POPE GREGORY THE GREAT, AND THE ANGLO-

SAXON SLAVES AT ROME.
(FROM " HOMILIES,” WRITTEN ABOUT A.D. 990.)

da gelámp hit, at sumum sæle, swa swa gyt for oft THEN happened it, at some (a certain) time, so as yet (still) very often

dey, þat Englisce cýpmenn3 brohton heora ware to (it) doth, that English chapmen (merchants) brought their ware to

Romana-byrig 4 and Gregorius eode be baere stræt Roman-burgh (Rome) and Gregory yode (went) by (along) the street to Yam Engliscum mannum, heora Ying sceawigende. Đa to the English men, their things looking at. Then geseah be betwux Ham warum cýpe-cnihtas? gesette, saw he by betwixt the wares chap-boys (boys for sale) placed,

(1) The words in the above passage altogether, or almost, untraceable in modern English, are :-gelimpan, to happen; licháma, body; wlite, form, beauty, with its derivatives, wlitig, beautiful, and andwlita, face, countenance; æthellice, nobly (cf. Æthelbert, nobly bright); gefexod, haired ; befrinan, to inquire; theod, nation; undertheodan, to subject ; sindon, or sind, are ; and sy, may be; andwyrdan, to answer; gedafenian, to be fitting; gefera, companion ; grama, wrath ; generean, to save ; cygan, to call ; leod, people ; lof, praise ; scyppend, shaper, creator; lareow, teacher ; gebiyan, to bend, convert; gearo, ready: fultum help; getháfian, to consent; teón to draw out, educate; gethungen, advanced, illustrious ; forlætan, to forsake; fyrlen, far, distant; wræcsith, journey; geniman, to take.

(2) Sele, dat. of sal, or sel, time, occasion. The strengthened form seld is seen in seldom at times. This word and whilom, at whiles, are relics of the old usage. Om is for um, the term. of the dat, or abl. pl.

(3) Cypmenn (Ger, kaufmann), fr. cýpan, to sell; hence cheap (shortened for good cheap, good sale, or purchase), Cheapside, Eastcheap, Chippenham, Chipping Norton, Chepstow, &c.

(4) Byrig, a city; also burh, gen, burge, hence borough, Edinburgh, &c.

(5) Heora, or hira, of them, gen. pl. of he, heó, hit; afterwards, in Sem. Sax. hire, hir, here, and har; at length superseded by thair, thir (Milton), and their, from that.

(6) Sceawiginde, pres. part. of sceawian, to look, behold; hence to show, (1) in a neuter sense, as it shows (i.e. looks) well,” (2) in a transitive sense, as “he shows me (i.e. makes me behold) the book."

(7) Cnihtas, acc. pl. of cniht (Ger. knecht), knights, i.e. originally, youths attending on their lords. Observe that in mod. Eng. the A.S. c is generally represented by k or ch, and the A.S. h in the middle or end of words by gh, as cniht, knight; cild, child; burh, burgh ; broht, brought.

were.

SO

was.

þa wäron hwites licháman’ and fægeres andwlitan menn, and who were of white body and of fair countenance

men, and ædellice gefexode.

Gregorius ta beheold nobly behaired (i. e. with noble heads of hair). Gregory then beheld bæra cnapena wlite, and befrán of hwilcere beode hí of the boys (the) beauty, and inquired out of what

nation they gebrohte wäron. Da sæde him

man bæt hí of Englabrought

Then said to him man (one) that they out-of Engles'lande wæron, and bæt Være Yevde mennisc swa land (England) were,

and that of that nation the human race wlitig? wäre. Eft Pa Gregorius befrán, hwæder æg beautiful

Afterwards then Gregory inquired whether of that landes folc Cristen wäre de hæden. Him man sæde, land (the) people Christian

or heathen. To him man (they) said, bæt hí hædene wäron. Gregorius da of innweardre heortan that they heathen

Gregory then out-of (his) inward heart langsume siccetunge4 teah, and cwæd, Wálawá! þæt swa longsome (long) sighings drew, and said, Welaway! (alas!) that fægeres híwes menn sindonó tam sweartan deofle underof fair hue

to the swart (black) devil subYeodde. Eft he axode, hú Være Peode jected. Again he axed (asked) how (that) to that nation (the) name wäre, be hí of-comon. Him was geandwyrd bet hí was, that they out-of came? To him (it) was

was

were.

[ocr errors]

men

are

answered

that they

nama

(1) Licháman, gen. sing. of licháma, a body-some say specially a living body, taking lic for a dead body, or corpse. We have traces of this root in "liche wake” (Chaucer), a body.wake, or watching, and lich-gate, the corpse-gate, a special entrance to a churchyard for funerals to pass through, also in the Devonshire word lichway, or leachway, the funeral path, and in Lichfield.

(2) Wlite means form, in a special sense, hence beauty (like the Latin forma, beauty); wlitig, beautiful; and andulíte, the form in front, or especially in view, the face (cf. Ger. antlitz).

(3) Befrán, asked, used in old Eng. in the simple form, fraynen or frainen. “ Thanne I frayned hire faire," "Then I asked her courteously" (Piers Ploughman).

(4) Siccetung, fr. sican, to sigh, or (in Derbyshire) sike.

(5) Sindon, sind syndon, or synd, third pers. pl. of pres. tense of beon, to be. In 2nd stage we find sinden, are, occasionally.

(6) Axode, pret. of axiun, to ask. Hence it appears that to say axe for ask is only vulgar by use, not by origin; they are the same word with the letters transposed. See note 10, p. 2.

(7) Geandwyrd, p.p. of andwyrdan, fr. and, again or against, and a changed form of worth to word again, to reply. Cf. Ger. antworten, to reply.

Angle genemnode wron. Đa cwas he, Rihtlice hí sind Angles named were. Then said he, Rightly they are Angle gehátene, forðan te hí engla wlite habhay and Angles called, for that they angels' beauty have, and swilcum? gedafenat þæt híon heofonumengla geferano

to such it is fitting that they on (in) heaven angels' companions beon. Gut Ha Gregorius befrán, hú Yære scíre should be. Still then Gregory inquired, how (what) to that shire (province)

nama wäre, be ta cnapan 5 of - alædde wäron. (the) name was, that those boys out-of led away. were. Him man sæde, bæta

scírmen waron To him man (they) said, that those shiremen (provincials) were

Dere . gehátene. Gregorius andwyrde, Wel hí Dere (men of Deira) called Gregory answered, Well they sind Dere gehátene for an ye hí sind fram graman

are Dere called for that (because) they are from wrath generode, and to Cristes mildheartnysse gecvgede. Gýt

saved, and to Christ's mildheartness (mercy) invited. Again Ya he befrán, Hú is Pære leode? cyning geháten? Him then he inquired, How. (what) is to that people (the) king named? To him

was geandswarod 8 þæt se cyning Ælle geháten wäre. (it) was answered that the king Ella named was

Hwæt ta, Gregorius gamerode' mid his wordum to What then (weil then), Gregory played with his words at

(1) Gehátene, pl. of p.p. hálan, to call, or to be called. See note 5, p. 2.

(2) Swilcum, dat. pl. of swi'c = sw or swa, so or this, and lic, like, and means, therefore, like this,' e.g." Such a man (a man like this) I never saw "

(3) Heofonum, dat. pl. of heofon; hence mod. Eng. :eaven; fr. hebban, p.p. hafen, to heave; hence, probably, heofon, the elevated, or raised.

(4) Geferan, pl, of gefera; hence old Eng. fere, or pheere, a mate or companion.

(5) Cn. pan, nom. pl. of cnapa, a boy; hence in 2nd stage cnave, and in 3rd stage knave, or knave-chilil, a boy. The secondary meaning, servant, gave rise to the modern s gnification of rogue. See Trench (Select Glossary), sub voce.

(6) Gruman, dat. sing. of grama, anger, grief; hence old Eng. grame, in same sense (Chaucer), and, perhaps, grim, angry, fierce.

(7) Leode (Ger. leute), dat. sing. of leuil, used also in old Eng. in the same sense.

(8) Geundswarod, p.p. of andswarion, to answer, fr, and, again, and swarian, or sverian, which originally meant simply, to speak, or declare. Hence to answer is to speak again, or in reply.

(9) Guinenode, part. of gamenian, to game, or play; hence game and backyammon (the tray game).

name

to

some

dam nan an and cwæð, Hit gedafenað þæt Alleluia sy the

and said, It is befitting that Alleluia should be gesungen on Pam lande, to lofel þæs Ælmihtigan sung on (in)

that
land

praise

of the Almighty Scyppendes. Gregorius ta

sona

eode to fam papan Shaper (Creator), Gregory then soon (at once) went to the pope þæs apostolican setles, and bine bæd,

þæt he of the apostolic seat (see) and him bade (beyged)

that he Angelcynne 3 sume láreowas 4 asende, te hí to Criste for the English nation

teachers would serd, that them to Christ gebigdon 6 and cwæð, þæt he sylf gearo wære bæt might bow (convert), and said that he self (himself) ready

that weorc to gefremmenne R mid Godes fultume, gif 8 hit Nam work for accomplishing with God's help,

if it to the papan swa gelicode.

Đa ne mihte se papa þæt gedafian, pope liked ( pleased). Then not might the pope

that to allow, beah He he eall wolde; forðan Ye Pa Romaniscan though that he all (altogether) wished (it); for that (because) the Roman ceaster-gewaran noldon geðafian þæt swa getogeno mann, and

was

SO

townspeople would not allow that educated (a) man, and

so

(1) Lofe, dat. sing. of lof (Ger. lob) praise.

(2) Scyppendes, gen. sing. of scyppend, shaping or forming one, Creator. It is strictly the pres. part. of scyppan, pret. sceóp, p.p sceapen, to mould or make. From this root we have shape, landskip or landscape, and the sufix ship, as friendship, &c.

(3) Cynne, dat. sing. of cyn, race, family; hence kin, kind, kindred. So “a kind' person is a 'kinned' person-one of kin; one who acknowledges and acts upon his kinship with other men, confesses that he owes to them, as of one blood with himself, the debt of love. And so mankind is manhinned."— Trench: “On the Study of Words," p. 47.

(4) Láreowas, acc. pl. of láreow, a teacher, fr. lár, lore, which forms Iceran, to teach. See note 7, p. 5.

(5) Gebigdon, subj. of gebigan, to bend, bow, or convert; hence derivative A.S. bugan, and from this mod. Eng. bow.

(6) 10 gef, emmenne, gerund of gefremman, to frame, arrange, accomplish.

(7) Fultume, dat. sing. of fultum, help. See this word in the proclamation of Henry VII., Thurg Jodes foltu 1. e"_" Through God's help.”

(8) Gif, supposed to be the imper, mood of gifan, to give. “Give, or let it be given that the pope,” &c. (See Horne Tooke's “ Diversions of Purley," almost everywhere.) It is the main point of his system that all particles are really significant parts of verbs.

(9) Getogen, fr. teón, to draw, lead, educate-pret. teah, p.p. getogen; hence gelogen is brought up, educated.

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