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wyse (leastways, at least) more then (than) any other man here assembled. Yea, forsooth, good Maister, quod (quoth) this old man, for I am wel nighe an hundreth yeares old, and no man here in this company [is] anything nere unto mine age.

Well then, quod Maister Moore, howe saye you in thys matter? What thincke ye to be the cause of these shelves and flattes (flats) that stopp up Sandwiche haven? Forsoth, syr, quoth he, I am an old man; I thincke that Tenterton steeple is the cause of Goodwyn Sandes. For I am an old man, syr, quoth he, and I may (can) remember the building of Tenterton steeple, and I may remember when there was no steeple at al there. And before that Tenterton steeple was in building? (a-building) there was no maner of speaking of (nothing to speak of in the way of) any flats or sands that stopped the haven, and therefore I thinke that Tenterton steple is the cause of the destroying and decaying of Sanwych haven.

And even so, to my purpose, is preaching of Gods word the cause of rebellyon, as Tenterton steple was cause that Sandwich haven is decayed.



THEERFOOR I say unto yow, be not thoughtful' (anxious about)

(1) In building. In or on, with the gerund, is a very early form, which, later, was, sometimes, changed into a, a-hunting, a-walking, &c. Even this is now obsolete, but the gerundive form ought still to be maintained. “Before Tenterden steeple was a-building, or building," is more correct than “was built,” or, “was being built."

(2) Sir John Cheke, first the tutor, and afterwards the Secretary of State of Edward VI., was a professed reformer both of the orthography and the vocabulary of the English language. The above extract exemplifies both functions. It will be observed that he writes lijk and taak for like and take, intending, however, merely to represent the long sound of the single vowel by doubling it to the eye, as is now done in writing Dutch. As to the vocabulary, he wished to discountenance foreign derivatives and develop the native resources.

(3) Thoughtful. See note 1, p. 56.

for yowr life, what ye eat or drink, nor for yowr bodi what ye put on.

Js not yowr life of moor valew? then (than) food, and your bodi then clothing. Look upon the birds of th' aier. Thei now not, thei reep not, thei gather not into theer garners, and yowr hevenli father fedeth them. Be not yow much better then (than) thei? Which of yow bi any thought-taking? (cure-laking) can put an half-yard mete (measure) to his haight. And whi be ye thoughtful for clothing ? Learn how the lilies of the field encreasel (grow); thei labour not, thei spin pot, and yet J sai unto yow, that Salomon in al his glori was not clothed lijk op (one) of thees. And if God doth clooth the gras of the ground, that this dai is, and to-morow is cast into the furneis? (furnace), how much moor, ye smal-faithed? men, wil he cloth you. Be not thoughtful theerfor, saieng, what schal we eat, or what schal we drink, or what schal we be clothed withal. For the hethen looketh for thees thinges. But seek first for the kingdoom of God, and his rightuousnes, 3 and al thees thinges schal be provided for yow besides. Be not thoughtful theerfoor for to morow; for let to morow taak (take) thought for itself. Everi dai hath inough* adoo with her (its) own troble.

(1) Valew, encrease, furneis, and some others in the above extract, show that Cheke could not fully maintain his principles in the matter of purity of language.

(2) Thought-taking, smal-faithed. These are specimens of one of Cheke's characteristics—the formation of compound words out of the native elements. In other parts of the translation he gives us groundwrought for founded, which has not survived, and groundwork for foundation, which has ; also (a)gainrising and (a)gainbirth for resurrection and regeneration, helimp, child of hell, outpeopling, carrying away the people, tolbooth, a place where toll is taken, “receipt of custom," and freschmen, proselytes.

(3) Rightuousness. This spelling is, perhaps, peculiar to Cheke, and may have been the origin of the blunder which we still maintain ; for, in the Bible of 1551, we find righteousness, whereas Wiclif wrote rightwisnesse, and Langlande, in Piers Ploughman, the same. It is fr. A.S. rihtwis, right manner or guise, and is similar in formation to likewise. See note 8, p. 37.

(4) Inough, fr, A.S. genog or genoh; hence in Sem. Sax. stage, inoh, pl. inowe, then inough, and lastly enough, with its now obsolete pl. enou.

(5) Adoo, or ado, seems to be used here as an infinitive for to do. So Latimer says, “I have had ado with many estates."



(WRITTEN IN 1552.)


STUDENTS. JAM sori (sorry) to see the lightnes of young heedes, who bicause thei have attained to sum lerning, be bold t'abuse theer wittes, and passe the boundes of honesteel (good manners). Jf lerninga tech not sobernes to yong men, obediens in subjectes, honestee in al degrees (in every rank), what schold we do with (what do we want with) lerning, seeing we have knowledge? inough of owr self, without studi and school, to do ungraciousli (behave rudely). But as yow schal not be the last, that schal find such unthankfulnes of unexperienced scholars, so have ye not been the first, and theerfoor do wiseli in bering soberli such hedlong raschnes as overthroweth the user (practiser or him who practises it). J am glad again to see him called hoom, if he be truli culled, and do not dissemble with necessiteé t'over-com the tijm. But yow schal easli perceiv that, by his demenor and compani, according wheerunto yow schal'do wel to order him.


(1) Hones tee, fr. Lat. honestas, or perhaps fr. old Fr. honnesteté. Honestas generally meant honour or internal goodness, but in old Eng. honestee rather means external goodness or becoming deportment. In the passage “Let all things be done decently,Wiclif has “onestli," and is followed in this by the other translators of his time. In the 17th century, however, it was used especially as an ethical word; so Pope, “ An honest (i.e. a good) man 's the noblest work of God." The history of the Fr. word is curious. Honnêteté, at present, means external civility, and this usage calls down the rebuke, scarcely merited, of Dr. Trench_as“ marking a tendency to accept the shows and pleasant courtesies of social life in the room of deeper moral qualities.” (“On the Study of Words,” p. 64.)

(2) Lerning, knowledge. The distinction made between these words is worthy of note: learniny, that which is gained by mental effort, and, therefore, disciplines and civilises; knowledge, that which is gained by living and being among men, caught up without effort, and, not necessarily, influencing or restraining the conduct.

(3) Schal, see note 2, p 3.

(4) This passage seems to mean-I am glad to see that he (one of the offenders) is come to his senses again, if he is, indeed, sincere, and is not concealing his real feeling, under stress of circumstances, so as to get over the time, or difficulıy.

But yow must let al toward wittes understond, that when thei go beiond lerning to diffame (defame, injure the character of) learninge, that thei must not be favored for theer own learning, but ponisched (punished) iustli for other mens lerning (instruction, profit)." Wheerfoor J am glad to see not oonli the successe of this discipline], but also trust it wil be an example for other (others) heerafter how thei presume to (too) much on themselves, and venture furder then (further than) theer learning and wittes can honestli lead them.

Th’ ancor of my suit resteth much in yow, wheerof J trust at London to commun with yow. Thus, with mi wifes and min harti commendacions (compliments) to yow and yowr wife, J bid yow fare wel in the Lord. From Cheekstook the 6th of Februari, 1552. 7. Ed. VI.

Yowrs assured,

JOANNES CHEEK. To the right worschipful Mr. D. Parkar,

Dean of Lincoln, at Cambridge.



PHILOLOGUS (a student).—You studie to sore (too hard), Toxophilus.

TOXOPHILUS (a lover of archery).—I wil not hurt myselfe over muche, I warraunt you.

Phi.—Take hede you do not, for we physicions saye, that it is nether good for the eyes in so cleare a sunne, nor yet holsome (wholesome) for the bodie, so soone after meate' (eating, food) to looke upon a mans boke? (one's book).

(1) "Ascham was one of the first founders of a true English style in prose composition. He was amongst the first (under the influence of his tutor, Cneke, no doubt] to reject the use of foreign words and idioms, which in the reign of Henry VIII. began to be so prevalent, that the authors of that day, by usinge straunge wordes, as Latine, French, and Italian, did make all thinges darke and 1 lscham set a successful example of a simple and pure taste in writing.”

rre Review, iv. 77.

Tox.-In eatinge and studyinge I will never folowe any physike,3 for if I dyd, I am sure I shoulde have small pleasure in the one and lesse courage in the other. But what news (new thing or novelty) drave (drove) you hyther, I praye you?

Pui.-Small news, trulie, but that as I came on walkynge (a-walking), I fortuned (happened) to come to fall in) with thre or four that wente to shote at the prycckes (butts or targets); and when I sawe not you amonges (amongst) them, but at the last espyed you lokynge on vour booke here so sadlye (seriously), I thought to come and holde you with some communication (have some talk with you) lest youre boke should runne awaye with you. For methought, by your waveringe pace and earnest lokinge, your boke led you, not you it.

Tox.-Indede, as it chaunced, my mynde went faster then (than) my feete, for I happened here to reade in Phedro Platonis, a place that entretes (treats) wonderfullye of the nature of soules; which place, whether it were for (on account of) the passyng (surpassing) eloquence of Plato and the Greke tongue, or for the hyghe and goodlie description of the matter, kept my mynde so occupied, that it had no leisure to loke to

(1) Meate, fr. A.S. mete, food in general. The restriction of the word to flesh is modern. “It is remarkable," says Aldis Wright (sub voce), “that in the meatoffering (of Leviticus) there was nothing but flour and oil.”

(2) A mans boke, one's book. Man was used in this indefinite sense in A.S., as man secgth, one says; and in Sem. Sax, we have men, and sometimes me only, for one (see note 7, p. 2).

(3) Physike, fr. Gr. dúous, nature, as used now in Physics, for Natural Philosophy. From the earliest time, the word had in England the same double sense. A “ physician" was either a student of nature, or an expert in medicine. Physike above seems to mean-dietetic rules. Toxophilus will neither eat nor study by fixed rules.

(4) On walkynge. See note 1, p. 67.

(5) Sadlye. Sad is fr. A.S. geset, p.p. of settan, to set down, and hence means originally, settled or fixed. In Sem. Sax. geset became iset. In old Eng, it became sad; 80 Wiclif uses it," it was founded on a sad stoon (rock)," and also“ sadnesse (for steadfastness) of your bileve." The next sense was, sedate, serious, grave, as above. Elyot also speaks of “a sad (i.e. grave, sober) matron attending on” a child. Shakspere (“Romeo and Juliet ") has

Ben. Tell me in sadness who is she you love." In mod. Eng. it is, perhaps, rather subjective, referring to the inward feeling, than objective, or betokening the outward aspect.

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