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lateral ones, which latter are of the sharpest form that can be imagined. The piers are octangular, with mean caps. The whole is a very poor attempt at effect; the ensemble is awkward, and the detail mean. The entrances internally are lintelled, and covered with horizontal cornices-a design to be met with in every "gothic cottage." A gallery occupies the western end of the church and the side ailes; the front is plain, and painted with a dingy tint; in the western portion is an organ in an oak case, ornamented in the pointed style; on each side are small galleries for charity children. The altar-screen is pannelled and inscribed with the decalogue, &c. The pulpit and desk are alike, and placed at a short distance from the chancel; the form of each is octagonal with arched pannels. The same sort of panneling is also applied to the pews, and is in a better taste than the generality of the ornamental portions. The font is octagon and pannelled, and situated beneath the western gallery.

This church is situate in the parish of St. Giles-in-the-Fields; it will accommodate in pews 809, which added to 1171 for whom free seats are provided, makes the total accommodation 1980. The amount of the contract was 88311. 78. The first stone was laid on the 21st Aug. 1829, and the Church was consecrated on the 9th Feb. 1831.

E. I. C.


Mr. URBAN, Jan. 3. CIRCUMSTANCES which it is unnecessary to detail, have occasioned me to make some enquiries respecting THOMAS MORGAN, Author of the Moral Philosopher;" of whom I believe no distinct biographical Memoir exists: yet he at one time powerfully excited the attention of the literary world as a staunch and bitter polemic, and as a physician obtained some not undeserved celebrity. If you think the

few memorials of him I have been able to collect, deserving of preservation in the Gentleman's Magazine, they are much at your service.

Thomas Morgan was a native of Wales, but in what part of the Principality born, is not ascertained. He must have migrated from Wales at a very early period of his life, for we

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are told that "he was in early life a poor lad in a farmer's house near Bridgewater, Somerset. The pregnancy of his genius was conspicuous, and the Rev. John Moore, who kept an Academy in that town, offered him tuition gratis, if friends could be found to discharge his board and other necessary expenses.' That these friends were found may be inferred, from the fact, that in 1717 he was ordained at Marlborough, in Wiltshire, as a Presbyterian Minister, and here for a few years he exercised his Ministry with credit to himself, and to the satisfaction of his hearers. At Marlborough he married Mary, the eldest daughter of Mr. Nathaniel Merriman, one of the principal supporters of the Dissenting interest in that town and neighbourhood, then the residence of many very opulent and respectable Presbyterians.

Soon after the year 1720, Thomas Morgan began to entertain and to promulgate opinions on theological subjects, not at all in accordance with those of his congregation, and he published several controversial tracts on subjects of Theology, in which freedom of opinion and asperity of language were conspicuous. At length his congregation became so much dissatisfied as to wish not to retain his services, and he was dismissed from the ministry.

He now directed his studies to Medicine, and having obtained a diploma, constituting him M.D. he settled at Bristol in hopes of acquiring practice; but not succeeding in that city, he removed to London, and occupied a house in Union-court, Broad-street.

His success as a Physician was not great, yet it may be collected from two medical works, which he published, viz. "The Philosophical Principles of Medicine," which went through three editions, and "the Mechanical Practice of Physick" which passed through two editions, that his views were rational, and his practice energetic. He recommended opium as one of the most effectual means of allaying what are popularly called "Afterpains," and his suggestion is still almost universally adopted: he likewise urged the propriety of giving aperients, while the patient was under a

Mouthly Repository for 1818, p. 735.

1832.] Dr. Tho. Morgan, Author of the "Moral Philosopher."

course of bark: and was a strong advocate for the free application of blisters: to remove one of the painful consequences of which remedy, he proposes a drink, which appears likely to be beneficial in such cases; this consists of "a thin emulsion made with the pulp of roasted apples in milk and water."

The acerbity of temper which shewed itself in his "Theological Disputations," interfered with his medical conduct, so that his brethren of the profession were not upon very good terms with him. This is always injurious to medical men. They sometimes think that, however obnoxious they may be to their medical brethren, they shall obtain the good will of the public. But this is a grievous error: the opinion of the public generally coincides with that of the profession, and he whom the profession does not uphold, seeks in vain to obtain emi


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His occupation as a physician was not so extensive as to compel him to omit his theological researches; he found leisure to employ himself in writing The Moral Philosopher," which was published in 1737. This work at once excited great attention. Its doctrines were assailed by many eminent and able polemics, and were as stoutly defended by the author, who in 1739 published a second volume of "the Moral Philosopher,' containing Tracts in defence of his opinions; and in 1740 a third volume. But though his pen was ready and his answers acute, his arguments were fallacious and unconvincing. His opponents, it is true, did not always use the evidences in their favour to the best advantage, and therefore he sometimes gave them hard knocks, but could never beat them out of the field. In the midst of all this, the popular feeling began to go against him; he was generally believed to entertain atheistical opinions, though they were in reality deistical, and the little practice he had as a physician was diminished by vituperations on his moral character.

Whether before this time he had addicted himself to excessive drinking, or whether the vexation and disappointment, which now beset him, led to intemperance, cannot be ascertained; but towards the close of his life, in


dulgence in drink became his great failing.

His death took place in 1743, and it is thus announced in the Gentleman's Magazine of that year:

"Jan. 14. Thomas Morgan, MD. in Broad-street, Author of the Moral Philosopher and other Tracts, and is said to have died with a true Christian resignation."

Dr. Morgan left a widow in narrow circumstances, and an only son, Nathaniel. Unfortunately the father was too much engaged in investigating the more abtruse doctrines of theology, to attend properly to the education of his son, who in consequence grew up in idle and irregular habits. Young Morgan had a cousin Nathaniel Potticary, descended from a family of that name at Trowbridge and Warminster. These two cousins undertook a roving commercial enterprise to Spanish America; but being unable to escape the jealous apprehensiveness of the Spanish authorities, were both taken prisoners and sent separately up the country. Of Potticary no certain intelligence ever reached his friends, but Morgan made his escape, and after many perils reached Jamaica. Here he became acquainted with the widow of a planter in good circumstances, whom he married, and had a son named after his grandfather, Tho


This boy, together with a half brother by the first husband, was sent to England for education, and he returned to Jamaica in 1784. Whether he be still living, or what fate befell him, is not known.

Such is the brief information I have been able to obtain, of a man whose intellectual attainments might have enabled his name to descend to posterity, in the same honourable list as those of Watts, Lardner, Lowman, and others; whose writings are held in deserved esteem and veneration, or he might have ranked high as a physician and pathologist. But ill-directed enquiries led him into error. He bewildered himself by attempting to develope the intricacies of theology; he lost the friendship of his relations and of all who entertained serious religious sentiments; he contributed to keep alive an extensively spread opinion, untrue assuredly as a general proposition, that the members of the medical profession are prone to freethinking, or indifference as to religion; he

shortened his life by intemperance; he left a widow in poverty, and was the cause of his son's alienation from his home and his country. His life and his writings, instead of being referred to as bright examples of honour and talent, must be held up as a warning; and happy those, who from his fate may be deterred from hastily and inconsiderately endeavouring to overturn doctrines which have stood, and will continue to stand, firm against all such vain efforts to overthrow them. Yours, &c. Ιλαρανθρωπος.

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OBSERVING a communication from one of your correspondents in your magazine for December, p. 483, on that all engrossing subject, the disease termed Cholera,-allow me to offer a few remarks on a part of the subject, which relates to the possibility of propagating the malady from the infected districts to other parts of the kingdom, in a way which your correspondent seems not to have taken into consideration, but which appears to me extremely probable, considering the magnitude of the Coal trade between the ports of Newcastle, Shields, Sunderland, and Seaham, with the other ports of the kingdom.

Let us suppose a vessel leaving the river Tyne with the crew infected with this dreadful disease, and before arriving at her destined port, she should be overtaken by a gale of wind and driven on shore. In any event, if the catastrophe of shipwreck occurs, the humanity of Englishmen is such as to render every possible aid to the sufferers, without waiting to ascertain previously from what port the ship sailed, or where it was destined. The first impulse of our nature is to aid mariners in distress; and sorry should I be, even to be suspected of recommending that sort of deliberation in cases of extremity which should, under motives of precaution or contingent exemption from evil, prevent men from doing their duty to their fellow-creatures in distress.

Yet it is possible, and by no means improbable, that during the severe gales of the winter and spring season such an event might occur as a. vessel having the Cholera on board, being stranded on some part of the

coast between Shields and Aberdeen on the north, and between the same port and Plymouth on the west, and as in such case the common motives of humanity would prevail in providing the best possible accommodation for the unfortunate seamen, there is certainly a possibility of this malignant and (as it is now proved) contagious disease being communicated by such means to uninfected districts. That the disease may be communicated by means of shipping (or rather by seamen) seems no longer a matter of doubt; the statement which appeared in the papers a few days since of a vessel arriving in the Firth of Forth, in which some of the crew died, having fully established the fact. Indeed I see no reason to doubt the conclusions drawn by your correspondent (p. 484), that the habits of sailors, together with the dirty state of the shipping employed in the Coal trade, affords a very fertile source for propagating the disease, through most of the ports in the east and south east part of the kingdom, unless the most rigid measures are adopted with respect to quarantine. In the case I have supposed, there would, however, be no time to deliberate about a vesseł having a clean bill of health, or a foul bill of health. To aid a certain number of fellow creatures in escaping from a watery grave, is the first or rather the only consideration.

In illustration of my argument, I beg leave to mention a circumstance which occurred in the month of August last at Ramsgate, at which delightful watering place I was sojourning a few weeks for the benefit of health; and should I be incorrect in any of the details, I shall feel happy in being corrected by any of your correspondents, who happened to be enjoying the saline breezes at that favourite bathing place at the time.

A vessel sloop rigged, as I understood belonging to Dover, having been out in the North Sea (near the Gallopper Light) fell in with a boat having a ship's crew on board, the vessel having foundered at sea. The men having been taken on board the fisherman, stated that they had left Riga (or some other port of the Baltic infected by the Cholera, which I do not at present remember); but as the crew of the fisherman had no other alternative than that of landing the unfortunate

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