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THE rectification of Greek grammar in all its important points for clearness of understanding, and for expeditiousness in teaching it, as well as for truth, appears to me an object highly worthy of attention, from those gentlemen certainly who are professionally engaged in giving lessons or lectures on it.
Amongst other contributors to that desirable end, my humble quota has not been wanting; and especially in a new edition of the Glasgow Greek Grammar recently published, I have faithfully laboured to promote what may without offence be called the rectification of Greek grammar.
In the note, at p. 110, I have purposely thrown out a hint for the instruction of young teachers, that learners under them may reap the advantage:
"Perfecta aliqua hujusce ordinis, ut ἔστολα, λίλογα, &c. speciosa cuidam cum nominibus, oróλos, λoyos, &c. analogiæ debentur; cui jam nimium diu data est venia." Now it may be necessary to premise, that a splendid doctrine by this time almost forgotten (practically so, I am happy to believe,) once prevailed to an extraordinary degree of admiration: the doctrine to which I allude, was suggested by Hemsterhuis, advanced by Valckenaer, ripened by Lennep, and carried to its very last stage by Scheid. The whole matter is known by the general and imposing title of Analogia Linguæ Græcæ; and never were men of finer talents, of profounder erudition, of more ingenious acuteness, employed in giving currency to an elegant and plausible hypothesis.
One peculiar department of it alone I am at present desirous so far to revive, as may suffice to justify my allusion to it in the note above quoted.
The nouns, then, Xoyos, σTÓλOS, Tóvos, are considered as having arisen in natural process of generation from the preterite middles (so called), λédoγα, ἔστολα, πέπονα: and this is one of the analogies which compose the system. My remarks in reply are the following.
1. Those particular forms, Aéλoya, ἔστολα, πέπονα, with decads of others, never appear to have existed at all: of such existence nec vola nec vestigium.
2. If those forms did exist and were GENT. MAG. January, 1832.
preterites middle (sixty years ago) in any proper sense of that term, then the nouns λόγος, στόλος, πόνος, ought to have signified, self-telling, self-sending, self-labouring, which it is quite notorious they never did.
3. In reality, therefore, it becomes a mere question in the Algebra of Grammar.
When the tense, correctly called Falso-Medium or Perfectum Secundum, actually does exist, this is the problem:
Given γέγονα and ἔφθορα, to find yóvos and deópos respectively.
Or when the noun exists, and the possible but non apparent tense is required; then the case might be put
Given νόμος to find νένομα.
But how vastly more simple would it have been in the first instance to gain the noun from the verb itself by grammatical algebra.
All the usual cases are seen immediately; and as it is highly probable à priori that many verbs existed before the correspondent nouns came into use, one may fairly talk of vóμos, λóyos, &c. as naturally derived from véuw, λéyw, &c.: while for the verbs of another form, the same ingenuity which directs, Given σπείρω, φθείρω, to find ἔσπορα, ἔφθορα, whether realities or not, would just as readily direct how to find the numerous forms, σópos, pópos, &c. which have unquestionable reality.
But the analogical formations from the PRETER PERFECT PASSIVE, exhibit the most striking absurdities, if any thing is meant beyond the facility of solving the problem: Given certain syllables in one word to find certain syllables which constitute another.
Given κέκριμαι, κέκρισαι, κέκριται, το find κρίμα, κρίσις, κριτής. If any thing else is intended, if any necessary or natural origination of the one word from the other is involved in the analogy, let us proceed and see then how the account will stand in the balance of reason.
No point is more clearly now understood and agreed upon, I conceive, amongst scholars, than the following; that the letters μ,. o, T, in Kékpiμaι, KÉKρLoαL, KÉKpiral, are in fact distinct vestiges of pronouns, conveying the ideas of I, thou, he, respectively.
Our phrase," who will make much
Now in κρίμα, κρίσις, κριτής, first of all, it is quite impossible that any eye should trace the least signification of περι πολλου ποιησονται.”—p. 9. me, thee, or him. But secondly, if ANY natural connection existed betwixt the three persons of that passive verb and the three nouns respectively, some regular congruity might be expected to show itself. Well, then, to the fact: κpipa may answer passively for judgment given; but what is to become of κpious, the act of judging, and of Kpirns, the judge or agent in the business?
Under note 4, p. 153, we have
"Exomero, praying the contrary. Hence the origin of the vulgar superstition, that saying the Lord's prayer backwards will raise the Devil."
Enough for the present: two or three remarks more, hereafter, if you please, to place the question, if not in a decisive, yet in a somewhat new light. Yours, &c.
R. S. Y.
Plato's four Dialogues; the Crito, Hip-
THE works of Plato abound with the sublime, but are too intermixed with the soarings of imagination, to be deemed philosophical. Of course, in writings of such a character, the fancy parts at the best only furnish hypotheses, useful or otherwise, as they suggest or mislead further research of a sounder character. But this is only a school and college book, consisting of" four dialogues, selected by different scholars on the continent, as the fittest to prepare the mind of youth for the perusal of those philosophical writings of antiquity, which modern times and tongues may perhaps imitate, but must vainly attempt to equal, much less excel."-Pref.
Christianity has superseded a taste for such studies as to the public at large; although in the improvement of intellect, they are most valuable.
An assimilation between the Greek and English idioms has been often noticed, but not, as far as we know, the following facts.
Shakspeare has "We ne'er shall look upon his like again." Plato has « ουδενα μηποτε ευρησω.
"Compare Horace's Quando ullum invenies parem,' and Cicero's Moveor enim tali amico orbatus qualis, ut arbitro, nemo unquam erit.""-p. 6.
"Cowards die many times before their deaths," is another obligation of Shakspeare. See p. 12.
Our proverb, a Jack of all trades, but master of none, is derived from Τον δ' ουτ' αρ' τεχνης, ος γ' ηπιστατο πολλα κακως 8
Every body does not know that Socrates was a man midwife.-p. 141. We have seen with regret a certain discussion in Muller's Dorians, and hope that note 9, in p. 151, will be expunged in a future edition.
This work is indeed ably edited, dent of Greek; and as the Germans and must be of high value to the stuare the great microscopists of the that their elaborate works should be learned languages, it is important naturalized among us.
The third Greek Delectus; or the New
MR. VALPY in his Preface has
"Habenis corpus pone alligans.—Such is the meaning, provided Heath rightly conjectured that Hippolytus folded the reins about his own body."-Note, p. 112.
In Montfaucon's Antiquities, vol. iii. pl. L. f. 4, edit. Humphreys, is Scorpus, a famous charioteer, with the reins wound round his body, because his hands were embarrassed with the crown and palm-branch; and in the same plate are other instances of the reins encircling the body, where one hand is placed upon the former, and the other holds a whip.
[ 43 ]
REVIEW OF NEW PUBLICATIONS.
WE have embraced the three beforementioned works within the limits of a single notice, not by any means with the view of placing them in juxtaposition with each other as to merit, but from having, through some accident, omitted to notice the excellent little volume of Mr. De la Beche a few months back, when the work first made its appearance. It is therefore only a measure of justice to give it our first consideration on the present occasion, in order to relieve ourselves from the charge of wilful negligence, more especially as Geology is daily making such rapid progress through the indefatigable labours of the members of the London Geological Society; while the miscellaneous nature of our columns prevents us from rendering any thing like adequate justice to the aggregate labours of that essentially British institution.
It has been often remarked that the greatest impediment to geological study is the want of a grammar of the science, or in other words, such a classification of the strata as shall be easily intelligible, and sufficiently in harmony with the actual order of superposition. The subject is beset with so many difficulties, and the anomalies are so abundant in different localities, even in the same country, as almost to bid defiance to any plan of classification that shall embrace all the points requisite for a tolerably correct tabular view of the series constituting the crust of the earth. Accordingly, the most eminent geologists have felt that they were rendering greater service to the cause in which they were embarked, by devoting their energies to the formation of a correct alphabet for the practical geologist, than by employing their mental resources in the formation of
vague hypotheses, or the construction of useless theories, like too many of the geological writers of a preceding generation.
Among the foremost in disentangling Geology from the mysticism of certain schools of mineralogy, stands the author of the little "Manual" before us; the chief defect of which work is, that it was not entitled the Geologist's Vade Mecum, for it assuredly contains more interesting and valuable information than we have ever hitherto met with in the same compass;-not excepting in some points the very valuable joint production of Messrs. Conybeare and Phillips.*
We fully concur in opinion with Mr. De la Beche, that "classifications of rocks should be convenient, suited to the state of science, and as free as possible from a leading theory. The usual divisions of primitives, transition, secondary, and tertiary, may perhaps be convenient, but they certainly cannot lay claim to either equality with the state of science, or freedom from theory." Still we are not of opinion that the nine groups into which Mr. D. subdivides the whole strata, from the most recent alluvium down to the Gneiss rocks, will prove more satisfactory to the majority of geologists than the arrangement proposed by Messrs. Conybeare and Phillips. It is, however, due to our readers who may not have Mr. De la Beche's work, and to the author himself, to state, that it would be difficult to apply terms more definite than the following, for the entire genera of "Superior Stratified or Fossiliferous Rocks," comprehending, 1. Modern group; 2. Erratic-block group; 3. Supercretaceous group; 4. Cretaceous group; 5. Oolitic group; 6. Red sandstone group: 7. Carboniferous group; 8. Grauwacke group; 9. Lowest fossiliferous group; beneath which we have Inferior Stratified, or Non-Fossiliferous; and below all the Unstratified rocks, or igneous class,
*Outlines of the Geology of England and Wales."
Now although these "groups" look very regular in their order of superposition on paper, we are afraid the anomalies produced (by volcanic and diluvial action) in the strata, are so numerous as to bid defiance to perfect classification, as a general index to the student for exploring the series. Besides, if our author intended his work as a Manual for the English student (as we presume he did), why not abandon the crack-jaw German phrase of Grauwacke, and substitute either conglomerate-limestone, claystone, or sand-stone, or any other more intelligible generic English term?
The "Manual" abounds with so many well-condensed extracts from other works, interwoven with a mass of information derived from personal observation of the author, not only of the Geology of our own Island, but that of various parts of Europe and the West Indies, that we feel it very difficult to make extracts from such an abundant field of produce.
Mr. De la Beche, speaking of the degradation of rocks by the operation of water, observes,
"When we contemplate the present surface of our continents and islands, we cannot but be struck with the great effects that have been produced upon them by the agents commonly known as existing causes; and among these, the weathering and degradation of land are very remarkable; attesting a lapse of time far beyond the usual calculations. The tors of Dartmoor, in Devon, may be referred to as excellent examples of the weathering of a hard rock. These are composed of granite, which, as Dr. Macculloch has observed, are divided into masses of a cubical or prismatic shape. By degrees, surfaces which were in contact become separated to a certain distance, which goes on to augment indefinitely. As the wearing proceeds more rapidly near the parts which are most external, and therefore most exposed, the masses which were originally prismatic, acquire an irregular curvilinear boundary, and the stone assumes an appearance resembling the Cheese-wring (Cornwall). If the centre of gravity of the mass chances to be high, and far removed from the perpendicular of its fulcrum, the stone falls from its elevation, and becomes constantly rounder by the continuance of decomposition, till it assumes one of the spheroidal figures which the granite boulders so often exhibit. A different disposition of that centre will cause it to preserve its position for a greater length of time, or, in favourable circumstances, may produce a logan (or logging) stone (Cornwall)."
Although atmospherical agency is the only agent that can have produced these changes in the hardest species of rocks-for they are placed in positions previous to their being hurled into valleys, altogether beyond the reach of water currents, except those of rain-drops-yet the degradation of such rocks, as Mr. De la Beche observes,
so exceedingly slow, that the life of man will scarcely permit him to observe a change; therefore the period requisite to produce these appearances, shows a very considerable lapse of time. Whatever be the nature of the rock, it is disintegrated to considerable depth, porphyries, slates, compact sand-stones, trap-rocks, all have suffered."
With regard to the transport of debris by water, the author observes :
"Not only are gravels brought from various distances, but even huge blocks, the transport of which by actual causes into their present situations, seems physically impossible. We find the evidences of a transporting power are far greater in midland and northern England than in Devon and Dorset, the gravel having been carried far greater distances, and huge blocks added to the transported mass. How far these gravels may be contemporaneous, can only be determined by future and exact observation. Between the Thames and the Tweed, pebbles and even blocks of rock are discovered of every mineralogical character, that they are considered as derived from Norway, where similar rocks are known to exist. Mr. Phillips states that the accumulation at present termed diluvium, in Holderness on the coast of Yorkshire, is composed of a base of clay containing the fragments of preexistent rocks, varying in roundness and size. The rocks from which the fragments appear to have been transported, are found, some in Norway, some in the Highlands of Scotland, and in the mountains of Cumberland; others in the western and north-western parts of Yorkshire; and no inconsiderable portion appears to have come from the sea-coast of Durham, and the neighbourhood of Whitby. In proportion to the distance they have travelled, is the degree of roundness which they have acquired.'
We regret that our limits preclude us from giving any extracts from the valuable collection of facts relative to that portion of the tertiary beds called by our author the supercretaceous group. The whole section of the work is replete with interesting remarks.— We shall therefore close our notice by giving a specimen of the philosophical
REVIEW.-Lyell's Principles of Geology.
spirit and modest tone of the author of the Manual.
Speaking of the mineralogical differences observable in almost every specimen of calcareous rocks that undergo examination in the works of art, our author observes,
"It might so happen that in a deep part of an ocean, successive depositions were effected during periods when frequent changes were produced in other and remote situations, so that though contemporaneous, there might be no mineralogical agreement between them; and if, in the course of events, the continuous and quiet deposits were upheaved, as might happen by a very moderate thermometrical expansion of a portion of our globe, and a continent be the result, the difficulty of identifying clear divisious in the one place, with the mass in the other, would be insurmountable. It is more than probable that this supposition has been realized on the surface of our planet, and that eventually geologists will show less determination in identifying deposits, more particularly those of moderate comparative antiquity, over very considerable distances.. It is much more desirable, for instance, that India should be described with reference to itself, so that when its geology shall have become sufficiently advanced, Europe may be fairly compared with it, than that there should be a determination to find nothing but European equivalents in that quarter of the world."
With this gentle hint to geological system-makers, we take leave of Mr. De la Beche, by recommending his "Manual" to every class of readers, as a work containing a vast fund of research and observation, embodied in a style of composition that might serve as a model to many scientific writers of the present day.
We had occasion to notice the first volume of Mr. Lyell's "Principles of Geology" with more than ordinary satisfaction (see our number for Oct. 1830), owing to the great mass of facts the author had collected in illustration of his favourite system of attributing changes in geological structure to causes now in operation on the superficial crust of the earth. We therefore opened the second volume with full assurance of having our time interestingly, if not instructively occupied. This hope was, however, by no means realized; for we were compelled to wade through one half of the volume among disjecta membra of the vegetable and animal kingdoms, which might do, as speculations on natural
history, or under any other title than that of " Principles of Geology;" it having no reference whatever to the earth's structure, for which our author contends, and satisfactorily contends, by means of the evidence adduced in the former volume.
Whether our author may have been recommended to sacrifice the utile to the dulce in the compilation of his second volume, we are not able to determine, but his work undoubtedly contains a vast deal which might easily have been omitted, in order to arrive at the end of his subject within the ample space of 2 vols. 8vo. However, we shall endeavour to do justice to the industry of Mr. Lyell, though we may not agree to all his conclusions or speculations.
After tracing the dissemination of species (both of the vegetable and animal kingdoms) over continent, and islands, and through seas and rivers, and the changes which are presumed to be induced from their extinction,our author proceeds to offer some judicious remarks on the recent discoveries made by Captain Beechey in his late voyage to the Pacific; more especoral reefs and coral islands. We cially with regard to the formation of quite agree in opinion with Mr. Lyell,
"That the increase of these calcareous masses should be principally if not entirely confined to the shallower parts of the ocean, or in other words, to the summits of submarine ranges of mountains and elevated platforms, is a circumstance of the highest interest to the geologist; for if parts of the bed of such an ocean should be upraised, so as to form large continents, mountain chains might appear, capped and flanked by calcareous strata of great thickness, and replete with organic remains, while in the intervening lower regions no rocks of contemporary origin would ever have existed."
When we take into consideration the vast extent of coralline rocks now forming in the Pacific Ocean, and the well-ascertained fact that in the immediate vicinity of such coral reefs, the depth of the bottom is usually so great as to be out of soundings, we have no other method of explaining their formation than that of ascribing them to volcanic elevation in the first instance, and that the great mass of such subaqueous mountains may consist of various species of tertiary or even secondary rocks, forced up from beneath by chains of mountains like