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hire own kyndel (nature) and ben a woman agen; but aftre that sche schalle not liven longe. And it is not longe siththen (since) that a Knighte of the Rodes (of Rhodes), that was hardy and doughtyin armes, seyde that he wolde kyssen hire. And whan he was upon his coursere, and wente to the castelle, and entred in to the cave, the dragoun lifte up hire hed agenst him. And whan the knygbte saw hire in that forme so hidous (Fr. hideux) and so horrible, he fleyghe (fled) away. And the dragoun bare the knyghte upon a roche (Fr. rocher), mawgres (in spite of) his hede (head, care), and from that roche, sche caste him in to the See, and so was lost bothe hors and man. And also a yonge man that wistet (knew not of the dragoun, wente out of a schippe, and wente thorghe the ile, til that he come to the castelle, and came in to the cave, and wente so longe til that he fond ( found) a chambre, and there he saughes (saw) a damysele, that kembed (combed ) hire hede, and lokede in a myrour, and sche hadde meche (much) tresoure abouten hire. And he abode (stopped) tille the damysele sau he the schadewe of him in the myrour. And sche asked him, gif (if) that he were a knyghte. And he seyde, nay. And sche bad him gon (go) agen unto his felowes, and make him (himself) knyghte, and come agen upon the morwe (morrow), and sche scholde come out of the cave before him; and thanne come and kisse hire in the mowthe, and have no drede, for I schalle do the no maner harm?, alle be it (albeit) that thou see

(1) Kynde, fr. A.S. cyn, race, lineage; then that which is "kinned” or kind, natural disposition, nature, as mankind, the man nature. We also say, “after their kind.” See note 3, p. 11.

(2) Doughty, valiant,fr. A.S. dohtig, fr. dugan, to be strong, or good (for fighting). See quotation in next note.

(3) Mawgre, fr, old Fr. malgré, ill will, displeasure, spite; malgré moi for malgré de moi, against my will, in spite of me. In the old ballads, it is sometimes spelt magger, as in the ballad of Chevy Chase (see “Studies in English Poetry," p. 39):–

“In the magger of doughti Doglas—" (4) Wiste, fr. A.S.witan, to know, 0.E.wyten or wite, pret. wiste; he same verb as witen in K, Henry's proclamation (p. 20). Hence wit, wise, wisdom, witеnagemot, &c.

(5) Saughe, also saw, fr. A.S. seon, O.E, sen, to see; A.S. pret. seah, suwe, pl. segon, 0.E. pret saugh, saughe, seyghe.

(6) Morwe, fr. A.S. morgen, probably a derivative from a hypothetical morh, morge, by analogy with A.S. sorh, sorge; 0.E. sorwe, thus becoming in 0.E. morue, whence mod, sorrow and morrow.

(7) No maner harm. The 0.E. usage is always to omit" of " in this sort of expression. Chaucer has "a manere Latin," a kind of Latin. Maner is of course the Fr. manière.

me in lyknesse of a dragoun. For thoughe thou see me hidouse and horrible to loken onne, I do the to witene? (I make thee or have thee to know that it is made be (by) enchauntement. For withouten doute, I am non other than thou seest now, a woman, and therefore drede the noughte (fear nothing). And gif thou kisse me, thou schalt have alle this treasoure, and be my lord, and lord also of all that ile. And he departed fro hire andi wente to his felowes to schippe and leet make (let make) him kuyghte, and came agen upon the morwe for to kisse this damysele. And whan he saughe hire comen out of the cave in forme of a dragoun, so hidouse and so horrible, he hadde so gret drede, that he fleyghe (fed) agen to the schippe, and sche folewed him. And whan sche saughe that he turned not agen, sche began to crye, as a thing that hadde meche sorwe, and thanne (then) sche turned agen in to hire cave, and anons (soon after) the knyghte dyede. And siththen hidrewards (since, nearer to our time) myghte no knyghte se hire, but that he dyede anon. But whan å knyghte comethe, that is so hardy to kisse hire, he schalle not, dye, but he schalle turne the damysele in to hire righte forme and kyndely schapp (natural shape), and he schalle be lord of alle the contreyes and iles abovesevd.

3. CONCLUSION OF THE WORK. And I John Maundevylle Knyghte“ aboveseyd, (alle thoughe I ben unworthi) that departed from our contrees and passed the see, the yeer of grace 1322, that have passed many londes and manye yles and contrees, and cerched (Fr. chercher, searched) manye fulle straunge places, and have ben in many a fulle

(1) See note 4, p. 27. (2) See note 6, p. 27.

(3) Anon. Supposed to be for in one (moment), directly. It corresponded in the language of waiters of Elizabeth's time to “Coming, sir."

(4) It is interesting to compare with good Sir John's account of himself, the picture of a Knight drawn by Chaucer about this time (see the passage in full, “Studies of English Poetry,” p. 238):

“Ful worthi was he in his lordes werre,
And thereto hadde he riden no man ferre (further),
As wel in cristendom as in hethenesse,

And evere honoured for his worthinesse." (5) Straunge, fr. old Fr. estrange, mod. Fr. étrange, fr. Lat. extraneus (wh. fr. extra, without), from without, foreign. So above we have chaunged, fr. Fr. changer Some suppose that the interposition of the u is an indication of the nasal sound of the French.

gode honourable companye, and at mange faire dede of armes (alle be it that I dide none myself, for (on account of) myn unable insuffisance (infirmity) now I am comen hom (mawgree myself) to reste; for gowtes (gout), artetykes? (rheumatism), that me distreynen (afflict), tho diffynen (these determine the ende of my labour, agenst my wille (God knowethe). And thus takynge solace in my wrecched reste, recordynge the tyme passed, I have fulfilled (accomplished) theise thinges and putte hem wryten in this boke, as it (they) wolde come in to my mynde (memory), the yeer of grace 1356 in the 34 yeer that I departede from oure contrees. Wherefore I preye to alle the rederes and hereres of this boke, gif it please them, that thei wolde preyen to God for me, and I schalle preye for hem. And alle tho (those) that seyn for me a Pater Noster with an Ave Maria that God forgeve me my synnes, I make hem parteneres and graunte hem part of alle the gode pilgrimages and of alle the gode dedes, that I have don, gif any be to his plesance (pleasure); and noghte only of tho (not only of them) but of alle that evere I shalle do unto my lyfes ende. And I beseche? Almyghty God, fro (from) whom alle godenesse and grace comethe fro, that he vouchesaf of his excellent mercy and habundant (abundant) grace, to fulle fylle (to fill completely) hire (their) soules with inspiracioun of the Holy Gost, in makynge defence* (in warding off ) of alle hire gostly enemyes here in erthe, to hire salvacioun, bothe of body and soule; to worschipeó

(1) Artetykes, probably derived from Lat. or rather Gr. arthritis, rheumatism or gout.

(2) Beseche, A.S. gesecan, to seek, enquire; the be has taken the place of the ge. It is a very remarkable fact, that of several thousands of A.S. words beginning with ge, not one survived the 12th century. In a comparatively few instances, the ge was softened into y or i in p.p., and into a and e in some other words, while many took up with be as a substitute, using it as ge had been used, as a kind of clamping particle to brace up and complete the sense of the word. See an interesting note in Craik's “ English of Shakespeare,” pp. 222, 223.

(3) Vouchesaf, fr. old Fr. voucher, to warrant, and sauf, safe—to grant a warrant of safety, as from a superior to an inferior, therefore to condescend, which is the usual meaning ; now obsolete.

(4) Defence, fr. Fr. défendre, to defend against enemies, therefore, to keep them off. In mod. Fr. défense means prohibition, as, “ Défense de fumer," prohibition of smoking.

(5) Worschipe, fr. A.S. wurthscipe, honour. This original sense is preserved in the Marriage Service, “ With my body I thee worship.In Wiclif's version we find "Worschipe thi fadir and thi modir.” Cf. also “Your worship,” i.e. your honour, in addressing a magistrate.

(honour) and thankynge of him that is thre and on three and one) withouten begynnynge and withouten erdynge, that is withouten qualitee, good, and withouten quantytee, gret; that in alle places is present, and alle thinges conteynynge (comprehending); the whiche that no goodness may amende, ne non (and no) evelle empeyre (impair) that in perfeyte! Trynytee lyvethe and regnethe God, be (in) alle worldes and be (in) alle tymes. Amen, Amen, Amen.



SYNGE we to the Lord for he is magnafied gloriousli; he castide (cast) down the hors and the stiere (rider) into the see.

My strengthe and my preisyng (glory) is the Lord, and he is maad to me into (for) heelthe.

This is my God: y schal glorifie hym, the God of my fadir; and I schal enhaunce (exalt) hym.

The Lord is as a man fighten (to fight); his name is almighte. He castide down into the see the charis (the cars, chariots) of Farao and his oost (host), his chosun princes weren drenchid in the reed see.

The deepe watris hiliden* (covered) them; they yeden' (went) doun into the depthe as a stoon.

(1) Perfeyte, fr. Fr. parfait, perfect. When the Latin became a direct element in our language, many words, originally taken from the French, were assigned to their Latin source; hence we have rejected perfeyt, and adopted perfect.

(2) Wiclif's translation contains many Romance words (i.e. words derived from Latin, either directly, or through French), but mainly consists of the idioms and words of the old language. Its style strikingly resembles Mandeville's.

(3) Stiere, a mounter, a rider, fr. A.S. stigan, to mount, Sem. Sax. stigen, O.E. steyen. Fr. stigan comes stighel, a stile, and steyers or stairs.

(4) Hiliden, fr. A.S. hilan or helan, to cover over, Sem. Sax, hælen. See note 7, p. 4.

(5) Yeden, they went, fr. A.S. gán or gangan, pret. eode, p.p. gangen, gan. For yeden we also find yoden.

Lord, thy right hond is magnyfied in strengthe; Lord, thi right hond smoot the enemye.

And in the mychilnesse (greatness) of thi glorie thou hast put doun all thyn adversaryes; thou sentist thine ire that devouride hem (them) as stobil (stubble).

And watris weren gaderid in the spirit of thi woodnessel (by the breath of thine anger); flowinge watir stood ; depe watris weren gaderid in the middis of the see.

The enemy seide, y schal pursue and y schal take, y schal departa (part, divide) spuyles (spoils); my soul schal be filled (satisfied); y schal drawe out my swerde; myn hond schal sle (slay) hem.

Thi spirit (breath) blew; and the see hilide (covered) hem, thei weren drenchid' (drowned) as leed (lead), in grete watris.

Lord, who is lyk thee in (among) stronge men; who is lyk thee: thou art greet doere in hoolynesse ; ferdful(fearful) and preisable (worthy of praise) and doying miracles (wonders).



A.D. 1380.)

I KNOWLECH® (acknowledge) to a (have) felid? (thought) and seid

(1) Woodness, fr. A.S. wód, 0.E. wode, mad, strong, angry. Wode is often found in the old ballads. In Chevy Chase (see "Studies in English Poetry," p. 43)

“Like lions wode they laid on load.” (2) Depart, fr. old Fr. déprirtir. to sever. The words in the Marriage Service, “till deatlı us do part," are a corruption of “depart” or sever, as above. In mod. Eng., we have part for depart, in a different sense, as in Gray s elegy

“The curfew tolls the knell of parting (i.e, departing) day." (3) Hem, fr. Sem. Sax heom. The demonstrative form them is not yet introduced, though thei has taken the place of A.S. hi.

(4) Ferdful, fr. A.S. forhtfull, which is fr. forht, fear; hence the d (for t), which is dropped in the modern form.

(5) Wiclif is defending himself against the accusations of his enemies. One is that he has asserted that “ The pope is not the Vicar of Christ nor of Peter."

(6) Knowlech, fr. A.S. cnawan or gecnawan, to know, Sem. Sax, icnauen or icnawe, t a-cknowledge, the a, perhaps, representing the older i or ge. The word acknowledge is, however, of recent dati; knowlach, knowliche, knowlnge were the early forms. No satisfactory explanation has yet been given of the term. ledge.

(7) To a felid. This use of a for have is peculiar, and, according to modern

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