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continue to waste, until some great practical statesman shall arise, and once again call into action our native energies and our great national resources. But, to restore us to our former greatness, which every political theorist has been in vain attempting, we are now told that ParliaMENTARY REFORM alone is wanting, and that it is to be the grand panacea of all our ills! precisely as Catholic Emancipation was intended as a healing and "a final measure" for Catholic Ireland! though a final separation of the two kingdoms is now the undisguised object of the popish agitators. -That Gatton, Dunwich, Sarum, or the decayed boroughs of Cornwall, should send Representatives to Parliament, in preference to Birmingham, Manchester, or Leeds (though these great towns were always in reality virtually represented by the County Members), certainly appears, abstractedly speaking, a most ludicrous absurdity; and such a state of things ought perhaps long ago to have been remedied; but still it must be admitted that we have for ages flourished, as a great and thriving nation, under that system now so strongly deprecated; and to aver, that by the mere transfer of Representatives from one place to another, we shall recover our former national greatness, or remove the appalling distress which has been long goading the industrious classes to disaffection and madness, is utterly inconsistent with every rational or sound conclusion. Whether the same individual represents Middlesex or Aberdeen, Lambeth or Stamford, a metropolitan or a close borough, it can by no pos→ sibility of reasoning alter the political aspect of things, or add to the resources of our country; whilst perpetual innovation and experiment on the constitution of the body politic, which injures many and benefits none, may eventually lead to the most disastrous results.
Turning from the stormy ocean of Politics to the calmer regions of Literature, we revert with satisfaction to the multifarious information which, principally through the agency of our numerous and learned Correspondents, we have been enabled to present to our readers in the present portion of our Hundred and Second Volume. Whilst the literary world is deluged with ephemeral and oft-repeated trifles, or the public taste nauseated by political and incendiary trash-be ours the task to devote our attention to the more stable interests of British literature-to bring the hidden treasures of our ancient lore in a cheap form before the public-to gratify the antiquary and the scholar with the profound researches and classical disquisitions of the learned-to present a just and impartial Review of the literature of the day to give a faithful and authentic chronicle of passing events and to record, in our deathless Obituary, the heroic actions of distinguished merit, or the social virtues of private worth. To effect these important objects no pains or expense shall be saved; and we feel confident that our efforts will be duly appreciated by an enlightened public.
June 30, 1832.
Valpy's third Greek Delectus....... ..ib.
With reference to the inquiries in vol. ct. ii. pp. 805, 488, relative to the family of HUYSHE of Sand, co. Devon, Mr. JAMES DAVIDSON, of Secktor, observes, "I should have little hesitation, notwithstanding the transposition of the colours, in attributing the fifth quartering of the arms of Rowland Huyshe, to the family of Lapflode of Sidbury, in which parish the estate of Sand is situated. (see Pole's Collections, pp. 166, 491.) The name of Lapflode occurs more than once as a witness in the transcripts of several ancient deeds now before me, relating to lands in Sidbury during the 18th, 14th, and 15th centuries. The seventh quartering I should agree with the suggestion of Mr. Loyd, in assigning to the family of Burnell, of Cocktree; but rather in this case to that of Wike, of Binden, in Axmouth, which assumed the coat, (see Pole, 243,) where it appears that the heiress of Burnell was married to Richard Wike, whose son married the heiress of Avenell. Perhaps the pedigree of Wike in the Visitation of 1562, (Harl. MS. No. 3288, fo. 127) may state how that family was connected with Huyshe. It may be observed also in connexion with the subject, that Richards married the heiress of Avenell, (Pole, 217); and that John Sydenham married the heiress of Gambon (id. 197). The eighth quartering may, I think, be considered with great probability to belong to the family of Tremayle, the early owners of the estate of Sand. Sir W. Pole, at p. 466, blazons the arms of Tremayle thus, Argent, a fess gules, between three tramels Sable; and at p. 505, he calls these charges tremeils.' Neither of the works of Heraldry, to which I have immediate access, define such a bearing, but the word trammel' is an ancient term for a pot-hook, an utensil which in form nearly resembles the figures in question. The coat of Tremayle was most likely brought in by one of the other matches, as the estate of Sand had passed from that family prior to the year 1447. According to Risdon, p. 34, the estate was a purchase by Huyshe, who was then there seated in a dainty dwelling.'
ALVA is informed that "Erdeswicke's Survey of Staffordshire" was reprinted in 1820, with additions by the Rev. Thomas Harwood, F.S.A. and may be purchased of the printers of this Miscellany. Bishop Lyttelton's MSS. are in the library of the Society of Antiquaries; and were employed by Mr. Shaw for his "History of Staffordshire," as well as by Mr. Harwood.
Mr. R. F. HOPWOOD inquires for an account
of the ceremonies used by the Popes in consecrating the "Golden Roses," which they Occasionally presented to the sovereigns of Europe. Sleidan, in his History of the Reformation, notes that the rose was sent in 1518 to Frederick, Elector of Saxony, by Leo X. through Charles Militz, to serve as a bribe_ou that prince in the Pope's favour, as Frederick took great part in the religious disputations then in agitation. The same author also says that Pope Leo X. sent the rose in 1524 to our Henry VIII., as a token of his favour, that king having written against the doctrines of Luther. It would seem by these two specimens that the Pope knew well how to dispose of his roses to advantage; they were considered great gifts, for Sleidan says Frederick had long desired to have one.
An OLD CORRESPONDENT asks "at what time rings were first employed in the marriage ceremony ? It is known that the Heathen, long before the Christian æra, used the annulus pronubus; and about A. D. 633, the episcopal ring was considered a pledge of marriage between the Bishop and the Church."
Mr. A. DAVIS, solicitor, Deptford, would feel much gratified by the communication of any information tending to illustrate the history of ancient Deptford. The loan of any old plans, or notices of local antiquities, and views of St. Nicholas' Church before its re-erection in 1697, and of Says Court at any period, are much desired: also information as to the contents of a pamphlet thus mentioned by Lysons: :-" An Account of a great inundation of Deptford is extant, in a small pamphlet published at the time."
A CONSTANT READER wishes for information respecting the Pedigree of the family of James Scaife, of Crosby Garret, in Westmorland, who, he believes, died about 1750, and was buried in Crosby church, at the entrance of the porch.
M. R. D. says: "Will your erudite correspondent J. F. favour your readers with similar notices of the descendants of Daniel Meadows of Chattisham, to those of his elder brother, William Meadows, inserted in vol. XCIV. ii. p. 218."
J. J. C. inquires whether there is any lineal descendant of Sir Thomas Hunt, Knight, (mentioned in March, p. 208) now living, and where.
C. would feel obliged for historical particulars relating to Leightonville Priory, co. Salop, noticed in vol. c. pt. ii. p. 411.
In p. 32, in the head-line, for Havec read Caudebec; and below, for Havec read Havre.
ON THE SUBSTITUTION OF STEAM-POWER FOR HORSE-LABOur.
CONSIDERING the extensive circulation of your Journal among the intelligent classes of the provincial population, I have been induced to submit for insertion in your valuable columns, a few remarks on the promised advantages held out to the public, by substituting steam-power for horse-labour in the conveyance of passengers and merchandise on common roads. Having no other interest in the question than must be felt by every person desirous of promoting our national prosperity and rendering our internal resources available to the utmost possible extent, I shall enter into a few of the leading points connected with the transit of goods and passengers by horse-labour, previously to examining the comparative value of elementary power applied to the same objects.
The superiority of travelling in Great Britain, in comparison with most other parts of Europe, is not less owing to the great improvements which have been made within the last twenty years in the construction of roads, than to the great attention which has been paid in this country to the breed of horses. Indeed the extent to which capital and enterprize have carried the system of running coaches between the metropolis and the great provincial towns, may be said to have almost exceeded its proper limits, whether we take into account the question of humanity, or the risk of life; for the severity of treatment to which the noblest animals of the brute creation are subjected by the cruel practice of driving a set of horses eleven or twelve miles an hour with a heavy load, can scarcely be justified by any pretence of competition among the members of any civilized community. The vast improvements in roads
have unquestionably reduced the actual labour of horses in a very great ratio yet the enormous loads which are attached to four horses, both in the heavy six-bodied coaches, and the fourhorse vans for carrying goods, shows that no other limit regulates the amount of labour demanded from these valuable animals, except their total incapacity to sustain such violent labour with profit to their heartless employers.
Yet the amount of horse-labour in this country, great as it is, bears a very small proportion to the aggregate amount of labour performed by steam engines. Without the introduction of locomotive carriages for the transport of raw produce on rail-roads, a very large proportion of our internal mineral riches would be unattainable, except at such cost as to limit their use within a very narrow field. Indeed, we obtain a very inadequate idea of the vast amount of labour now performed by the aid of locomotive engines, from the quantity formerly executed by horse-power in our large iron and coal works, and slate and stone quarries. A new era has in fact been created by combining the mechanical force of steam as a propelling agent, with the use of iron railways for diminishing the amount of friction. The extent to which this combination of scientific principles with mercantile enterprize in the transit of raw produce, has enriched every class of the community in the great coal and iron districts, naturally led to the introduction of steam-power for the conveyance of passengers as well as merchandise, between the great towns of Manchester and Liverpool; while the advantages resulting from that undertaking having exceeded even the most sanguine expectations of its projectors, there is little reason to doubt that in a few years more, we shall have steam
carriages very generally substituted for vehicles in transporting both goods and passengers on common turnpike roads.
It is not necessary, Mr. Urban, that I should trespass on your readers' patience by giving a detailed account of the progressive experiments made by parties who have devoted their whole attention to the construction of steam carriages, adapted for working on common roads; since the House of Commons, during the last Session of Parliament-being duly impressed with the national importance of the subject-directed a Select Committee to be appointed, with full powers to examine evidence, and " report on the probable utility which the public may derive from the use of Steam Carriages."-And it is only doing justice to the sound judgment of the House, and to the honourable Members who composed the Committee, to admit that the Report, together with the Evidence on which it is founded, contains a mass of more valuable information to the public at large, than any Report I remember to have seen within the same compass. Instead, therefore, of offering any individual opinion as to the advantages and disadvantages that might result from the substitution of Steam for Horse-power, it will be more satisfactory to your readers to take the collective opinion of a Parliamentary Committee, founded upon the evidence of five or six gentlemen who have been several years engaged, and are still occupied, in bringing steam-carriages to perfection;-of five or six eminent engineers and surveyors who have devoted great attention to the construction of roads and wheel-carriages ;and to the evidence of two honourable Members of the House, distinguished for their scientific attainments and knowledge of political economy.
The first witness examined by the Committee was Mr. Gurney, who made the first successful experiment with a steam-carriage on common roads, about six years back, near the Regent's Park; and about two years since made a journey from London to Bath and back, at a rate of travelling varying from eight to twelve miles per hour. Under favourable circumstances as to the state of the road, and the full power of the engines, Mr. Gurney found it neither difficult nor dangerous
to drive the carriage at the rate of sixteen, eighteen, or even twenty miles per hour on level roads.
Messrs, Summers and Ogle, who have run a steam-carriage many months at Southampton, gave similar evidence as to the perfect practicability of propelling those carriages even at twentyfour miles an hour. Mr. Hawkins, another patentee, who has been running a steam-carriage from London to Stratford, Essex, gives similar evidence as to the perfect practicability of running such carriages for any number of hours on common roads, at ten or twelve miles per hour, including all stoppages.
With regard to any apprehension of danger from the explosion of steamgenerators, all the before-mentioned witnesses agree-that with proper management the liability to such accidents is exceedingly remote; but even in case of such pipes or chambers bursting, the only inconvenience that has resulted has been that of extinguishing part of the fire, and making a temporary delay in the journey till the apparatus can be repaired.
Steam-carriages are also, from the concurrent testimony of all the witnesses, far less liable to be overturned than coaches drawn by horses travelling at a rapid pace, both from the centre of gravity being lower than in coaches or other vehicles now in use, and from the great facility with which such carriages can be directed, in comparison with that of guiding or reining-in four high-bred horses.
In descending hills, also, the engineer or conductor has the power of effectually retarding the velocity of a steam-carriage, both by regulating the supply of steam to the working cylinders, and by the still more effectual method of reversing the action of the cranks, in the manner adopted in steam-boats. By this means an incalculable advantage is obtained over the management of vehicles drawn by horses-accidents being in almost every instance the result of horses running away, more especially in descending a hill, or turning sharply round corners in the road.
Steam-carriages can also be turned round, or entirely stopped, within a shorter distance than any coach with four horses, thereby enabling the conductor not only to guard against accident from his own vehicle, but to