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VERBS.

CONJUGATION OF VERBS. 1st Conjugation. 2nd Conjugation. 3rd Conjugation. | WEAK' VERBS STRONG VERBS, 1st class STRONG VERBS, 2nd class (adding-de or .te to (changing the root vowel (changing the root vowel form the preterite). in the pret., and keeping in the sing. of the pret.,

it throughout the tense, and again in the plural,

with p.p. ending in -en). with p.p. ending in -en). Lufian, to love. Lætan, to let or leave. Wrítan, to write.

INDICATIVE.

Present. Singular 1. luf-(ig)e læt-e

writ-e 2. luf-asta læt-st

writ-st 3. luf-að?

læt

writ Plural 1, 2, 3. luf-iar læt-ath (læt-e) writ-a/ (writ-e)

(luf-ige)

Preterite. Singular 1. luf-ode3 let

wrát 2. luf-odes let-e

writ-e 3. luf-ode

let

wrát Plural 1, 2, 3. luf-odon (edon) let-on

writ-on SUBJUNCTIVE.

Present. Sing. 1, 2, 3. luf-(ig) læt-o

writ-e Plural 1, 2, 3. luf-ion

læt-on

writ-on

Preterite. Sing. 1, 2, 3. luf-ode

let-e

wrít-e Plural 1, 2, 3. luf-odon (edon) let-on

writ-on IMPERATIVE.

Present. Singular 2. luf-a

læt

writ 4. (luf-ige) }

læt-ay (læt-e) writ-að (writ-ej

Plural

2. Sluf-iath )

(1) Weak verbs are those which form the preterite by ad lition of a syllable or syllables ; strong verbs are those which form the preterite by internal change of the root-vowels, and have past part. in en or n

(2) lufast, lufah. We see here the origin of the st and th in lovest and loveth. This th, as well as that of the 3rd per. pl. lufiath, and of the imperative lufiath, has no place in mod. Eng. In the first case it has become s, as loves ; in the second and third, it has vanished altogether. He loveth was common in 0.E., and is still preserved in the Authorised Version, and such forms as “listeneth (i.e. listen ye) lordings" are found in Chaucer.

(3) Lufode shows the origin of our common suffix -ed or d, as in loved.

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pl.

Examples (from extracts, pp. 1–12) of the 1st Conjugation

(adding -de or -te for the pret.)
wagian pret. sing. wagode se wudu wagode
gangan pret. sing. eode þá eode bæt wíf æfter him

eodon húndas eodon
bifian pret. pl. bifodon bá wudas bifodon

earmod he hí hofồ geearmod
bencan pret. sing. bohte þá þohte he
bringan p.p.

gebroht hí geurohte wron
secgan pret. sing. sæde him man sæde

, pl. sædon þá sædon hi

earnian

p.p.

Examples of the 2nd Conjugation (changing the root-vowel of the pre

terite, and retaining it throughout the tense.) standan pret. sing. stód

,, pl. stódon þá eá stódon
pret. sing. com hi on þæt lioht com

,, pl. comon hỉ of comon forlætan pret. sing. forlet

subj. pr. forlete þæt (Gregorius) ba burh forlete

cuman

Examples of the 3rd Conjugation (changing the root-vowel of the pre

terite, but not retaining it throughout the tense.) teon pret. sing. teah he teah to wuda

» pl. tugon

p.p. getogen swá getogen mann fleon pret. sing. fleah

» pl. flugon
gerund to fleonne þá be wilnað helle

biostra to flionne forleosan pres. sing. forlyst bonne forlyst he eall his arran pret. sing. pl. forleas

gód

(1) To writanne (for writing). Writanne is properly a dat. case (from nom. writan, to write), after the preposition to; afterwards confounded with the proper infinitive, which, as seen above, never took to before it in A.S.

(2) writende. Through the forms writende, writinde, writin, at length we have writing.

Wesan,

eom

singan pret. sing. pl. sang

sungon? p.p. gesungen hit gedafenað þæt Alleluia sy

gesungen AUXILIARY VERBS.

Habban, Willan, Scealan, to be.

to have. to will. to owe.

Nyllan,

to will not. INDICATIVE.

Present. Singular 1.

habbe (hæbbe) wille (nélle) sceal* 2. eart hæfst (hafast) wilt (nelt), scealt

3. is (ys) hæf83 (hafað). wile (nyle). sceal Plural 1, 2, 3. synd? habbat (hafiad) willad (nyllað) sculon

(syndon) (habbe) (wille) (nelle)' (sceolon)

Preterite. Singular 1.

hæfde

wolde (nolde) sceolde 2. wære hæfdest

was

woldest

sceoldest

(noldest)
3.
hæfde

wolde (nolde) sceolde Plural 1, 2, 3. wæron hæfdon

woldon

sceoldon 1 (noldon) SUBJUNCTIVE. Present.

) scyle Plural 1, 2, 3. sýn

habbon willon (nyllon)

Preterite. Sing. 1, 2, 3.

hæfde

wolde (nolde) sceolde

woldon Plural 1, 2, 3. wäron hæfdon

wæs

Sing. 1, 2, 3. {(8!6,} habbe (hæbbe) wille (nylle)

wære

{moldon} sceoldon

(1) We see in these changes of the root-vowel the origin of the double preterite forms still existing, as sang, sung; rang, rung; drank, drunk; began, begun, &c., in all which instances the former is to be preferred to the latter.

(2) synd. The three plural persons were early superseded by the Scandinavian are, introduced by the Danes into the northern dialects.

(3) hæft. It is easy to see that hath is a compressed form of hæf8, and had, of hæfde.

(4) Sceal, I owe, now a sign of tense, was at first simply an expression of duty or obligation, nearly equivalent to must. Chaucer has, “ By the faith I schal (i.e. I owe) to God." The A.S. had no future tense; but shall came early into use in 0.E, to indicate future time.

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PREPOSITIONS.
(Only those which occur in the extracts, pp. 1–12).

1. Governing the Dative.
æfter, after

As, æfter him æt, at

æt sumun sæle be, by, concerning

be þám hearpere betweox, among

betwux þam warum fram, from

fram graman generode of, out of

of ealdum spellum to, to

to Cristes mildheortnysse 2. Governing Dative or Accusative. for, for, on account. for þám swege gemong, among

gemong othrum mannum on, on, in, to

on þám lande

on þæt lioht mid, with

mid Godes fultume

3. Governing Genitive.
wyy, against, towards wyf þæs wifes.

STUDIES

IN

ENGLISH

PROSE.

I. FIRST STAGE.

Original English, or Anglo-Saxon.

(A.D. 600-1100.)

KING ALFRED.

THE STORY OF ORPHEUS.?

(FROM THE TRANSLATION OF “BOETHIUS DE CONSOLATIONE PHILOSOPHIÆ,"

WRITTEN ABOUT A.D. 890.)

WE sculon get, of ealdum leasum spellum, WE shall (must) yet (now) out-of

old

leasing (fabulous) tales be sum

bíspell

reccan. Hit gelámp gio to thee some (a certain) by-tale (parable) reckon (tell). It happened of yore

The pupil should carefully read over the Rules for Pronunciation given in the Introduction, and observe them in studying the above passages. Many points, it is true, of the ancient pronunciation still remain to be cleared up; but, meanwhile, it will be well for a learner to pronounce stánas, stonas; wif, wive; lufe, loov-é; gód, gõõd; húnd, hound; sceolde, shoold-é; cwæth, quath; thæt, that; geháten, yehoten; sweg, swey; and dag, day.

(1) The words in the above passage entirely unrepresented in mod. Eng. (some of them, however, traceable in the Semi-Saxon stage) appear to be the following :-gelimpan, to happen ; theod, nation ; swithe, very; ungefreglice, extraordinarily; sweg, sound (whence swey, to sound, in Piers Ploughman); bifian, to tremble; , river; anda, hate; oleccan, to flatter; uton (a sort of verbal conjunction), let us; esne, young man; gemære, boundary; theostru, or thýstru, darkness; fulfremman, to practise.

(2) Eald-um leas-um spell-um, dat. pl., governed by of. For the term. um, Bee Introd. From eald, we have eld, elder, old and the compounds, alderman, Aldgate, &c. fr. leas, false, or devoid of, old Eng., leasing ("them that speaks

B

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