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Memoir of Old London Bridge.

breadth of twenty feet; and arrangement having been made with the lessees of the other houses, the south side was finished in a corresponding manner. It thus continued until the year 1756, when the Corporation came to the conclusion of removing all the houses, for which purpose they obtained an Act of the Legislature. The Bridge was then widened, from twenty feet to forty-eight, by what might be termed additional bridges erected on each side the old structure (as shown in the view which accompanies this article); on these additions were formed foot-pavements, which were guarded with stone balustrades, and recessed alcoves with seats, were placed over the piers. Another important alteration was the throwing the two small arches in the middle of the Bridge into one large arch. By this alteration it was necessary to remove one of the starlings, which of course increased the waterway to a considerable extent. This acted most powerfully upon the bed of the river under the great arch, and the greatest fears began to be anticipated for the bottoms of the starlings.* The late Mr. John Smeaton was consulted, and he recommended that no time should be lost in immediately depositing a large quantity of rubble stone, and amongst other things he also advised that the City Gates (which had been lately taken down) should be obtained and thrown in the gulph below, to break the force of the current.


During these very important alterations, it was found necessary to erect a temporary wooden bridge, which was consumed by fire on the 11th of April, 1758, at 11 o'clock at night, supposed to have been destroyed by incendaries, which caused considerable consternation in the City; but by the greatest exertion, it was made passable again in three weeks. This disaster entailed a considerable loss upon the City, and the Government in consequence advanced 15,000l. towards defraying the expence of the work, and placed a toll upon the Bridge until the expenditure was liquidated.

A view of this very deformed structure, without a knowledge of the many revolutions it has seen, naturally excited surprise how and for what reasons so irregular à fabric should have been put together; for, upon examination, it was observed that no two arches were similar in width, and scarcely so in form. The piers in like manner were of a most irregular form, and compared with the size of the openings of the arches, of an enormous substance; indeed, so much so, that we find the solids or piers were nearly equal to the voids at high water; and at low water the solids or spaces occupied by the piers and starlings exceeded the voids or waterway as three to one. †

Although this Bridge had so unsightly and irregular an appearance, it is nevertheless fair to conclude that

Ketton stone, Purbeck and Merstham fire-stone. On the key stone over the seventh arch from the north side, in the middle of the present Bridge, and what was the original old Bridge, was the date of 1684; this was doubtless the period of its renovation. W. K.

The samne occurrence, arising from precisely the same causes, happened to the Chapel starling. Upon removing the 8th pier and arches from the City side, for the purpose of relieving the waterway during the execution of the new Bridge, the bed of the river between the two starlings deepened from 4 feet to 23 feet. The most prompt measures were obliged to be taken to prevent the total destruction of the Chapel pier, a part of the starling round which was already washed away by the current. W. K.

This formed a bar of considerable magnitude to the navigation of the river Thames, and its removal has given rise to many chimerical ideas as to the probable result. For our part we are not inclined to join in any of these alarming dissertations, as we know from experience in more than one instance, that where tidal rivers have been allowed an enlarged section of waterway, that their beds have been deepened and improved. Indeed it would be ridiculous for a moment to suppose that the admission of a larger water: way than at present exists at London Bridge would be otherwise than desirable and beneficial in every respect to the river generally.

Upon examination of the depths of the foundation of the different piers, which appear upon the average to have been laid at about three feet above the present low-water mark, it would lead to the conclusion that the bed of the river originally at this place was higher than it is at present; and it is also fair to suppose that the variation in the width of the piers and arches may be accounted for, by the probability of the workmen finding the ground firmer in some places than others, which determined the dimensions of their work. W. K.

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the architect originally intended to make his work symmetrical. This opinion is strengthened in some, degree by the appearance of the old work, which was to be seen under the arches of the old Bridge, where the several additions showed themselves.

These arches were of the pointed style, and which was usually adopted to all buildings about this age; and as there are still remaining so many beautiful examples of this æra almost entire, which demonstrate the ability of the architects of those days, it adds an additional probability in favour of its being a uniform structure; but that, owing to the many accidents and alterations it had seen at different periods and consequent various hands it must have gone through, added to which the difficulties of the work, from the nature of the situation, these circumstances combined, sufficiently account for the very irregular appearance it at length assumed.


THE family of Fleming is of considerable antiquity in Ireland. Richard le Fleming arrived from England with Hugh de Lacy, in the reign of Henry II. and settled at Slane, about twenty four miles from Dublin, from which place they afterwards had their title. Baldwin, or his son Simon, le Fleming, was created a Baron of Parliament by the title of Lord le Fleming, and sat in the parliaments of that time. Simon married Anne, daughter of Robert Luttrell, son of Sir Hugh; of him no further particulars have been obtained.b

In 36 Henry VI. the title became in abeyance between the sisters and coheirs of Christopher, the fifth Lord le Fleming. David, uncle to the said Christopher, was created a Baron of Parliament, by the title of Lord le Fleming, of Slane, which title also became in abeyance among the three sisters and coheirs of his son Thomas, who died in 1471. Sir James Fleming, Knt. was created a Peer of Parliament by the title of Lord Baron of

Slane. In July 1487, we find him attending a meeting of the Nobility in St. Thomas's-court, Dublin, and taking the oath of fealty to his Majesty, and entering into recognizance to keep the peace. His Majesty, however, being still jealous of the Irish Lords, from their attachment to the House of York, in 1489 Lord Slane, the Earl of Kildare, and many others, were summoned to England, where they went and waited on the King at Greenwich, and he pointed out to them Lambert Symnel, whom they had assisted in rebellion, employed in the menial offices of his kitchen. He married Elizabeth, daughter of the Lord Chancellor Welles, by whom he had three sons, Christopher his heir, George who settled at Stephenstown, and Thomas of Derpatrick; he had also a daughter called Eleanor, who was second wife of Edmond fourth Lord Killeen.

Christopher, fourteenth Lord Slane, married Elizabeth, daughter of Gerald eighth Earl of Kildare, by Alison, daughter of Sir Rowland Eustace, of Harristown, county Kildare. In 1493 he attended a meeting of the Irish nobility held at Trim, where articles were entered into to preserve the peace of the kingdom; and in 1503 we find him assisting the Lord Deputy against the Mac Williams, and other rebels, who were defeated with the loss of 4000 men. About 1512, he refounded the ancient abbey of Slane, for Franciscans of the third order, and the same year he was appointed High Treasurer of Ireland. He died Aug. 1517, and was succeeded by his son James, who married Lady Alice Fitzgerald, daughter of Gerald the ninth Earl of Kildare, by Elizabeth daughter of John Lord Zouch. In 1539 he accompanied the Lord Deputy Grey in his expedition into Ulster, against the O'Neills, O'Cahans, and other Irish chiefs, over whom he obtained a complete victory, in which Maginnis, Lord of Iveagh, was slain. ried, secondly, Ellis, daughter of Christopher Plunket, Lord Killeen. Having no surviving issue at his death, which took place in 1577, his title and estates

He mar

A Baron of Parliament, was a person entitled to be called to the Upper House; nor could the King refuse him, unless it was proved that he had been engaged in acts of rebellion? b Family pedigree; Lodge's Peerage.

Family pedigree; Cox's History of Ireland; Anthologia Hibernica. d Lodge's Peerage; Family pedigree. e Cox's History of Ireland.

f Beauties of Ireland; Lodge's Peerage. s Family pedigree; Cox's History of Ireland.


Biography of the Lords Fleming, of Slane.

devolved to Thomas Fleming, of Stephenstown, son of James, son of George, second son of Lord Slane, by Elizabeth Wellés.h

In 1585 Thomas took his seat in an Irish Parliament held by Sir John Perrot. On this occasion four Archbishops, and twenty other Bishops, sat in the Upper House, but the Commons House was thinly attended, as only 26 cities, or boroughs, sent members thither. Thomas married Catherine, daughter of Jenico third Viscount Gormandstown, by whom he had two daughters, his coheirs, Catherine, who became the wife of Peirce or Peter Butler, and Elinor, who was married to her cousin William Fleming, heir male to her father. In 1597 Thomas deceased, when "the peerage created by his summons and sitting in parliament, went into abeyance between his two daughters. But the manor, palatine barony of Slane, went to William Fleming, son of George, on whom it had been settled by a deed dated 1568."1

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WILLIAM had three sons, viz. Christopher, George, and James. He never was summoned to, or sat in parliament, but was called Baron of Slane, and Lord of Slane;"-he died in 1612. Christopher, his eldest son, succeeded to the family honours, and the same year he had a livery of his estate, and was summoned and sat in the parliament held in 1613, from which he is affirmed to have acquired a peerage descendible to his heirs general; or it should rather be considered as operating as a termination of the abeyance of the peerage created in his mother's father, Thomas."m He married Elinor, daughter of Sir Patrick Barnewell, Knt. by whom he had six sons, four of whom died without issue; his Lordship died July 1625. Thomas, his eldest son, embraced the profession of a friar, and renounced all his rights in favour of his brother William. On a parliament being about to be held in 1634, we find William Lord Slane


pressing the Lord Deputy Strafford to issue a writ to call him into the House of Peers. Agreeable to his request, a summons was issued to that effect, with a provision that, if his elder brother Thomas returned into Ireland," then he to be " excluded from any such title, place, and privilege," as he' may then claim by virtue of said writ. William married Anne, widow of Lord Delvin, eldest daughter of Randal Earl of Antrim, by whom he had issue Charles his heir, Randal, Michael, and William. Lord William was engaged in the rebellion of 1641, in which year he is said to have died, and in the following year he was outlawed for high treason, but was afterwards declared innocent. Charles retired to France. In 1654 he served with the French army in Flanders, under the great Condé, and had with him an Irish regiment of nearly 3000 men, who were much esteemed by that prince. He died in Italy in 1661, unmarried, and was succeeded in the family honours by his brother Randal. An inquisition taken at Nevan in 1667, finds that Randal Lord Slane had been restored to the family estates, and that he had then three sons, viz. Christopher, Henry, and Randal. Lord Randal married first, Eleanor, daughter of Sir Richard Barnewell, Bart. by whom he had one daughter named Mary, who was married to Richard, son of Sir John Fleming, Knt. He married secondly, in 1673, Penelope, daughter of Henry Moore, first Earl of Drogheda, by whom he had three sons, as noticed above, and a daughter named Alice, who was married to Sir Gregory Byrne, of Tymoge, Queen's County. Randal died in 1676.9

1 Ibid.

CHRISTOPHER, son of Randal, espoused the cause of James II. and sat in his parliament held in Dublin, May 1689. He raised à regiment of foot for the service of that monarch, and at the memorable seige of Derry he commanded the 14th regiment of horse in his service. On the flight of James

i Cox's History of Ireland.
m Ibid.

h Family pedigree; Lodge's Peerage. Family pedigree. n Thomas did return to Ireland about 1641, and was a turbulent actor in the rebellion which commenced that year. He was one of the Supreme Council of the Confederate Roman Catholics who met at Kilkenny. He never took the title of Lord Slane, but signed his name FR. TH. FLEMING. Historical Memoirs of Ireland.

lbid. Strafford's State Letters.

a Family pedigree; Lodge's Peerage.

• Derriana.

P. Thurloe's State Papers.

Memoirs of Ireland.

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he retired with him to France, and soon after went to Portugal, where by the interest of the Princess Anne Stuart, he was made Lieut.-General of horse in that kingdom. In 1691 he was outlawed, and his "real estate" (but not the personal), then valued at 25,000l. per annum, was attainted, and the greater part afterwards granted to Godart de Ginkell, first Earl of Athlone." On the accession of Anne to the throne of these kingdoms, Christopher came to England, and her Majesty soon after granted him a pension, and also a Colonel's commission on the Irish establishment; and in the seventh of her reign an Act was passed reversing his attainder, as to blood, but not to his estates. Those favours bestowed on one who had been so hostile to the Protestant interest, created no little alarm, on which the House of Commons presented an address to her Majesty, setting forth the evil consequences of reversing the outlawry of persons attainted of the late rebellion. Their remonstrance, however, appears to have met with little attention, as soon after the Queen issued her writ of privy seal to create Lord Slane, Viscount Longford; no patent however was issued. In 1684 he married Anne, daughter of Sir Patrick Trant, Bart. by whom he had an only daughter, Hellen. His Lordship died intestate in 1728,' and was interred in the abbey of Bonamargy. Hellen died unmarried at Paris, in 1748, on whose death the peerage is said to have be come vested in her aunt Alice Byrne; be this as it may, it appears certain that she never assumed the title."

In 1731, William Fleming, commonly called Lord Slane, nephew of the late Lord Christopher, was granted a pension on the Irish establishment of 300l. per annum, to commence from 1728; " for the maintenance and education of Christopher Fleming, only son of the said William Fleming, commonly called Lord Slane, and the re

t Family pedigree.

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The son here mentioned was named Christopher; he was also commonly called Lord Slane, and enjoyed a pension from the Government. He resided at Rasharkin, county of Antrim, and died about 1774. Anne, second daughter of William Fleming, Esq. commonly called Lord Slane, was married to Dr. M'Neill, who left issue Fleming M'Neill, Esq. father to William M'Neill, of Newry, a minor, at present one of the claimants for the peerage of Slane. Another claimant is George Bryan, Esq. of Jenkinstown, county of Kilkenny, who claims by descent from Alice, daughter of Lord Randal. His case has been reported upon by his Majesty's Attorneygeneral, who recommended that his claim should be referred to the House of Peers. In 1824 the honours of Slane were also claimed by James Ellis Fleming, of Tuam, county of Galway, who claims to be descended from John third son of Christopher, whose eldest son Thomas became a friar, as already noticed. Yours, &c.

S. M'S.

Of the family of Rigmaden (see 805) A. E. remarks, "In 1804 and 5 I knew in Jamaica a young man named Joseph Rigmaden, and I have heard that he went to New Spain and settled there. His brother James Rigmaden, who must be the person alluded to for his gallant conduct as a Lieu. tenant in the Navy, now commands a vessel in the merchant service. I believe both brothers are married."

u Mountmorres's History of the Irish Parliament; Gentleman's Magazine; Lodge's Peerage. Gentleman's Magazine; Act of the 7th Anne. Sheridan's edition of the works of Dr. J. Swift.

b Gentleman's Magazine.


Family pedigree. The King's letter.

. Ibid. d Gentleman's Magazine. There are different statements as to how the above William stood related to Lord Christopher; one account says he was his son, another that he was his cousin, and a third that he was his nephew-we have preferred the latter. It has also been alleged that the outlawry of the person from whom he claimed, never was reversed. MS.

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The plan has the arms of the Goldsmiths' Company attache + Perhaps Mr. R. Sharpe, one of the persons to whom the M author of A Briefe Treatise to proove the necessitie and excellence Abstracted out of Ancient and Moderne Writers. By R. S." is a copy in the British Museum.

GENT. MAG. March, 1832.


is dedicated, was the the use of Archerie.

o.; of which there

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