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those of the Andes of Chili and Peru. The labour of lithophytes, even on so large a scale as the coral reefs of the southern hemisphere, can only be considered as mere grains of sand compared to the vast edifices raised by volcanic force. While the nature of the rocks, as well as the existence of active volcanoes on the most gigantic scale in the south-east portion of the globe, shows the prodigious extent of volcanic action still in operation within the vast caverns of the subaqueous part of our planet. Neither is it necessary to imagine that such elevations should take place at one period. For, as Mr. Lyell truly remarks, the Alps and Appenines afford unquestionable evidence of at least two distinct periods of elevation. It is therefore by no means improbable that these progressive elevations may now be going on so as to upraise a whole continent in the southern hemisphere, like that of Australia, at no very distant period.
Mr. Lyell, however, seems to conIclude that the amount of subsidence by earthquakes equals that of volcanic elevation, or the islets which stud the Pacific Ocean, would before now have been elevated in a sort of connected or continent form. This opinion has not any means of confirmation or refutation, for we know the effects of subaqueous elevation, whether by volcanic energy or the coralline animalculæ, but we have no means of ascertaining subaqueous degradation.
It is extremely well worthy of consideration in a nation that has already established a vast colony (and which colony ultimately bids fair to reward the parent state for its sacrifices), to anticipate as much as possible two rival nations who have shown some jealousy at our geographical discoveries in the southern hemisphere. England cannot employ her enterprising sons better than in carrying on such maritime surveys.
The chief novel feature in Mr. Lyell's volume is a coloured Map, showing the extent of surface in Europe supposed to have been covered by water since the commencement of the deposition of the older tertiary strata. Though our author acknowledges that he has constructed his map chiefly from that of M. A. Boué, this actual view of the district included in the tertiary formations,
would have been much better defined, had the shading (or ruling) been less heavy on the land than on the portion of sea included within the supposed boundaries of these deposits, Presuming the outlines and sinuosities by which the secondary and tertiary beds are traced on this map only an approximation to accuracy, it forms an interesting field of study for the young Geologist; though its application to practical purposes must be very limited. Perhaps it is but an act of justice to our author to give a short extract from his own observations respecting this geological Map.
"We were anxious, in the observations annexed to the title of this map, to guard the reader against the supposition that it was intended to represent the state of the physical geography of part of Europe at any one period. It is not a restoration of a former condition of things, but a view of the change which a certain amount of surface has undergone within a given period, an alteration so complete, that not one of the species of organic beings which now inhabit the large space designated by ruled lines (three-fourths of the entire surface of land and water that comprises Europe) beyond the borders of the existing seas, can have lived there during some other period subsequent to the commencement of the tertiary æra.
In conclusion, we may remark that the portion of Europe distinguished in this map by colours and ruled lines (the secondary coloured blue, and the primitive rocks red,) comprises the greater part of the globe examined by geologists; almost all at least, that is known in such a manner as to entitle any one to speculate on the mutations in physical geography which have taken place during the tertiary period. In regard to other parts of the world, we have no reason for inferring from any data hitherto obtained, that during an equal lapse of the ages which immediately preceded our times, an equal amount of alteration of surface may not have taken place."
What relative period would be necessary for the formation and elevation of the tertiary strata into the positions they now occupy in the geographical map of Europe, Mr. Lyell has given us no means whatever of forming any estimate; while, for the same reason, we are at a loss to understand what he means by an "equal lapse of ages which immediately preceded our times." We trust these and other points will be further illustrated at no distant day, in the form of a third volume.
In noticing the third work on our list,
REVIEW.-Roby's Traditions of Lancashire.
Geological Sketches and Glimpses," it would not be fair to class it with either of the volumes before mentioned. The authoress evidently had in view the direction of the juvenile mind to one of the most beautiful studies within the whole scope of physical science. And although the work might probably have been arranged with more judgment, in order to suit the capacity of children, yet the moral tone which pervades the volume compensates for any other defect, and enables us conscientiously to recommend it as a valuable present to the rising generation.
Traditions of Lancashire, Second Series. By J. Roby, M.R.S.L. 2 vols. 8vo. RICH indeed in legendary lore is the county of Lancashire; and well for her Traditions is it that they have fallen into such able hands as those of Mr. Roby. To a thorough knowledge of antiquarian learning he unites a brilliant imagination, and is thus enabled to throw over the pile of hoar antiquity the light which renders the ruin so beautiful and attractive. With the wand of the magician, he stays the rapidly departing shadows; more than this, he imparts a new substance and reality to them, and gives relief and prominence to things but dimly seen; he rescues the relics of the past from the oblivion to which they were hastening,' and by a rare union of the antique and the modern, he illustrates manners and customs now obsolete, by tales that, however bearing upon tradition, have still a distinct and separate interest to recommend them. If his imagination is tempted to overstep her limits, the severity of the antiquary restrains her flight, and thus the keeping is perfect. The style of the work is another of its excellencies-whether of humour or of pathos-whether of love or terror-whether in the whirlwind of passion, or in lady's bowerin the conflict of the elements, or in the placid lake-Nature in her summer beauty, or the howling of the winter's storm,-Mr. Roby has appropriate language for each and all. Nor is it the least of his merits, that in every tale there is a fine moral tone, and a moral purpose, while the impress of a pious mind is visibly stamped upon the whole. It is true that we are constantly reminded of
Sir Walter Scott; and this has been supposed to detract from the originality of Mr. Roby's work. We do not think so; for it is not in parallel passages, or in characters for which we could find a prototype in the author of Waverley; but we find ourselves perpetually saying, "This is in Scott's manner,' meaning that if Scott had chosen the subject, he would thus have treated it; and this we consider as very high praise.
Having thus briefly offered our opinion of the general merits of Mr. Roby's volumes, we proceed to give extacts which will justify our praise; premising that in tales, none of which are of any length, it is difficult to discover passages which can afford a fair specimen of Mr. Roby's manner.
The following describes the person of that young Pretender to the crown of England in the reign of Henry the Seventh, by some historians said to be Lambert Simnel, and by others the unfortunate Earl of Warwick. It was at the Peel or Castle of Fouldrey that his mimic and motley Court was first held:
"Before a long narrow table, near the bed, and on a high-backed oaken chair, sat the young Pretender. He was dressed in a richly embroidered gown, the sleeves wide, and hanging down from the wrists like lappets. On his head was a low cap, surmounted by long waving feathers, and his manners and appearance were not devoid of grace and gentility. He displayed considerable self-possession, and wore his kingly honours with great assurance. He was of a fair and sanguine complexion, pale rather than clear, and his hair clustered in heavy ringlets on his shoulders. A rapid and somewhat uncertain motion of the eye, and his mouth not well closed, showed, that although he might have been schooled to the exhibition, and could wear the outward show of firmness and decision, yet in the hour of emergency, and in the day of trial, his fortitude would in all likelihood forsake him."
Then we have portraits of his followers :
"At his right haud sat the priest, in a white cassock and scapulary. A black hood, thrown back upon his shoulders, exhibited the form and disposition of his head to great advantage. His features were large, expressive, and commanding. The fire of a brilliant grey eye was scarcely tempered by his overhanging brows; though, at times, the spirit seemed to retire behind their grim shadows, to survey more securely and unobservedly, the aspect and appearances without.
"Swartz, the Flemish general, a blunt military chieftain, was at his side. A black bushy beard, some inches in advance of his honest, good-humoured face, was placed in strong contrast with the wary, pale, and somewhat dubious aspect of the priest.
"Kildare, the Irish deputy, and Lovel, with several of the senior officers and captains, were assembled round the table.
"The room was lofty, lighted by a small pointed window, and contained the luxury of a fire-place, in which lay some blazing embers: a grateful and refreshing sight in that chill and ungenial atmosphere."
By the artifices of Margaret Duchess of Burgundy, a mysterious personage of gigantic stature appears and directs the councils of the rebels, and is by them supposed to be supernatural;
this fact comes to the knowledge of the Abbot of Furness, a loyal adherent
original, an echo within; and she has thus caught its true tone and temper.
The little volume will be found a most useful manual to those who, even amidst the bustle, the engagements, and the cares of the world, delight to turn aside and refresh the wearied soul at the living fountains of divine truth, and rekindle the expiring torch at the altar whose fire is from above. It is from this fountain-the Biblethat the rich stream of Burkhardt's piety flows; it is from this altar that his fervid eloquence derives its warmth, and his Translator has done the good cause good service, by making the writings of one so gifted, yet so humEnglish reader acquainted with the ble-so simple, yet so great.
By the Rev. Chas. Wesley, B. D.
of Henry-by dispatches intercepted A Guide to Syllogisms, or Manual of Logic.
Of Mr. Roby's talent for the ludicrous, not unmixed with the terrible, we could not mention a better specimen than the tale entitled "The Dule upo' Dun." But we must refer our readers to the volumes, where they will find much that is curious, and all entertaining. We will not repeat our praise of the work; we hope soon to find Mr. Roby employed with equal talent on the Traditions of other counties, assured that so diligent a reaper will gather an abundant harvest wherever he shall put in his sickle. His defence of Tradition against the charges of the Historian, in the introduction to this Series, is a learned and clever dissertation.
Meditations from the German of J. G. Burk
hardt.-18mo. pp. 144.
THERE is a simple yet persuasive eloquence in the language of Burkhardt, well calculated to awaken the best affections, and to raise the heart to the purest and holiest of all contemplations that of Deity-in his works, both of providence and grace. The Translator of this "Selection from the Meditations" of the pious German, displays a kindred spirit; and this has evidently rendered the task a labour of love; she finds in the sublimest flights, and the loftiest thoughts of the
WE have read this little book with care, and consider it well calculated to promote the study of that very useful and interesting science, Logic. The object of the compiler appears to be to introduce his readers into a knowledge of the art of reasoning, with as little preliminary labour as possible. Accordingly, he begins his treatise with a definition of syllogism, and proceeds at once to what is usually reckoned the second part of Logic, viz. a consideration of the specific character of the various sorts of propositions, and of what is implied in any given proposition respecting the truth or falsity of other propositions, containing substantially the same terms, though otherwise differing; giving by the way only such explanations of the nature of simple terms (the subject of the first part of Logic) as are absolutely necessary for understanding the nature of propositions and syllogisms, and throwing into an index and vocabulary his account of all other points which are generally comprehended in the first division of Logic. Thus Mr. Wesley's little manual comprises every subject which usually enters into a treatise on Logic, with a difference of arrangement only. The advantage of this plan is, that the student is not so likely to be deterred from the prosecution of his logical studies as he would be, were he to meet in the outset with abstruse and metaphysical distinctions respecting the nature of predicables. Mr. W.
REVIEW. Dr. Croly's Sermon.
has also consulted the advantage of beginners by explaining, with more particularity, and more in detail than is customary, the technicalities of logic. For a masterly exposition, however, of the nature and object of Logic, and for a complete defence of it against the misrepresentations of Locke, Dugald Stuart, and others, we must refer our readers to the very able treatise on the "Elements of Logic," by the present Archbishop of Dublin, Dr. Whately. Mr. Wesley's book has an appendix on the forms of disputation in use at Cambridge, which we have no doubt will
be found serviceable to the members of that University.
The Rev. Dr. Croly's Sermon, preached at Northfleet, Kent, in aid of the funds of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign parts.
THIS is a fervent and eloquent appeal to the intellect and the heart; possessing the best qualities of pulpit oratory-the sobriety of investigation, and the animated earnestness of one impressed with the full conviction of the truths he is delivering, and of their paramount importance on the temporal conduct and eternal happiness of man. From the text, Matthew xxvi. v. 16 to 20, the preacher explains the great commission of Christianity;' the command-the doctrine-the com
fort and support-" Go forth, baptise and teach" and "lo, I am with you to the end of the world." He then explains the object of his address:
"A great institution (he says) this day stands beside your altar, appealing to you by every name that awakes a pulse in the human bosom; by kindred and country, by the noble memories of your fathers, by the blessing which awaits the posterity of the merciful, by national honour, and still more by Christian duty, to sustain it in its illustrious task, to enable it to go forth on its sacred pilgrimage with the vigour due to the work of God; to do your Christian part in supplying your poor and remote fellowcreatures with a wealth more invaluable than the wealth of worlds, with holy truth, with moral dignity, with peace of heart, and with the hope of glory. It is to send into the wilderness a great mission, the track of whose footsteps is virtue and light, the true representative of our Lord; giving eyes to the blind, and voice to the dumb; feeding spiritual hunger with the bread of which, who eats, shall never die; refreshing the GENT. MAG. January, 1882.
withered heart with the waters of eternal life; raising the dead in trespasses and sins from the more than grave; extinguishing every vanity and every violence of our nature, smoothing the thorny ways of life, divesting the deathbed, painful and inevitable as it is, of its chief pain; and pouring down, even into the sullen recesses of the grave, a light borrowed from above."
The early history of our holy religion, in which every part of the text is beautifully illustrated, is given in the same eloquence of language and reach of thought; a glance at its corruption follows, to be succeeded to use the words of Milton-" by the bright and blissful Reformation;" of which Dr. Croly speaks in a strain worthy of an event, in which the arm of God was as visible as His promise was unchangeable.
The field of missionary labours is laid open-the good already effected, and the "vast task" yet to be undertaken, are explained and an appeal, warm, affectionate, and powerful, calls upon every Christian to do his duty. We cannot resist extracting the closing passages of this truly pastoral address, worthy of the best days of pulpit oratory; and we are the more readily tempted to this, seeing that the least timid, and also the most unreflecting, are predicting evil days for our Church.
"We live in a time of universal trial. Great changes threaten all things. Whether those changes arise from the caprice of the time, or from the mere progress of empire, as of man, to maturity, the pulpit is for other enquiries. But it may be fearlessly pronounced, that the Church of England has it in her competence to be the great security of England; that, whatever thundercloud may gather over the land, it is in the church must be erected the conductors. Among her twelve thousand clergy-a body the most educated, the most conversant in all the better parts of human intercourse, and the least liable to personal imputation of any clergy of Europe; neither corrupted dependents on public life, nor ascetics of the cloister, nor sullen refugees from society; there must be minds capable of leading in any cause that ever tasked the faculties of man.
"We must look to no humbler influence than religion for the permanent peace of empires. All the statutes that ever loaded the shelves of legislation, and all the weapons that ever enforced them, could not fa bricate a peaceable community out of an irreligious people. The heart is the spring of good and evil; the Scriptures alone can
reach it. From the pulpit, in its wise and honest zeal-in its eloquenee-chastened courage, and scriptural integrity, must go forth the spirit that reconciles and heals, and this must be the pulpit of the Established Church. In all our history, there is no fact more thoroughly demonstrable, than the vital connexion of British prosperity
with that Church. The hour that sees her shaken, will see more than the tarnishing of crosiers and mitres. All sectarianism is republican.
"For the encouragement of the Church, she has only to revert to days, when, though every step was through the ashes of her martyrs, she made good her victory, alike for king and people. With the liturgy for her language, the articles for her law, the virtues of her Halls and Latimers for her example, the Scriptures for her faith, the good of man for her desire, and God for her dependence, the Church of England cannot fail. To all taunting questions, What she has done for England? we answer by pointing to the illustrious institutes for education which she has founded; to the countless establishments for charity; to the myriads of the people which she has brought from the depths of ignorance and vice. into knowledge and virtue; to the myriads which she is still bringing; to the innumerable temples that she has raised, and is still raising, through the land; to her unwearied diffusion of the Scriptures; to this Society, a mission for mankind!!"
We congratulate the Church, that the genius, learning, and superior talents of Dr. Croly are now laid upon her altar, and exercised for her weal. A more zealous advocate, and a warmer friend, is not among the many of her distinguished sons.
Anecdotes of William Hogarth; written by himself: with Essays on his Life and Genius, and Criticisms on his Works; which are added lists of his Paintings and Prints, with an acccount of their variations; Parts I. and II.-8vo. Nichols and Son.
THE more we read about Hogarth and his works, the more we must esteem him as a man and admire him as an artist. As an individual moving in a public sphere of life, he was good and benevolent-as a satirist, he was morally severe and amusingly instructive and as a painter, he ranks much higher than the class of "clever" tists. To support this opinion of the moral painter we need not quote authorities; though the interesting volume before us furnishes us with abundant evidence-for no man who is at
The autobiographical sketch is particularly valuable and interesting; in
asmuch as it lets us into the secret of his feelings during the struggles of early life, and furnishes us with particulars relative to his method of study; his own estimate of his powers; his opinions respecting the Royal Academy as the means of encouraging the arts; the origin of his quarrel with Wilkes the politician, and Churchill the satirist; and his correspondence with Lord Grosvenor relative to the celebrated historical picture of Sigismunda, an engraving of which appears in the first part of Mr. Nichols's book.
The following extract on the subject of portrait-painting furnishes us with the origin of the beautiful portrait of Capt. Coram, presented by the artist to the Foundling Hospital:
"With respect to portrait-painting, whatever talents a professor may have, if he is not in fashion, and cannot afford to hire a drapery-man, he will not do; but if he is in vogue, and can employ a journeyman, and place a layman in the garret of his manufactory, his fortune is made; and as his two coadjutors are kept in the back-ground, his own fame is established.
"If a painter comes from abroad, his being an exotic will be much in his favour; and if he has address enough to persuade the public that he had brought a new discovered mode of colouring, and paints his faces all red, all blue, or all purple, he has nothing to do but to hire one of these painted tailors as an assistant, for without him the manufactory cannot go on, and my life for his
Vanloo, a French portrait painter, being told that the English were to be cajoled by any one who had a sufficient portion of assurance, came to this country, set his trumpeters to work, and by the assistance of puffing, monopolised all the people of fashion in the kingdom. Down went at once
-&c. &c. &c. painters who, before his arrival, were highly fashionable and eminent; but by this foreign interloper were driven into the greatest distress and poverty.
"By this inundation of folly and fuss, I must confess, I was much disgusted, and determined to try if by any means I could stem the torreut, and by opposing end it. I laughed
Vanloo came to England, with his son, in 1787.-Walpole's Anecdotes.