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(nuns) beogi i-numeno ou (betake you) to Marie dale,» (to Mary's portion) be (whom) God seolf (God himself) herede (praised) ; Marthe, Marthe, quod he said he), bu art in muche baret" (strife, anxiety). Marie have i-core (chosen) bet (better), and ne schal hire (her) nawicht (no whit, nought, nothing) reowen (reave, rob of) hire dale (portion): husewifschipe (housewifeship) is Marthe dale (Martha's portion), Marie dale (Mary's portion) is stilneise and reste of (from) alle worldes noise, bæt nan bing (nothing) ne lette hire (may not let or hinder her) to heren Godes stevene? (voice). And loke (look) hwat God seid, bat nan þing ne schal' ou reave (rob you of) bis dale. Marthe haveð hire mestero (trade, occupation), leoter hire y-wurden 10 (let her be), ge sitten (sit ye) wit Marie stan stille (stone still), ed (at) Godes fet and hercnet him ane (hearken to him alone). Marthe meoster (Martha's occupation, business) is to fede povre (poor) and schruden (shroud or clothe them) as hus lefdi” (house-lady or mistress of the house).

(1) Ge beoth, be ye, ge sitten, sit ye, seem to show both terms, of the pl. in use ; but the A.S. term. th is much more common, and, indeed, forms the rule.

(2) I-numen, p.p. of nimen, pret. nam. In A.S. the p.p. was numen or genumen. 13) Marie dale, Mary's portion, Marthe meoster, Martha's business, are curious instances of the A.Ş. fem. gen. in e, found also in the Poem on Genesis and Exodus (published by Early English Text Society), where we have helle might (hell's might), worlde nigt (world's night); and see, also, note 7, p. 4.

(4) Baret, old Fr., now obsolete in both languages. Maundeville uses it:“ Thei sette not be no barettis," i.e. they engage in no quarrelling. The derivative barreter is found in Holinshede, “ They run like bedlem barreters into the street.” Barratry, foul practice in the law, is still an offence against the statutes.

(5) I-core and icoren, p.p. of curen, to choose, fr, A.S. ceosan, to choose, pret. sing. ic ceas, I chose, thu cure, thou chosest, pl. we curon, doc., p.p. coren.

(6) Dale, fr. A.S. dælan, to deal out, distribute ; hence deal, dealer, a great deal, dole (a share).

(7) Steven, fr. A.S. stefen, a voice, sound. The word is much used by writers of the 4th stage (Chaucer, Piers Ploughman).

(8) Ou, fr. A.S. eow. See Introd. “ A.S. Grammar.”

(9) Mester, meoster, fr. old Fr. mestier, mod. Fr. métier, wh. fr. Lat. ministerium, an office.

(10) Y-wurthen, fr. A.S. geweorthan or gewurthan, to be, or become.

(11) Lefdi, fr. A.S. hlæfdige, hlæfdie, or læfdige, supposed to be derived from A.S. hlifan, to lift, elevate, and meaning, one elevated in society ; A.S. hláford, a lord, has probably the same origin. It is, however, generally explained as if from hláf, bread, ord, origin, that is, bread-distributor,



ĐIs maiden bar (bare) ure loverd? (our Lord) Jhesu Crist, ure alre? (of us all) fader, of hire holie lichame (body). Hie (A.S. heo, she) is be hevenliches kinges dohter (daughter) and ec (eke, also) his moder, and alre maidenet (of all maidens) maide, and hevene (of heaven) quen, and englene 4 (of angels) lafdií (lady). Hire (of her) is to-name (surname) Maria quod est interpretatum stella maris, þæt is on (in) Englis sæ-sterre (sea-star). Đan (when) bé sæ-farinde (sea-faring) men sex (see) be sæ-sterre, hie (A.S. hi, they) wuten (know) sone (soon, directly) wuderward (whitherward) hie sullen wei holden (should hold their way), for þæt be storres liht (the star's light) is hem (to them) god tacten (a good token).

And alse (as) be sa-storre shat (sheds of hire (from her, or it) be liht, be (that) lihted sa-farinde men, alse (80) is edie. (blessed) maiden seinte Marie, of hire holie licame sheder bæt sode liht, be (that) lihted alle brihte binges? on eorde and oc (also) on hevene, alse (as) S. Johannes said on his godspel: He is þæt sode liht, be lihted alle men, be on his woreld cumeð and aleomed ben (are enlightened); and for þis leome (on account of this light) is bæt holie maiden cleped (called) sa-sterre.

(1) Loverd, lafdi. The A.S. forms are hláford, hlæfdie. Those in the text were in use for some time, after which the v and f were dropped, and the present spelling adopted. For etymology of both, see note 4, p. 17.

(2) Ure alre. These words are both gen. pl. of us, of all = of us all; in A.S. ure ealra. This last word becomes in the 2nd stage, as we see, alre, changing in old Eng. (Chaucer) into aller, as, “at youre aller cost," at the cost of you all. Chaucer also, and, much later, Shakspere, make compounds of this gen., strengthened with d, such as alderfirst, first of all; alderliefest, dearest of all.

(3) Lichame. See note 1, p. 9.

(4) Maidene, englene. These are gen. pl. of maide and engle, with term. ene for ena. See note 4, p. 16.

(5) Se-farinde. This latter word shows the term, which is soon to change into the mod. term. ing of the pres. part. In A.S. it was ende; in the Scottish and Northumbrian dialects it became ande and and, in the south inde and ind, and lastly ing.

(6) Edie, fr. A.S. eddig, holy, blessed.

(7) Alle brihte thinyes. The term. e, in this and many other instances, indi. cates the pl. of the adj. This vestige of the old A.S. declension was long retained.

III. THIRD STAGE. Early English, First Division of Old English.

(A.D. 1250—1350.)



(DATED A.D. 1258.)

HENR' þurgGodes fultume (Henry, through God's help), King on Engleneloande (in Engles' land or England), Lhoaverd (Lord) on Yrloand, Duk on Norm' (Normandy)

*** This important document is the only specimen of the prose of the first division of old English at present attainable. From 1250 to 1350, the only compositions which have come down to us are metrical. Those who do not consider Anglo-Saxon and Semi-Saxon to be English at all, regard this proclamation as the earliest specimen of English. It may, however, with more propriety be considered as regularly evolved from the antecedent condition of the language. Owing to its legal and formal character, it will, by comparison with the last specimens given, look rather more than less antique than they. Though the composition, probably, of a Norman lawyer, it is singularly devoid of Norman words and idioms. There was, however, another copy in French, and the above in English was doubtless specially adapted to the English part of the populati This design, and the fact that it bears an exact date, give it an importance to which, as a literary composition, it cannot lay claim. Indeed, prose English literature can hardly be said to exist before Mandeville.

(1) Thurg. In Ger, thairh, A.S. thurh, Sem. Sax, and early Eng. thorh, thurg, subsequently thorghe, thorow, thorough (thorouuhfare), and through. The A.S. word burh. a town, passed through similar changes till it became borough. Both instances show that the final h had formerly a guttural pronunciation, which was represented in the g, or gh, which took its place. See note 7, p. 8.

(2) Fultume, unnen, werien, freme, isetness, eyte, besigte, are now obsolete.

(3) Engleneloande. Englene, gen. pl. for Englena-identical in form with englene (of angels), as in the last extract, p. 18.

on Aquitain', and Eorl on Aniow, send igretinge? (sends greeting) to alle hise halde (faithful ones, lieges), ilærde? and ileawede? (learned and lay), on Huntendon'schir.

Đæt witenge wel alle (This know ye well all) þæt we willen* and unnen (grant) þæt þæt (that what) ure rædesmené (our redesmen, counsellors) alle oper (or) be moare dæl (part) of heom (them) þæt béoy ichosen? þurg us and burg fæt loandes folk (the land's folk) on ure kuneriche (kingdom) habbet idon (have done and schullen don in be worbnesse (in the honour) of Gode, and on ure treow he (in fidelity to us) for be freme (advantuge) of be loande burg be besigte (ordinance) of bano toforeniseide (of those beforesaid ) rædesmen beo

(1) Igretinge, ilærde, &c., derived from corresponding words in A.S., beginning with ge, as gegretan, to greet, gelæred, gel@wed, &c. In the next stage-after about 1350—the same words are found without the i.

(2) Ileawede. This word, when first met with in the A.S., form gelewed, meant misled, and therefore unlearned or unlettered, as opposed to the learned class, i.e. lay as opposed to clerical, as above. Then, as ignorant persons were often vicious, it was used to designate such, as in Milton (“Paradise Lost”), “Yet leudly dar'st our ministry upbraid.” The third sense, misled by lust, is modern.

(3) Witen. In pure A.S, this should be wite, the proper form when the pronoun follows the verb. See Introd.“ A.S. Grammar."

(4) Willen, hoaten, &c., for A.S. willath, hátath, &c., show that the term. th is superseded by en, the only exceptions above being beoth and habbeth (A.S. habbath), for which we have later, ben or bin, and haven or have.

(5) See note 2, p. 19.

(6) Rædesmen, men of counsel or advice. In Sternhold's version of the first Psalm, we find :

“The man is blest that hath not bent

To wicked rede (counsel) his ear."

(7) Ichosen is an innovation. In Sem. Sax. it was icoren, or icore (see note 8, p. 17) for A.8. gecoren, or coren, fr. ceosan, to choose. This innovation became, with the mere loss of the prefix, permanent. Note, also, the interchange of ro and s, in the A.S. freosan, to freeze, wh. has p.p. froren; hence Milton, “The parching air burns frore” (“ Paradise Lost,” ii. 595). So in provincial dialects, “I warfor “I was," and in past tense of to be—“he was,” “they were." In Latin, the same feature was very common-flos, floris; arbor, arbos. Cf. also Ger. hase and eisen with Eng, hare and iron.

(8) Kuneriche, fr. A.S. cynrice, rule of a king, kingdom. The term. riche or rice, meaning itself rule or kingdom, was also used in A.S. as in abbotrice, bisceoprice, &c. The latter word we have retained in bishopric.

(9) Of than. Than is the dat. pl. for A.S. tham, and is so used by Layamon ; but it is noticeable that the inflexion is retained in the pron, and not in the noun rædesmen, in A.S. would be rædesmannum.

stedefæst and ilestinde' (lasting) in alle binge abuten ænde (without end).

And we hoaten” (command ) alle ure treowe (lieges) in (by) the treowbe (troth) bot heo (they) us ogen (one), ppt heo stedefæstliche healden and swerien (swear) to healden and to werien (defend) be isetnesses (ordinances) þæt beon imakede (made) and beon to makien, (be to make), þurg ban toforeniseide rædesmen, o'er (or) burg be moare dæl of heom (hem, them) alswo alse (just so as hit is beforen iseid.

And þæt æhc oper helpe (that each should help other) bæt (this) for to done (do) bi þan ilche ope (by the same oath) agenes alle men rigt for to done and to foangen (promote). And noan ne nime (and let no one take) of loande ne of egte (property) whereburg (whereby) this besigte (ordinance) muge beon may be) ilet (let, hindered) oper iwersod (or worsed, impaired) on onie wise (in any wise). And gif (if) oni (any man) ober (or) onie (any woman) cumen her ongenes (come here against, i.e. oppose this ordinance), we willen and hoaten (command ) bat alle ure treowe (lieges) heom healden (hold them) deadlicheistan (most deadly foes). And for bat (and because) we willen, bat bis beo stedefæst and lestinde (lasting) we senden gew (you) bis writ open, iseined (signed) wir ure seel to halden amangesó gewine hord (hoard, custody).

Witnesse usselven (ourselves) æt Lunden þane egtetenbe (on the eighteenth) day on be monbe of Octobr' in be two and fowertigbe geare' (fortieth year) of ure cruninge (from our crowning).

(1) Ilestinde, lestinde, examples of the part. term. inde, the precursor of ing. See note to last extract.

(2) Hoaten. In A.S. fr. hátan, to command, this would be we hátiath. Hátan, to command, pret. hæt, is not to be confounded with hátan, to call, to be called, pret. hatte, or perhaps heht, fr. wh. we have in Sem. Sax. pret. hahte, hichte, higte, hence 0.E. hight, was called. See note 1, p. 2.

(3) To healden, 10 werien, to makien. These are un-Anglo-Saxon forms. In A.S. the inf. was known by its term. an, and did not take to before it. See note 8, p. 5.

(4) Egte, property, goods. A.S. æht, Sem. Sax. agte, fr. A.S. ágan, to own, pret. æhte.

(5) Amanges, agenes. These words, it will be seen, had not the strengthening which now belongs to them.

(6) Thane, thare, as well as than, noted before, are relics of the A.S. decl. of the demonstrative pron. The first is the dat. sing. and the second the dat. sing. fem.; the masc. would have been tham or than. Our adv. than, therefore = A.S. than, at that time, and our there = A.S. there, at that place.

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