In Vitro Methods in Aquatic Ecotoxicology

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Springer Science & Business Media, 14 ago 2003 - 472 páginas

For the first time, here is a book that focuses on in vitro approaches to the study of the toxicology of polluting agents (including heavy metals, radionuclides, micro-organics, estrogenic compounds, and complex mixtures) in the aquatic environment. The importance of in vitro methods is that they allow standardised techniques to be developed and validated for substance and species specific experiments in a controlled way. Also, they allow mechanistic studies without the problems of individual variation between animals and environmental stress.

 

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Índice

INTRODUCTION BASIC REQUIREMENTS FOR IN VITRO APPLICATIONS IN AQUATIC ECOTOXICOLOGY
1
CULTURE TECHNIQUES
7
BASIC METHODS AND MEDIA FOR EUKARYOTIC CELLS IN VITRO
9
21 ANIMALS
10
23 PROCEDURES
11
24 CULTURE MEDIA
15
25 CONCLUSIONS
16
DEVELOPMENT OF PRIMARY TISSUE TECHNIQUES FOR USE IN ECOTOXICOLOGY SOME CONSIDERATIONS NECESSARY PRIOR TO ...
17
IN VITRO BIOMARKERS OF RADIATION EXPOSURE IN THE ENVIRONMENT
277
123 CYTOGENETIC ASSAYS
280
124 USING CYTOGENETIC BIOMARKERS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL BIODOSIMETRY
286
ECOTOXICOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF COMPLEX MIXTURES
293
133 PRINCIPAL ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES USED FOR ECOTOXICOLOGICAL EVALUATION
298
134 GLOBAL ECOTOXICITY EVALUATION
300
135 NONFISH CELL CULTURES
302
136 FISH CELL CULTURES
307

32 INTRODUCTION
18
33 METHODOLOGY
21
34 CELL POPULATIONBASED IN VITRO APPROACHES TO NORMAL TISSUE TOXICOLOGY
23
35 VALIDATION OF DATA FROM PRIMARY EPITHELIAL CULTURE SYSTEMS
28
36 CONCLUSIONS
29
CULTURED EPITHELIA FROM FISH GILLS
35
42 GILL CELLS IN MONOLAYER CULTURES
36
43 CULTURED GILL EPITHELIA
37
44 CONCLUDING REMARKS
48
END POINT AND TOOLS FOR IN VITRO TOXICOLOGY
53
APPLICATION OF IN VITRO TECHNIQUES IN STUDIES OF BIOMARKERS AND ECOTOXICOLOGY
55
52 DETOXIFICATION SYSTEMS OF INVERTEBRATES AND AQUATIC VERTEBRATES AS BIOINDICATORS OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLL...
60
53 PRIMARY CELL CULTURES
61
54 USES OF CELL LINES IN TOXICOLOGY
65
55 NONMAMMALIAN TISSUE CULTURE
68
56 POTENTIAL OF LOWER VERTEBRATE AND INVERTEBRATE TISSUE CULTURE IN TOXICOLOGY
69
END POINTS FOR IN VITRO TOXICITY TESTING WITH FISH CELLS
77
62 CELL SYSTEMS FROM TELEOST FISH
78
63 END POINTS IN IN VITRO ASSAYS
82
64 PERSPECTIVES
124
TOXICOGENOMIC TECHNOLOGIES FOR IN VITRO AQUATIC TOXICOLOGY
143
72 TOXICOGENOMICS
144
74 MICROARRAYS
149
75 PROTEOMICS
152
76 CONCLUSIONS
155
DELAYED AND INDIRECT GENOTOXICITY A PARADIGM SHIFT IN TOXICOLOGY?
161
82 THE BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF IONIZING RADIATION
162
83 RADIATIONINDUCED BYSTANDER EFFECTS
169
84 A LINK BETWEEN RADIATIONINDUCED GENOMIC INSTABILITY AND BYSTANDER EFFECTS
174
85 CONCLUSIONS
175
SPECIFIC TOXINS AND TOXIC GROUPS
183
TOXICOGENOMIC APPLICATIONS IN ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY
185
92 METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES FOR DIFFERENTIAL GENE EXPRESSION
187
93 RESTRICTION ENDONUCLEASEFACILITATED ANALYSIS OF GENE EXPRESSION
188
94 SUBTRACTIVE HYBRIDIZATION SH METHODS
189
METHODS AND TOXICOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS
194
96 EVALUATION
213
BIOMARKERS TO ASSESS ENDOCRINE DISRUPTION OF REPRODUCTION IN BIVALVES
221
102 HORMONAL REGULATION OF REPRODUCTION
223
103 BIOMARKERS TO ASSESS ENDOCRINE EFFECTS ON REPRODUCTION
225
104 CASE STUDIES
233
105 GENERAL CONCLUSIONS
235
FISH CELLS USED TO DETECT AQUATIC CARCINOGENS AND GENOTOXIC AGENTS
239
112 IN VITRO ASSAYS FOR THE EVALUATION OF MUTAGENICITY CARCINOGENICITY OF CHEMICALS
241
113 FISH CELLS IN THE GENETIC ASSESSMENT OF CONTAMINANTS TO WILD POPULATIONS OF AQUATIC ORGANISMS
255
114 CONCLUDING REMARKS
262
137 TOXICITY IDENTIFICATION AND REDUCTION EVALUATION PROCEDURES
313
138 CONCLUSIONS AND LIKELY FUTURE TRENDS
317
IN VITRO ECOTOXICOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF AQUATIC SEDIMENTS
325
142 ASSESSING THE CHARACTERISTICS OF AQUATIC SEDIMENTS
327
143 SEDIMENT COLLECTION STORAGE AND PREPARATION GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS
329
144 SEDIMENT PREPARATION METHODS
332
145 IN VITRO TESTS FOR THE TOXICOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF SEDIMENTS
345
146 USE OF MICROSCALE TESTS FOR ASSESSING SEDIMENT TOXICITY
347
147 USE OF IN VITRO CELL CULTURES IN DETERMINING SEDIMENT TOXICITY
351
148 CONCLUSIONS
356
149 PERSPECTIVES AND FUTURE RESEARCH
357
PRACTICAL ISSUES
373
IN VITROIN VIVO BRIDGING APPROACHESVALIDATING THE RELEVANCE OF IN VITRO TECHNIQUES WITH REFERENCES TO THE W...
375
153 INHERENT ADVANTAGES OF IN VITRO AQUATIC TOXICOLOGY RESEARCH MODELS
377
154 INHERENT PROBLEMS WITH IN VITRO RESPONSES IN AQUATIC TOXICOLOGICAL STUDIES
378
155 AQUATIC TOXICOLOGYIN VITROIN VIVO RESPONSES
379
156 CELL LINES VERSUS PRIMARY CULTURE
380
157 REDUCTION AND REPLACEMENT OF IN VIVO TESTS
381
158 BRIDGING THE IN VIVOIN VITRO DIVIDE
386
159 WHY PRIMARY CELL CULTURES?
388
1510 IN VITROIN VIVO END POINTS AND RESPONSES
389
1512 CONCLUSIONS
390
CELL CULTURE APPROACHES IN AQUATIC IMMUNOTOXICOLOGY
397
162 CELL CULTURES AND AQUATIC IMMUNOTOXICOLOGY
398
163 HAEMOPOIETIC CELL CULTURES
401
164 LYMPHOCYTE CULTURES
402
165 PHAGOCYTE CULTURES
405
166 CONCLUSIONS
411
VALIDATION OF ALTERNATIVE METHODS TO ANIMAL TESTING
419
172 THE ECVAM VALIDATION PROCESS
421
173 THE ICCVAM TEST METHOD EVALUATION PROCESS
425
174 REGULATORY TESTS
427
175 CONCLUSIONS
429
LEGAL AND ETHICAL ASPECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY WITH SPECIFIC REFERENCES TO IN VITRO APPROACHES
433
184 THE NUREMBERG CODE AND ITS IMPACT ON ANIMAL TOXICOLOGY
435
THE ANTHROPOCENTRIC VIEW IS MADE LEGAL
436
187 THE PROBLEM OF ASSESSMENT OF VALUES BY ONE GROUP OR SPECIES ON BEHALF OF ANOTHER
437
188 DEEP ECOLOGY AND THE BIOCENTRIC VIEWPOINT APPLIED TO TOXICOLOGY
438
189 ALTRUISM TOWARD ANIMALS IN RESEARCH
439
THE MATHEMATICS OF CELL GROWTH IN CULTURE
441
193 HOW IS GROWTH EXPRESSED?
442
194 SIGNIFICANCE OF CELL GROWTH MODELLING
444
195 LINKING ORGANIZATIONAL LEVELS
450
196 CONCLUSIONS
455
CONCLUSIONS
457
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