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thus, wan (when) be fillith not in dede, ne in word, the office of Petir in yerth (earth), ne doith not (and doeth not) the thing in that office that he is holden (beholden or bound) to do; but doth contrarili, and so in dede he is not the Vicar of Petir in dede. And this sterith (stirreth) me to fele thus; the apostel Paul seith tbus, If ani man have not the Spirit of Crist, he is not of him; that is, as the glose (gloss or commentary) seith, he that hath not the Spirit after witt (knowledge) or dedes, he is not of the body of Crist. Also this seith Seint Jerom: Noght (not) alle bischoppis in name ar bischoppis in dede; thu tendersi to (thou regardest) Petir, but considir Judas; thu takst up Steven, lok ageyn to Nicol; the kirkis (church's) dignite makith not only (is not the only thing that constitutes) á cristun man. Corneli Centurio (the Centurion Cornelius) yet uncristund (unchristened) is clensid with the Hooli Goost. Daniel, yet a barne (child), jugid the prestig. It is not light (a light thing) to stond in the place of Peter and Poule, and hald (hold) the place of hem (them) that regnuno (reign) in heven with Crist. Sonnid (spoiled) salt is not worth, but that it be cast forth, and soilid of suynne (defiled by swine). Also Austeyn (Augustine) seith, Nout ilk (not every one) that seith pes (peace) to you is to be hard (heard, listened to), as colver (pigeon) or dove. He that hath not in him (himself the resoun (reason) of gevernauns (government), ne hath not wipid a wey (away) his defautis“ (faults), ne mendid the crime of his sonnes (sons) is more to be seid (called) a unschamfast'

notions, provincial. “A done then,” for “ have done then," "leave off,” &c., is still often heard in the north.

(1) Tenders, fr. Fr. tendre, to stretch, approach towards, labour to obtain; hence to care for, heed, regard. “ Thine especial safety which we do tender" (Shakspere). “Whom his godly example had provoked to tender and seeke the glory of God” (Udall). “We, greatly tendring the wealth of our people," &c. (Hacluyt). In modern use also in Queen's letters, “ As ye tender the favour of almighty God."

(2) Regnun. The term. un was in use at this time, as well as the en, and ud, also in the p.p. for ed. See Chaucer, Wright's edition, where we have bathud, enspirud, esud, &c. In the above text we have also id, felid, &c.

(3) Sonnid. The meaning given above, borrowed from Dr. Todd's Gloggary to the work, is altogether conjectural.

(4) Defautis, fr. old Fr, defaut or default (where the l shows its connection with Lat. fallere), with the pl. term. appended, which throughout the above passage is is and not es.

(5) Unschamfast, uubashful. The word shamefacedness, occurring in our modern edition of the Testament (1 Tim. ii. 9), is a printer's corruption of the A.S. sceamfæstnes, meaning, as Dr. Trench interprets it,“ a being established firmly

(shameless) hound than a' bischop. Not alle prestis are had for prelats, for the name makith not the bischop, but the lif.

JOHN DE TREVISA.'
CHANGE IN THE STUDIES OF ENGLISH

SCHOOLS. (FROM THE TRANSLATION OF HIGDEN'S “POLYCHRONICON,” WRITTEN IN

A.D. 1385.)

This apairyngea (injuring or impairing) of the birthe tonge (the mother tongue, English) is by cause (because) of twey (two) thingis: oon is for (by reason that children in scole, agenes (against, contrary to the usage and maner of alle other naciouns, beth3 (are) compelled for to leive her* (their) owne langage, and forto constrewe (construe) her lessouns and her thinges a (into) Frensche, and haveth siththe (have since) that the Normans come first into England. Also gentil mennes children beth ytaught forto speke Frensche from the tyme that thei beth rokked in her cradel and kunneth (know how to) speke and playe with a childes brooche. And uplondishe men

and fast in honourable shame.So steadfastness, that which is made fast in its stead or place. Chaucer has

Shamefast sche was in maydenes shamfastnesse." (1) De Trevisa, Vicar of Berkley, Gloucestershire, and Chaplain of Thomas, Lord Berkley, at the request of his patron, translated the “ Polychronicon ” of Ralph Higden, a Benedictine monk of Chester, from Latin into English; and is also said to have left behind him a translation of the old and New Testaments, which, however, appears to be now lost.

(2) Apairynge or apeirynge, most probably fr. old Fr. empirer, to make worse, impair or degrade. Chaucer has “to apeiren any man, or him defame.”

(3) Beth, haveth. This writer constantly uses beth and haveth for 3rd pers. pl., Mandeville and the others ben or been and han. The former usage is one of the marks of the Southern, and the latter of the Midland dialect, while s characterises the Northern. So we loveth is Southern, we loven Midland, and we loves Northern.

(4) Her. This word, as we have seen, was in A.S. heora and hira, in Sem. Sax, hire, then later here, and now her; the term being entirely gone.

(5) Uplondishe, fr. A.S. uplandisc, living up country, rural, rustic.

(countrymen) wol likne hem self (themselves) to gentil men, and fondith' (endeavour) with grete bisynesse (pains) for to speke Frensche for to be the more ytold of (reckoned of).

This maner was myche yused (used) tofore (before) the first moreyna (murrain, plague) and sithth (since) some del ychaungide (somewhat changed). For John Cornwaile, a meastre of gramer, chaungide the lore (learning) in grammer scole and construccioun (construing) of Frensche into Englisch and Richard Peneriche lerned that maner techyng (manner of teaching) of hym. So that now, the yere of oure Lord a thousand three hundred foure score and fyve, of the secunde Kyng Rychard after the conquest nyne,3 in alle the gramer scoles of Englond, children leveth Frensch, and construeth and lerneth an (in) Englisch, and haveth thereby avauntage in oon side and desavauntage in another. Her (their) avauntage is, that thei lerneth her (their) gramer in lasse tyme than children were wont to do. Desayauntage is, that now children of gramer scole kunneth (know) no more Frensch than can her lifte (knows their left) heele. And that is harm for hem (them), andų thei schul (if they shall) passe the see and travaile (travel) in straunge londes, and in many other places also. Also gentil men haveth now mych ylefte (left-off) forto teche her (their) children Frensch.

(1) Fondith, fr. A.S. fandian, to tempt or attempt. Chaucer has

"To strengthen hine shal all his frendes fond." (2) Moreyn. This appears to refer to the pestilence of 1348, called in Piers Ploughman, " the pestilence time.”

(3) Nyne, i.e. the ninth year of the reign of Richard II.

(4) And, if. This particle, not found in this sense in A.S., is perhaps the imper. of A.S. anan, to grant or give, so that and ye ben is, grant you be, and is equivalent to gif (see note 8, p. 11). This etymology, however, as well as that of if, is shown by Mr. Garnett (Quar. Rev., 1835) to be very doubtful. And, whatever be its derivation, would appear to be a strengthened form of an, which has the same meaning. It is frequently found in Chaucer—"And I shulde reken every vice," &c., also in Shakspere-“And I were so apt to quarrel as thou art;" and in Beaumont and Fletcher- An't please your worship."

GEOFFREY CHAUCER.

1. ON GOOD COUNSEL.'

(FROM "THE TALE OF MELIBEUS,” WRITTEN ABOUT A.D. 1390.)

“Now, Sire," quod (said) dame Prudens, “and syn (since) ye vouchen sauf? (vouchsafe) to be governed by my counseilying, I wil enforme you how ye schul governe youre self, in chesyng (choosing) of youre conseil. Ye schul first in alle youre werkes mekely biseche to3 (entreat) the bihe God that he wol be your counseilour; and schape you to that entent that he give you counseil and confort, as taughte Toby' (Tobit) his sone;- At alle tymes thou schalt blesse God, and pray him to dresse make straight, direct) thy wayes; and loke that alle thi counseiles be in him for evermore. Seint Jame eek (eke, also) saith ;-'If eny of yow have neede of sapiens (sapientia, wisdom), axe (ask) it of God.' And afterward ;--Thanne schul ye take counseil in youre self, and examine wel youre thoughtes, of suche thinges as you thinketh that is best (as seems best to you for youre profyt. And thanne schul ye dryve fro youre herte thre thinges that ben (been, are) contrarie to good counseil, that is to say, ire (anger), coveytise (covetousness), and hastynes. First, he that axeth (asketh) counseil of himself, certes (certainly) he moste be withoute ire for many cause. The first is this; he that hath gret ire and wraththe in him self, he weneth (thinketh) alwey he may do thing (things) that he may not doo. And secoundly, he that is irous and wroth, he may not wel

(1) Chaucer's prose is simple and flowing; entirely devoid of poetical characteristics, but good (as a poet's prose generally is) and to the purpose. It is not so loose and verbose as Mandeville's, nor so technical and vehement as Wiclif's in his polemical works. Chaucer freely received the aid offered by the Norman vocabulary, and therefore was an effective agent in accomplishing the revolution already spoken of, by which Gothic strength and vigour were united in a “happy marriage” with Norman beauty and refinement, much to the ultimate advantage of the resulting English language, which began with Chaucer, especially, to manifest its great capacity as an instrument for the display of literary power.

(2) Vouchen sauf. See note 3, p. 29.
(3) Biseche to, the exact opposite of forsake. Beseech to is now obsolete.
(4) Toby. See Tobit iv. 20.
(5) Dresse. See note 1, p. 26.

deme? (deem, judge); and he that may not wel deme, may nought (not) wel counseile. The thridde is this; that he that is irous and wroth, as saith Senec (Seneca), may not speke but (may or would only speak) blameful thinges, and with his vicious wordes, he stireth other folk to anger and to ire. And eek (eke, also), sire, yo moste dryve coveitise out of youre herte. For thapostle (the apostle Paul) saith that coveytise is roote of alle harmes. And trustetha (trust ye) wel, that a coveitous man ne can not deme (judge), ne thinke, but oonly to fulfille the ende of his coveitise; and certes that may never ben accomplised, for ever the more abundaunce that he hath of riches, the more he desireth. And, sire, ye moste also dryve out of your herte hastynes; for certes ye may nought deme for the beste a sodein? (sudden) thought that falleth in youre herte, but ye moste avyse you on it (consider it) ful ofte. For as ye herde here biforn, the comune proverbe is this; that he that soone demeth (judgeth quickly) soone repentith.”

2. KEEP YOUR COUNSEL SECRET.

(FROM THE SAME.) WHAN ye han (haven, have) taken counseil in youre selveno (self), and han demed by good deliberacioun such thing as vow (to you) semeth best, thanne rede I you (I advise you that ye kepe it secré5 (secret). Bywreye“ (discover) nought (not) youre

(1) Deme, fr. A.S. deman, to think, judge, doom; hence deemster, a judge in the Isle of Man, doomsday, &c.

(2) Trusteth. This form of the A.S. imper. was among the last to fall into disuse. We find it in Mandeville, Piers Ploughman, and Wiclif.

(3) Sodein, fr. A.S. soden. To show to what extent spelling was “an open question " among our forefathers, Trench says ("English, Past and Present") he has himself met with these fourteen variations in the spelling of this word, viz. :-sodain, sodaine, sodan, sodayne, sodden, sodein, sodeine, soden, sodeyn, suddain, suddaine, suddein, sudden, and sudeyn-so difficult does it seem to have been to "deviate into right."

(4) Selven. There is much difficulty in the form self and its combinations. Some grammarians consider it as a substantive, others as an adjective. Latham is of the former opinion. The n here is probably euphonic. In A.S. ic sylf, thu sylf, &c., occur, and also ic me sylf, &c., wh. sometimes written miself, &c., gave rise to our modern usage.

(5) Secré. The Fr. secret, spelt according to its pronunciation.

(6) Kywreye, bewray, discover. Chaucer uses also the simple form wreye, fr. A.S. wregan, to accuse; hence (says Aldis Wright in "The Bible Word-Book")

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