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jurious, and infignificant anecdotes, as are frequently introduced into the memoirs of literary men, who perhaps, like himself, had no ambition to obtain the notice of future biographers, and,

"That fecond life in others breath, Th' eftate, which wits inherit after death." ROBERTSON (JOSEPH) was defcended from a refpectable family, which from time immemorial poffeffed a confiderable eftate at Rutter, in the parish of Appleby, in Wettmoreland. His father was an eminent maltfter; and his mother, the only daughter of Mr. Edward Stevenfon, of Knipe, in the fame county, coufin to Edmund Gibfon, bishop of London. He was born at this latter place, Auguft 28, 1726; but his father foon afterwards removing to Rutter, he was fent, at a proper age, to the free-fchool at Appleby, where he received the rudiments of claffical learning under Mr. Richard Yates, a man of eminent abilities, and diftinguished character in his profeflion. From thence, in 1746, he went to Queen's college, Oxford, where he took his degree in arts, with confiderable reputation for his ingenuity and learning. On his receiving orders he was, for fome time, curate to the celebrated Dr. Sykes, at Rayleigh in Effex," with whom," fays archdeacon Blackburne, "his liberal principles, with refpect to religion and government, would meet with ample encouragement *." In 1758, he was inftituted to the vicarage of Herriard in Hampshire; in 1770, to the rectory of Sotton in Effex; and in 1779, to the vicarage of Horncaftle in Lincolnshire, to which he was prefented by his relation, Dr. Edmund Law, bishop of


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great expectation of him, by his ability learning, and industry *"

In 1775, a remarkable incident happened, which excited the public attention. A young woman whofe name was Mifs Butterfield, was accufed of poifoning Mr. Wm. Scawen, of Woodcote lodge in Surrey. Mr. Robertfon thought her very cruelly treated, and took an active part in her defence. On this occafion, he publifhed a letter to Mr. Sanxay, a furgeon, on whofe teftimony Mifs Butterfield had been committed to prifon; in which he very feverely animadverts on the conduct and evidence of that gentleman. After fhe had been honourably acquitted at the affizes at Croydon, he publifhed a fecond pamphlet, containing, "Obfervations on the cafe of Mifs Butterfield," fhewing the hardships the had fuftained, and the neceflity of profecuting her right in a court of juftice: that is, her claim to a confiderable legacy, which Mr. Scawen had bequeathed her by a will, executed with great formality, two or three years before his death. The caufe was accordingly tried in Doctors Commons. But though it was univerfally agreed, that this unfortunate young woman had been unjustly accufed, and that Mr. Scawen had been induced, by falfe fuggeftions, to fign another teftamentary paper, in which her name was not mentioned, yet no redrefs could be obtained, as the judge obferved, "that it was the bufinefs of the court to determine the caufe, according to what the teftator had done; not according to what he ought to have



Mr. R. is faid to have been the author of a ufeful tract, published in 1781, "On Culinary Poifons." In 1782, he publifhed an elegant little vo lume for the improvement of young people in reading, intituled, " An In troduction to the fudy of Polite Literature." This performance was mentioned as the first volume of an intended feries on the fame fubject; but the Second never appeared, owing, as it is fuppofed, to the plagiarism of onet, who reprinted the greatest part of the volume then published in a mean and vulgar tract, for the use of Sundayfchools.

lifhed a medical work of his friend Sir In the fame year he revised and pub

* Memoirs of Thomas Hollis, efq. vol. I. p. 448. + Mr. Paley. Clifton

Clifton Wintringham, "De Morbis quibufdanı Commentarii," in one volume 8vo; to which a fecond volume was afterwards added in 1791.

In 1785, he published an Effay on Punctuation, in 12mo. In this treaLife he has illuftrated a dry and unpromiting fubject, with a variety of elegant and entertaining examples: a fourth edition of this effay was printed in 1796.

In 1788, Mr. R. furprifed the learned world by a publication, intituled, "The Parian Chronicle, or the Chronicle of the Arundelian Marbles, with a Differtation concerning its authenticity." The tendency of this work is to thew, that the authenticity of this famous infeription is extremely quef

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The authors of the "English Review," in their account of this publication, fay, "However the commonly received fyftem of antient chronology may fuffer by this difcovery, we cannot help giving our tribute of applaufe to the ingenuity, acuteness, and learning, of the author. The reader, who, on opening this volume, expects only to find a difcuffion of fome dry points of antiquity, will find hiinfelf agreeably difappointed, when he is introduced into a field of general history and enlarged erudition *.'

The learned compilers of the Encyclopædia Britannica exprefs their opinion of the above-mentioned work in the following terms: "In this differtation much ingenuity, as well as judgement, and a great extent of antient learning, are difplayed. Some anfwers have appeared; but none of them -calculated to remove the objections, or materially to affect the arguments, which have been fiated with fo much learning and ingenuity against it f.”

In 1795, Mr. R. publifhed a tranfJation of Telemachus, with notes, and the life of Fenelon, in two volumes 12mo; on which the Reviewer in the Gentleman's Magazine obferves, that,

*this work bears the marks of that elegance, tafte, and learning, for which the tranflator, or the annotator, is eminently distinguished 1.”

By a note to the differtation on the

English Review for April 17 8, 275. + Encyclopædia Britannica, articles Arundel and Chronology.

Gent. Mag. vol. LXVI. p. 47.

Parian Chronicle | it appears, that he was concerned in writing the Critical Review" for twenty-one years, from Auguft 1764, to September 1785, inclufive. During this period he was the author of above 2620 articles, on theological, claflical, poetical, and mifcellaneous publications [.

In 1797, Mr. Robertfon published "Obfervations on the Act for augmenting the Salaries of Curates, in four Letters to a Friend," 8vo. " "Thefe letters contain an animated reprefentation of the hardships, which may attend the rigorous application of the Curates' act, when extended to a living of eighty or a hundred pounds a year; with fome juft and poignant observations on the little attention and encouragement paid to probity and learning in the prefent age tt." Thefe obfervations were written in confequence of what the author thought a difproportionate and oppreffive inforcement of the Curates' act, by which the inmane and confiderate bishop when the vicar was above 70 years of age, and in a precarious ftate of health, reduced his fall living, worth about 401. a year, to lefs than twenty!

In 1798, he publifhed "An Effay on the Education of Young Ladies, addreffed to a perfon of diftinction, 8vo. and the next year, "An Ellay on the Nature of the English Verfe, with Directions for reading Poetry," 12mo.

Mr. Robertfon married in the year 1758, Mifs Raikes, the daughter of Mr. Timothy Raikes, apothecary, in London, by whom he had feveral children, who died in their infancy. With this lady, who poffeffed many amiable virtues, he found his house the conftant refidence of domeftic felicity.

[To thefe Memoirs, printed literally from Mr. Robertion's hand writing. we have only to add that he died Jan. 19, 1802, in his 76th year.]

Jan. 13.

Mr. URBAN, THE following charge by the Rev.

James Cowe, vicar of Sunbury, Middlefex, delivered to the master of the workhouse, at a veftry, held April 13, 1801, for the purpofe of introducing better orders and regulations in the workhoufe, deferves a wide circulation :

Parian Chronicle, p. 205
As appears by a lift in MS.
*Gent. Mag. vol. LXVII. p. 314.

†† European Magazine, April 1797.

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"At a time when many of the poor are labouring under peculiar dithculties, and are exerting their utmoft efforts to maintain their families with out parochial aid, it feems highly neceflary to fiate to you the principle, which ought both to actuate you, as mafter of our workhoute, and the poor who are fupported in it at fo great an expence.

In the first place, you are hereby required to maintain order and regula rity, and to reprefs idlenefs and profligacy, among thofe entrusted to your care. With this important view, none of the poor are to be permitted to leave the premifles of the workhoufe without your knowledge and confent.

"In the next place, you are to keep them employed in picking oakum, horfe-hair, wool, and feathers; in making mops, cutting furze, knitting ftockings; in works of hutbandry, or other neceffary and ufeful occupations; or, they may be more particularly employed in the various branches of the woollen and worfied manufactory. Remember, however, that to procure regular employment for them, is a moft important part of your duty. You are not to allow any to be idle, who are capable of labour.

"In carrying on these beneficial objects, we trust that you will pay peculiar attention to the manners and conduct of thofe who, through their own mifmanagement, improvidence, or vices, are reduced to indigence, and become burdenfome to the parifh; and that you will endeavour to reform their principles, to lead them to a more fober and orderly mode of life, and to introduce moral habits among them. We expect that you will make a marked diftinction between the indufirious and the idle, the orderly and the turbulent. And we highly recommend it to you to give premiuius occafionally (fuppofe once a month) to the molt induftrious and deferving among the poor, and thereby excite a laudable fpirit of exertion and improvement. But thofe who do not perform their bufinets peaceably and properly, or are indolent, refractory, or profligate, are to be reftricted in their diet, or to be otherwife punished.

"With refpect to the children, you are to take the utmost pains to mftract them in reading and in the Church Catechifm, to form them to early habits of induftry, piety, and virtue; and to

fhew them, as they grow up, the im portance of making fome provition for themfelves against sickness, accident, or the infirmities or old age. They are often to be reminded, that, through the bleffings of Providence, their chief prefervative from future difirefs must be their own prudence, aconomy, and indufiry. You are, therefore, to di rect and encourage their exertions, to elevate their minds gradually to a fiateof manlinefs and independence, and to inculcate gratitude, contentment, and benignity of heart.

"A book is to be procured, in which fhall be inferted the names, ages, times of admiflion, and former occupations, of all the poor in the workhoufe; and a weekly account fhall be taken, fpecifying how each of them has been employed, for the infpection of the minifter, parifh-officers, and other refpectable inhabitants.

"While the poor are to be thus orderly, and thus ufe fully employed, according to their ages and abilities, you are further required to maintain and clothe them properly, to pay great and daily attention to their health and cleanlinefs, to make them attend public worthip every Sunday, and to treat them at all times with humanity. And we earneftly requelt, that on a Sunday evening you will aflemble them to-gether, and read to them fome portion of Scripture, and fome fermon or religious tract, which will be put into your hands, for the purpose of inftructing the ignorant, comforting the unfortunate, and reforming the vicious or the thoughtiefs.

"While you are to be thus affiduous in promoting thofe regulations that are effential to industry and good morals, we cannot omit this opportunity of mentioning another point," of no finall importance to the health and comfort of the poor. It will naturally be expected, that cleanliness among the poor, and in the workhoufe, fhould be a conftant object of your attention. It will alfo, we are confident, be your with and endeavour to prevent any contagious diforder from fpreading. For thefe purpofes, we think that the work-room should be well ventilated. The floors and the machinery fhould be regularly washed once a week with warm water. The bed-rooms fhould be fwept every morning, and washed every week; and the windows kept


open all day. And, befides these falutary precautions, to which we hope you will pay ferious attention, you are occafionally to request the parithofficers to have the different apartments of the house white-washed with hot lime.

"In fhort, we trust that you will ever bear in mind the momentous duty you have this day undertaken, and will ufe your utmoft exertions to discharge it in a manner that will give general fatisfaction to the parish, will procure refpect from the poor, and will fecure

the approbation of God and of your own confcience."

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OUR early infertion of the fol

which had been inftilled early into her mind by her reputed mother, were too fuccefsfully communicated to her illfated lord.

7. When did the title of baronet, in the antient family of Jocelyn, of Hidehall, become extinct? Qu. is the Baronetage, about to be published by Betham, to include all the families to whom patents have been granted, whether furviving or extinct? °C. P. H. W.



Shrewsbury, Feb. 2. EING in Birmingham lately, I went into St. Philip's church, and, among the monumental inferiptions in that beautiful ftructure, felected the following on a neat tablet against one of the North pillars. As it perpetuates

Ylowing queries would extremely the memory of a great and good man,

oblige a conftant reader and his friend.

1. Did Mary, Countess of Pembroke and Montgomery (relict of Earl Henry), leave iffue by her fecond hufband North Bernard?

2. What iffie-male did Anthony Browne, the first Viscount Montacute, leave, and to whom is that title fuppofed to belong?

3. Whether William Brabazon, the ninth earl of Meath, whofe death is recorded in your vol. LXVII. p, 529, was fucceeded by his brother John, or, as Kearfley has it, by his coutin, Ed

ward Brabazon ?

4. Was not the celebrated beauty, Lady Ranelagh (whom Fielding, in his Tom Jones, felects as a model of beauty), Catherine Boyle, daughter of Richard, Earl of Cork, and lady of Arthur, fecond Viscount Ranelagh, father of the first Earl of R.?

5. The Moores of Salop, feated at Larden, were faid to be defcended from the fame flock as Moore, Earl of Drogheda. Qu. Do any of that family now exift, and where is an account of them to be met with?

6. Lady Edward Fitzgerald, better known by the name of Pamela, is generally faid to be a daughter of the infamous Duke of Orleans by Madame de Genlis, ci-devant dutchefs of Sillery; but I find that that lady, in her "Tales of the Caftle," afferts, that the was the daughter of an English Capt. Seymour. What iffue did Lord Edward leave by her? Before his connection with her it appears that he had ferved with honour in the army, and deferved the character drawn by his coufin, Mr, Fox: the principles

I make no doubt of your giving it a place in your valuable Museum. "Near this place are depofited the remains of the Hon. PETER OLIVER, LL.D. formerly

His Majefty's Chief-justice of the Province of Maffachufett's Bay, in New England.

In the year 1776,

on a diffolution of government,
he left his native country;

but in all the confequent calamities his magnanimity remained cufhaken; and (though the fource of his misfortunes) nothing could diffolve his attachment to the British Government, nor leffen his love and loyalty to his Sovereign.

On Thursday, the 13th of October, 1791, in the true faith and hope of a Chritian, be refigned this life, aged 78." Yours, &c.



D. P.

Feb. 8.

T is now much more than a century fince the following eftimate was made. If the globe of the earth be divided into 30 parts, the Pagans inhabit 19, the Mahometans 6, and the Chrif tians 5, of thofe parts. Since that pe riod, our improvements in geographical knowledge have been confiderably enlarged. Many new and moft extenfive countries, replenished with numerous inhabitants, have been difcovered, and the interior parts of other countries more thoroughly explored; fo that the above eftimate can be no longer confidered as accurate. Perhaps fome of your readers may be induced to communicate a more exact calculation.

Yours, &c.

A. U.


Mr. URBAN, British Mufeum, Jan. 11. PARTIAL and mutilated pub

penfably neceffary, with undaunted fortitude, be meritorious, how much

A lication of the accompanying more praife-worthy, how much more

effay, in which it was my anxious defire to do juftice to two very worthy characters, and one of them alfo very diftinguished by rank in the year 1800, having appeared in print; I fhall efteem it as a great favour if you will infert the whole of it, if not too long, as I wrote it on the fpur of the occafion, and on the best authority, in your ufe ful and entertaining Mifcellany. I conceive it to be entirely within the line of your plan, which is to catch the ftriking features and characters of the times, and hold what is praife-worthy and to be admired up to public view and for general imitation. It appears, indeed, rather late, but ftill it may not be without fome good effects. T. M.

FIRMNESS IN DANGER: A Biographical Sketch, written towards the clofe of the Year 1800. IT is the peculiar province of hiftory, as well as the duty of the biographer, to felect from the great mafs of human events, as they are perpetually rolling, on, those more striking incidents, thofe deeds of exalted worth, which, when blazoned on her recording page, may produce the effect of exciting, in future ages, a noble fpirit of emulation. Whether thefe fplendid inftances of magnanimous virtue in individuals force themfelves upon the attention of the hiftorian while he contemplates the field of military glory, whither the ardent love of his country and juft indignation at her wrongs tranfport the impetuous youth and urge him to plunge, unterrified, amid the fierceft alarms of battle; or whether they take place in the more tranquil walk of civil and domestic life; that duty is equally incumbent: nor can the pen of genius ever be more nobly employed than in holding up fuch illuftrious examples as models of imitation to admiring potterity. It must ftill, however, be owned, that the triumphs of heroes, even in a juft caufe, rather dazzle than delight us: we always connect with thofe triumphs the horrors and carnage of the enfanguined plain, the fhrieks of the unfriended orphan, and the tears of the difconfolate widow. The milder glories that illumine the path of the juft in civil and domeftic life, are mixed with no fuch difgufting alloy. But, if to bare the gleaming fteel, when indifGENT. MAG. February, 1802.

Chriftian-like, is it to prevent that neceflity, in the firft infiance, by acts of forbearance and benignity!

It has been too much the fathion of late years to call in the affiftance of the military upon every trifling difturbance in the inetropolis, when a vigorous exertion of the great civil force, wifely intrufied by the conftitution to the Chief Magifirate, would alone have effectually quelled every effort of fedition to difurb its tranquillity. Thefe moderate and equitable (though rather, in this martial age, unfathionable) fentiments are well known to have pervaded the breaft, and regulated the conduct, of the late active and worthy lordmayor HARVEY CHRISTIAN COMBE, efq. than whom, it may be truly affirmed, none of his predeceffors ever filled the civic chair with more dif tinguifhed honour to himself, with more folid advantage to his fellowcitizens, and with more juft and decided applaufe from the impartial publick in general. This gentleman had well confidered the very arduous office which he had taken upon himself in times the most critical and diftrelling, perhaps, ever experienced in this country;contendingpartiesrunning high,even to the extreme point of diffention; the numerous claffes of toiling mechanicks unable, by the utmott exertion of their induftry, to provide their families with the neceflaries of life at their prefent unequal price; and thoufands of the fill poorer fort abfolutely famishing in the fireets, goaded by defpair to commit the worli crimes, and brave every fpecies of punishment! Tumults and rifings were therefore naturally to be expected throughout the whole of the prefent critical year; but, well aware of the vaft power with which, as before obferved, on great exigencies, the conftitution has wifely armed the chief magistrate of the first commercial city in the world, he was determined, when neceflity called it forth, to depend on that force alone; and, from the first moment of his entering on his high function, he not only took effectual care that the police of Loudon fhould be kept up on the most respectable footing, but be ready at a moment's call, and ever prepared to act with firmness and vigour. Mr. Combe atten


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