Hard Real-Time Computing Systems: Predictable Scheduling Algorithms and Applications
Real-time systems play a crucial role in our society, supporting several important application areas, such as nuclear and chemical plant control, flight control systems, traffic control in airports, harbors, and train stations, telecommunication systems, industrial automation, robotics, defensive military systems, space missions, and so on. Despite such a large number of critical applications, most of the current real-time systems are still designed and implemented using low level programming and empirical techniques without the support of a precise scientific methodology. The consequence of this approach is a lack of reliability, which in critical applications may cause serious damage to the environment or result in significant human loss. Hard Real-Time Computing Systems: Predictable Scheduling Algorithms and Applications is a basic treatise on real-time computing, with particular emphasis on predictable scheduling algorithms. The main objectives of the book are to introduce the basic concepts of real-time computing, illustrate the most significant results in the field, and provide the basic methodologies for designing predictable computing systems which can be used to support critical control applications. Hard Real-Time Computing Systems: Predictable Scheduling Algorithms and Applications presents fundamental concepts which are clearly defined at the beginning of each chapter, and each algorithm is described through concrete examples, figures and tables. After introducing the basic concepts of real-time computing, the book covers such topics as taxonomy of scheduling algorithms, models of tasks with explicit time constraints, handling tasks with precedence relations, periodic and aperiodic task scheduling, access protocols to shared resources, asynchronous communication mechanisms, schedulability analysis, and handling overload conditions. Hard Real-Time Computing Systems: Predictable Scheduling Algorithms and Applications was written for use as a textbook and serves as an excellent reference for those interested in real-time computing for designing and/or developing predictable control applications, which may include robotics, plant control, monitoring systems, data acquisition, simulations of real-world systems, virtual reality, interactive games, etc.
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68 PERFORMANCE EVALUATION
RESOURCE ACCESS PROTOCOLS
72 THE PRIORITY INVERSION PHENOMENON
73 PRIORITY INHERITANCE PROTOCOL
74 PRIORITY CEILING PROTOCOL
75 STACK RESOURCE POLICY
32 JACKSONS ALGORITHM
33 HORNS ALGORITHM
34 NONPREEMPTIVE SCHEDULING
35 SCHEDULING WITH PRECEDENCE CONSTRAINTS
PERIODIC TASK SCHEDULING
42 RATE MONOTONIC SCHEDULING
43 EARLIEST DEADLINE FIRST
44 DEADLINE MONOTONIC
45 EDF WITH DEADLINES LESS THAN PERIODS
52 BACKGROUND SCHEDULING
53 POLLING SERVER
54 DEFERRABLE SERVER
55 PRIORITY EXCHANGE
56 SPORADIC SERVER
57 SLACK STEALING
58 NONEXISTENCE OF OPTIMAL SERVERS
59 PERFORMANCE EVALUATION
DYNAMIC PRIORITY SERVERS
62 DYNAMIC PRIORITY EXCHANGE SERVER
63 DYNAMIC SPORADIC SERVER
64 TOTAL BANDWIDTH SERVER
65 EARLIEST DEADLINE LATE SERVER
66 IMPROVED PRIORITY EXCHANGE SERVER
67 IMPROVING TBS
HANDLING OVERLOAD CONDITIONS
82 LOAD DEFINITIONS
83 PERFORMANCE METRICS
84 SCHEDULING SCHEMES FOR OVERLOAD
85 PERFORMANCE EVALUATION
KERNEL DESIGN ISSUES
92 PROCESS STATES
93 DATA STRUCTURES
95 KERNEL PRIMITIVES
96 INTERTASK COMMUNICATION MECHANISMS
97 SYSTEM OVERHEAD
APPLICATION DESIGN ISSUES
102 TIME CONSTRAINTS DEFINITION
103 HIERARCHICAL DESIGN
104 A ROBOT CONTROL EXAMPLE
EXAMPLES OF REALTIME SYSTEMS
activities aperiodic requests application tasks arrival assigned average response behavior buffer competitive factor completion context switch control system critical section cumulative value data structures deadlines less defined device earliest deadline environment example feasible schedule function hard real-time hard tasks Hence highest priority highest-priority idle illustrated in Figure implementation interrupt handling interval job Ji kernel Lemma maximum blocking maximum lateness mechanism number of tasks on-line operating systems optimal overload parameters performance periodic instances periodic task set pointer precedence constraints precedence graph predictable preempted preemption level primitive Priority Ceiling Protocol Priority Inheritance Protocol priority inversion processor utilization factor Rate-Monotonic schedulability ready queue real-time computing real-time systems real-time tasks relative deadline replenishment require robot schedulability analysis schedule produced scheduling algorithm sensor server capacity set of periodic shared resources shown in Figure slack Sporadic Server synchronization Theorem timer upper bound whereas worst-case execution
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