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2. A PRAYER. O God, without the sunshine of whose gracious eye the creature sits in darkness and in the shadow of death ; whose presence is the very life and true delight of those that love thee; cast down thine eyes of pity upon a lost sheep of Israel, which has wandered from thy fold into the desert of his own lusts. What dangers can I choose but meet, that bave run myself out of thy protection ? What sanctuary can secure me, that have left the covert of thy wings? What comfort can Í expect, O God, that have forsaken thee, the God of comfort and consolation ? Return thee, O great Shepherd of my soul, and with thy crook reduce me (lead me back) to thy fold; thou art my way, conduct me; thou art my light, direct me; thou art my life, quicken me. Disperse these clouds that stand betwixt thy angry face and my benighted soul; remove that cursed bar which my rebellion hath set betwixt thy deafened ear and my confused prayers, and let thy comfortable beams reflect upon me. Leave me not, O God, unto myself; O Lord, forsake me not too long, for in me dwells nothing but despair, and the terrors of hell have taken hold of me. Remove this heart of stone, and give me, O good God, a heart of flesh, that it may be capable” of thy mercies, and sensible of thy judgments. Plant in my heart a fear of thy name, and deliver my soul from carnal security. Order my affections according to thy will, that I may love what thou lovest, and hate what thou hatest. Kindle my zeal with a coal from thine altar, and increase my faith by the assurance of thy love. O holy fire, that always burneth, and never goeth out, kindle me. O sacred light, that always shineth, and art never dark, illuminate me. Osweet Jesus, let my soul always desire thee, and seek thee, and find thee, and sweetly rest in thee; be thou in all my thoughts, in all my words, in all my actions, that both my thoughts, my words, and my actions, being sanctified by thee here, I may be glorified by thee hereafter.

(1) “ His (Quarles's] prayers and meditations form a lasting monument of his fervid piety. The following [i.e. the above] beautiful supplication cannot fail of being acceptable to all who can sympathise with the expression of unfeigned deyotion."- Willmott.

(2) Capable of thy mercies, i.e." able to comprehend and appreciate thy mercies.” See note 3, p. 118.

THOMAS FULLER.'

1. THE GOOD SCHOOLMASTER.

(FROM "THE HOLY STATE," PUBLISHED IN 1642.)

THERE is scarce any profession in the commonwealth more necessary, which is so slightly (imperfectly) performed. The reasons whereof I conceive to be these : First, young scholars make this calling their refuge; yea, perchance, before they have taken any degree in the university, commence schoolmasters in the countrey," as if nothing else were required to set up this profession, but “onely" a rod and a ferula (handslapper). Secondly, others who are able, use it “onely” as a passage to better preferments, to patch the rents in their present fortune, till they can provide a new one, and betake themselves to some more gainful calling. Thirdly, they are disheartened from doing their best with (by) the miserable reward, which, in some places, they receive, being masters to the children, and slaves to their parents. Fourthly, being growri rich, they grow negligent, and scorn to touch the school but by the “ proxie”? of an usher. But see how well our schoolmaster behaves himself.

I. His genius inclines him with delight to his profession.

(1) “All his (Fuller's) compositions have the same faults and the same excellencies-a somewhat loose style, with many trite and romantic stories; but withal an amount of wit and beauty and variety of truth, combined with practical wisdom, unsurpassed in any of the writers of that age. Coleridge puts him next to Shakspere, as the writer who excites in him the sense and emotion of the marvellous.' The composition of all his works is strongly antithetic and euphuistic; but in him euphuism is part of the wit.'"-Angus's Handbook of English Literature.

(2) Prorie, or proxy, contracted from procuracy, wh. fr. Lat. procurare, to take care for another. Hence also, procurator, or proctor. In Hall's “Chronicles," we find “He sayde he would sent thither a sufficient procuracie and convenient proctors," &c. Davenant (“Gondibert") writes

“And think their generals but their deputies,

Who must for them by proxy wed the crown.” (3) Usher, huisher, husher, three forms of the same word, fr. Fr. huissier (fr. old Fr. huis, a door); one who lets in or out of the door, and figuratively, one who keeps the door, and therefore introduces to the elements, of knowledge. Ben Jonson uses huisher, and Strype husher, as equivalent to the older word usher, first employed by Gower.

Some men had as “lieve" be schoolboys as schoolmasters, to be tied to the school, as Cooper's (Latin) Dictionary and Scapula's [Greek] Lexicon are chained to the desk therein; and though great scholars, and skilful in other arts, are bunglers in this. But God of his goodness hath fitted several? (different) men for several (different) callings, that the necessity of Church and State, in all conditions, may be provided for. So that he who beholds the fabric thereof may say, God hewed out this stone, and appointed it to lie in this very place, for it would fit none other so well, and here it doth most excellent (answers perfectly). And thus God mouldeth some for the schoolmasters' life, [they] undertaking it with desire and delight, and discharging it with dexterity and happy success.

II. He studieth his scholars' natures as carefully as they their books, and ranks their dispositions (characteristics) into several forms (separate classes). And, though it may seem difficult for him in a great school to descend to all particulars, yet experienced schoolmasters may quickly make a grammar of boys' natures, and reduce them all (saving some few exceptions) to these general rules.

1. Those that are ingenious3 (clever) and industrious. The

(1) Lieve or lief, fr. A.S. leóf, dear, beloved. The comparative liefer or lever, and the superlative liefest, are found in Chaucer and Shakspere. The former has,

“Ne never had I thinge so lefe, ne lever,

As him." And the latter (“ Julius Cæsar ") “I had as lief not be," &c., and also (“ Henry VI.," pt. 2), “ Mine alderliefest (i.e. dearest of all) sovereign.” Had as lieve is still in use, but its exact significance is diversely interpreted. Some think had is a corruption of " would,” and take as lief for “as soon," while others treat the words literally, “have or hold dear." The difficulty is in the use of the past tense. Spenser has, “Death me liefer were to me (i.e. would be dearer to me) then such despight.”

(2) Several, separate; the latter direct fr. Lat. separare, the former from the equivalent Fr. sevrer, wh. is also fr. separare. Several is separa e, individual, as distinct from common, as “the several parts of a common whole.” The usage in the text is no longer maintained. Several now distinguishes individuals from the entire body, as“ There were many members present: I saw several of them walk out.

(3) Ingenious, fr. Lat. ingenium, wh. fr. in and gigno, to beget or produce, and seems to imply that which is born in the man, native ability or disposition, as distinguished from what he acquires by instruction or the experience of life. The noun ingeny was for a time in use; “ Ingeny and industry of mankind” (Hales). Of the same origin are ingenuity and ingeniousness, which, along with ingenious, were sometimes used where we now use ingenuousness and ingenuous. " He showed as little ingenuity as ingeniousness (ingenuousness) who cavilled at the map of

conjunction of two such planets (i.6. ability and industry) in a youth, presage' (presages) much good unto him. To such a lad, a frown may be a whipping, and a whipping a death; yea, where their master whips them once, shame whips them all the week after. Such natures he useth with all gentleness.

2. Those that are ingenious and idle. These think with the hare in the fable, that running with snails (so they count the rest of their schoolfellows) they shall come soon enough to the post, though sleeping a good while before their starting. Oh, a good rod would finely take them napping!

3. Those that are dull and diligent. Wines, the stronger they be, the more lees (dregs) they have when they are new. Many boys are muddy-headed till they be clarified with age; and such afterwards prove the best. Bristol diamonds are both bright and squared and pointed by nature, and yet are soft and worthless; whereas Orient ones in India are rough and rugged naturally. Hard, rugged, and dull natures of youth acquit themselves (come off, prove themselves) afterwards the jewels of the “ countrey ;” and therefore their dulness at first is to be “born” with, if they be diligent. That schoolmaster deserves to be beaten himself who beats nature in a boy for a fault; and I question whether all the whipping in the world can make their parts,3 which (the abilities of those who) are naturally sluggish, rise one minute before the hour nature hath appointed.

4. Those that are invincibly dull, and negligent also. Correction may reform the latter, not amend the former. All the whetting in the world can never set a “rasour's " edge on that which hath no steel in it. Such boys he consigneth over to other professions, Shipwrights and boatmakers will choose those crooked pieces of timber which other carpenters refuse. Those may make excellent merchants and mechanics which will not serve for scholars.

Greece for imperfect, because his father's house at Athens was no represented therein."

(1) Presage, fr. Lat. præsagium, to perceive acutely beforehand. The root sag is the same as that in sagar, keenly perceptive, sagacious, and is probably equivalent to the sap in sapiens, and therefore to the sav in Fr. savant.

(2) Bristol diamonds. Bits of quartz, so called because found near Bristol.

(3) Parts. This sense of the word, as denoting the faculties, qualities, or powers of man, seems to have commenced in the 16th century, and was maintained long after, though now, perhaps, obsolete. Shakspere (" Julius Cæsar ") has, “Cæsar's better parts shall now be crowned in Brutus.” “A man of parts," in Pope's time, was a common expression, for a “man of ability."

III. He is able, diligent, and methodical in his teaching; not leading them (his pupils) rather in a circle “then” forwards. He minces his precepts for children to swallow, hanging clogs on the nimbleness of his own soul, that his scholars may go along with him.

IV. He is, and will be known to be, an absolute monarch in his school. If cockering' mothers proffer him money to purchase their sons an exemption from his rod—to live, as it were, in a peculiar” (a private jurisdiction), out of their master's jurisdiction—with disdain he refuseth it, and scorns the late custom in some places of commuting whipping into money, and ransoming boys from the rod at a set price. If he hath a stubborn youth, correction-proof, he debaseth not his authority by contesting with him, but fairly, if he can, puts him away before his obstinacy hath infected others.

V. He is moderate in inflicting deserved correction. Many a schoolmaster better answereth the name of haidot pilns. (boya bruiser) “then” taida ywyòs (boy-trainer); rather tearing his scholars' flesh with whipping®“ then” giving them good education. No wonder if his scholars hate the Muses, being presented unto them in the shapes of fiends and furies. Junius complains “de insolenti carnificina(of the excessive brutality) of his schoolmaster, by whom “conscindebatur flagris septies

(1) Cocker, to pamper. A word of uncertain origin. Shakspere in “King John,” has

“Shall a beardless boy, A cockered silken wanton, brave our fields p" (2) Peculiar, fr. Lat. peculium, the private property acquired by a son or slave, and held with the father's or master's consent; hence private property in general, or a private or particular right. The Eng. word above is used in this sense; a peculiar-an independent private right or privilege as contrasted with the master's jurisdiction.

(3) Correction proof. Several compounds of proof are in use, as fire-proof, water-proof, meaning proof against fire and water. But what does proof in such compounds mean? This question is not easy to answer. It comes from A.S. prófian, to prove or try; hence proof means trial, test, and also, evidence or argument. Shakspere (" Troilus and Cressida") has, “ Troilus will stand to the proof;" and Milton, “And put to proof his high supremacy." Next we have it used elliptically for “ of proof," meaning after proof or trial, as in Shakspere ("Winter's Tale”), “I am proof against that title," i.e. I am of proved strength against, &c.; Milton, “Not proof enough such object to sustain." So correction-proof is “ of proof, or of proved resistance to or against correction." Milton uses the word peculiarly, after an adjective, as “massy-proof," "adamantean proof." See note on these words in “Studies in English Poetry,'p. 315.

(4) Junius, a Dutch physician and author of the 16th century.

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