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time, usually administered, was in doses of two effected a change in the period of exhibiting the drachms given twice in the twenty-four hours ; | bark. But, whether the merit of first suggesting and, as already observed, the time selected for the this improvement be due to Sydenham, or to purpose was during the existence of the parox- some contemporary of his, we cannot at present ysm. It is, inoreover, highly probable, that it was very accurately determine. He is, indeed, the sometimes considerably adulterated, from the dif- only person who openly lays a claim to it, and ficulty of obtaining it in any considerable quantity. asserts that he was led to this alteration after
In 1659, we learn from Sturmius, who warmly deeply pondering the subject-diù multumque patronised its use, that pure bark was so scarce apud se agebat: yet Morton, who published his on the continent that twenty doses of the pow. Pyretologia in 1692, only three years after the per were sold at Brussels for sixty florins, for the death of Sydenham, asserts, somewhat loosely purpose of being sent to Paris; and that this indeed, that, during twenty or five-and-twenty order so completely exhausted the apothecary's years (Pa. 114, 132), he had been in the habít stock, that he himself was incapable of obtaining of giving this antidote, as he calls it, in every any eren at that price. And hence, for the use season of the year, and to persons of all ages of one patient, who was attacked with an obsti- and constitutions ; that he had cured every speoate intermittent sever in the month of Febru- cies of intermittent with it quickly and radically, ary of the same year, he was obliged to wait and had found it more expedient to give it in till the June following before he could obtain a the intervals than in the fits. While Lister, supply.-(Febrif. Peruv. Vindiciarum Pars prior, who was contemporary with both Sydenham and p. 84, Antwerp, 1659.) Nor was it less diffi- Morton, and who treats neither of them with cult to be procured at Brussels than in many respect, directly accuses Sydenham, a few years other parts of Europe ; for Bartholine, then re- after his death, of having copied his mode of siding at Copenhagan, having received as a great giving the bark from the miserable mountebank rarity a present of three doses, or six drachms, Talbor, who was its inventor,-auctoresuo, of the powder from some friends who had brought misero illo, agyrtå, Talbor.-Octo Exercitat ioit from Italy, was induced to make a trial of it nes Medicinales de Cort. Peruv. exhibendi tempoon a lady who had a quartan fever. Of this small re.) Talbor, or Tabor, however, is scarcely open portion, the first dose, or two drachms, was re- to the stigina of being a mountebank. He conjected from the patient's stomach; and, in order cealed, indeed, his preparation of the bark, but he to prevent a repetition of this accident, and con- had been regularly initiated into a knowledge of sequently the loss of his entire stock, the admin medicine by an apprenticeship to an apothecary istrator macerated his two remaining doses in at Cambridge ; was the most successful, and, wine for forty hours, and gave the infusion du- | therefore, the most popular employer of the bark ring two successive paroxysms. The only effect in his day; acquired a higher reputation in this was, that the fever was changed from a double line of practice than any other individual whatto a single quartan. And here the experimenter ever; was appointed one of the physicians to was obliged to stop, as having no more materi-Charles II., against all the influence of the colals to proceed with.-(Thome Bartholini Hist. lege; was specially sent for to Paris to take the Anal, el Med., cent. v., hist. 1., Hafniæ, 1661.) Dauphin under his care; succeeded in curing him, But, ever in 1678, when the same pretext for and afterward divulged his arcanum, for a stipusophisticating it no longer existed, Morton com-lated sum, to Louis XIV., by which it was plains that the bark offered for sale was become found to be an infusion of the powder of bark in so inert, corrupt, and adulterated, that it was port wine as a cordial. necessary to increase the proportion from two'. The best form of administering it used to be drachms, to one, two, or even three ounces for considered its powder, “potissima virtus in toto a single dose. And, thus given by wholesale, jacet," says Professor Frank. But it is often we cannot wonder that still more mischief found that the stomach will not bear it in this should result from its abundance than from its form ; and hence, modern chymistry has been scarcity, whatever might be the purity or impu- at work to provide various others, the best of rity of its quality.
which appear to be those which consist of its To guard against all the evils that seemed to essential principle, now sufficiently ascertained accompany its use, Sydenham proposed to him to be a peculiar bitter alkali, separated from the seli the following regulations :
woody fibre, and neutralized into a salt by means First, To be peculiarly cautious in the quality of sulphuric acid. The French chymists have of the bark he employed; and to allow of no put us into possession of two distinct salts of intermixture, whether from fraud or a view of this kind-QUININE and CINCHONINE, of which increasing its virtue.
the former is the more powerful, and both apSecondly, To administer the bark in the in pear to have been employed with great success tervals, instead of in the paroxysms of a fever, in the removal of intermittent fevers, in cases
Thirdly, To give it after the rate of two scru- where the stomach has uniformly rejected both ples every four hours, instead of two drachms the gross powder and the decoction.-(De Cur. twice a day, after the Schedula Romana, Hom. Morb. Epit., tom. i., p. 64.) The dose
Under these regulations, the bark seems to of the first, for an adult, may vary from two to have acquired all the success to which it has at five grains and half a scruple, and still more any time pretended; and modern practice has has been given without ill effects : of the secadded little to their value.
ond, the dose may be froin ten grains to half a The most important of them is that which drachm. The ordinary ill effects from an overdose are, nausea, headache, and vomiting. the disease may be generally arrested immedi(Magendie Formulaire pour la Prép. et l'Em.ately by the exhibition of ten grains at once, de plus. Médic., p. 49, Paris, 1822.) [It is just before or after the paroxysm. Dr. Home, related by M. Andral that, in some cases of ter- he remarks, found the bark much more suctian ague, M. Lerminier gave between 16 and cessful after, than before the paroxysm; and 17 grains of the sulphate the first day of the this, also, is his own experience with quinine. treatment. The fever was arrested, and no He is convinced that the best practice is, first unpleasant symptom followed. In some other to give ten grains, as soon as the paroxysin is individuals, similarly affected, this medicine, in over. Excepting in quartans, this almost althe dose of only a few grains, produced violent ways prevents the paroxysm next expected, palpitations, oppression, globus hystericus, gid- and, if repeated daily at the same hour, often diness, and fugitive pains in the chest and ab- cures the disease. But, he says, it is somedomen. This he imputes to idiosyncrasy. times necessary, in addition to these ten grains (Clinique Médicale, tom. i., p. 488.) But, as after the fit, to give small doses every six or Dr. Elliotson observes, quantities that can dis-eight hours, so as to make the whole quantity agree are not required : five grains of the sul- | in twenty-four hours amount to a scruple or phate, every six hours, is the largest dose that half a drachm.-(Elliotson in Medic. Chirurg. can be necessary, at least in this climate ; for, Transac., vol. xiii., p. 464.) From what has from the reports of Professor Speranza, doses been said, it would appear that the quantity of 12, 24, and 30 grains are common in Italy; of quinine and cinchonine contained in any one and, in one case, 108 grains were given as a kind of cinchona, is the test of the comparative dose, before the fever was arrested. The me- virtue of the different species; that the absence dium dose prescribed by Dr. Perrine, of Adams of these alkalis in vegetables which have been county, in America, is eight grains every hour.- proposed as substitutes for cinchona, shows their (Edinb. Med. Journ., No. xciv., p. 218.) Many difference, and accounts for their inferior ettcases of intermittent fever in England have cacy; while others, in which these alkalis are been cured with three, two, or even one grain, found, may supplant the cinchona. Thus, the every six hours.-(Elliotson in Med. Chir. experiments made by MM. Robiquet and PeTrans., vol. xii., p. 56.) Every case of ague troz prove the existence of an alkali analogous which the editor has met with in the prisons to quinine in the bark of carapa, which has of the King's Bench and Fleet has yielded to been known in America to cure agues, though doses of two grains. Dr. Elliotson has also they had defied the power of cinchona. -(Quartried the simple quinine, the tonic properties terly Journal of For. Med., vol. iv., p. 68.) of which he considers as corresponding to those From the investigations of M. de Martin of the sulphate. It never disordered the stom- (Rev. Méd., Septembre, 1827), it appears, that ach, though given in doses of ten grains every when the sulphate of quinine is finely pulversix hours. One fact, adverted to by the same ized, mixed with cerate, and then applied to a physician, is important, namely, that the fore- blistered surface, it is soon absorbed, and thus going medicines cure cases of intermittent fever a cure of intermittents may be performed; a which resist bark, even when retained in the fact worth remembering in examples where the stomach and freely administered. In a later stomach is very irritable. *] communication on this subject, Dr. Elliotson It ought to be known, that one of the best mentions having attended nearly 150 cases of preparations for a successful use of the bark, ague, and treated all with the sulphate of qui- | is calomel in small doses, particularly in internine. Many were combined with so much in- mittent fevers. “I have known," says Dr. flammation in the abdomen, chest, or head, that Baillie, “a good many cases in which bark alone venesection was necessary; some with dropsy, would not cure an ague. In all of these cases, and others with chronic diseases of the lungs as far as I now recollect, when a grain of calor liver ; but, every one was cured. Having omel was given every night for eight or ten never found the sulphate of quinine augment inflammation, or interfere with antiphlogistic
and then the disorder immediately ceased-(Lecmeasures, he has always given it under all cir.
tures, &c., Med. Gaz. for 1832, p. 4.) No general
rule can be laid down respecting the quantity of cumstances, and adopted with it any other
sulphate of quinine which may be required.--En. measures required by the symptoms. Some * Many persons when taking bark experience cases, generally quartans, would not yield to nausea, or even vomiting and purging ; " and, in all less than five grains every four hours ; but this such cases, a few drops of tincture of opiumn will quantity never failed, after being exhibited a frequently enable the stomach and intestines to week or ten days.* In London, he finds that
bear it. If it be only the stomach that is dis. turbed, an effervescing draught will answer the
purpose, and so will prussic acid. In the case of * In February, 1829, Dr. Elliotson had a patient children, bark may be given in the form of clyslabouring under quartan ague, which did not yield | ters, and some persons have been cured, it is said, to less than 45 grains in the 24 hours. He thought by its external application, by having it tied in this a very considerable quantity ; but, on his re- fine muslin or linen, on different parts of the body. turn from the continent in the ensuing October, I recollect hearing Sir Henry Halford say, that, he found a patient in the hospital, who was taking, when he was a child, he had ague, of which he by direction of Dr. Roots, a scruple every eight was cured by wearing a jacket of bark. A double hours, with ten minims of liquor arsenicalis. The jacket was filled with powdered bark, and put case, which was a quartan ague, did not yield to next his skin."--Professor Elliotson's Lectures such doses until they were given every four hours. I at the London University-ED.
nights, bark cured the ague in the course of a relapsed. I have now on the hospital books few days. This practice I learned from my friend four patients, ill of quartan fevers, who have Dr. David Pitcairn."
received no benefit ; and I have no hope left, But as, under whatever form, in whatever but in a long course of deobstruent bitters, and quantity, and at whatever time the bark is given, tinctura sacra, aided by the approaching sumit is not found to be a specific, not only in every mer."--(Med. Trans., vol. iii., p. 165.) individual, but in every intermittent, we are Morton's medicine, of one scruple of chamagain driven to a principle I have already ven omile flowers, ten grains of salt of wormwood, tured to lay down, that intermittents of all kinds and the same quantity of calx of antimony, are occasionally influenced in their character by given every sixth hour, is said to have subdued, idiosyncrasies, or the temperament of the at in the metropolis, an obstinate tertian in two inosphere. And it is hence of considerable instances. And Dr. Heberden found, that two importance to know what other medicines have drachms of the powder of myrrh, taken just the strongest claim to attention, when, from before the time of the expected fit, relieved a accidental circumstances, the best fails of its patient from an ague, which for a long time common effect.
had resisted the power of the bark, though This, as we have already had occasion to taken in very large quantities. observe, was the case in the singular intermit-| The red-bark was now also tried for the first tents that prevailed both in this metropolis and time : it was proved to be of unquestionably in the country in the year 1787, in which the superior virtue to that in common use ; but even bark seemed to have no energy whatever, not- a moderate dose of it so often oppressed the withstanding that its genuineness was suffi- stomach and excited nausea and vomiting, perciently tested and proved ; in consequence of haps produced by its containing a larger proporwhich the febrifuge powers of various other tion of resin, that, writing at this very period, medicines were attentively studied and appre- Sir George Baker tells us, “I have for some ciated. In some instances other medicines time avoided the use of it.” It contains, howwere mixed with bark, and seemed to a certain ever, by far the largest proportion of quinine, extent to call forth its proper power ; a mixture and is now usually selected for this purpose. of bark and alum answered in some cases, but In the east a variety of other astringent and produced disappointment in others. “The bitter barks are also employed both by native crude sal ammoniac,” says Dr. Petrie, who was and European practitioners, and apparently with physician to the hospital at Lincoln,“ had not considerable advantage ; as that called, in hona more certain effect. Several women were our of Van Swieten, Swietenia febrifuga, so cured in a hospital by what is called the Dutch warmly recommended by Dr. Roxburgh : that Temedy for an ague'; which is compounded of of the bead-tea (Melia Azcdarach), and the the bark and cream of tartar, each two ounces, Tellicherry bark. All these have been now and sixty cloves powdered. A drachm and a tried in Europe, but with a far less success than half of this powder was taken every third hour. / in India. Yet this likewise frequently failed.' We at last Arsenic was also tried, in combination with thought that we had fallen on a specific in the opium. It is admitted that it often effected a powder of bayleaves, plucked from the tree and cure ; but was frequently productive of violent dried in the shade. From one to two scruples vomitings, colic, and dysentery. It seems, of it were given in the beginning of the cold fit. however, to have been given at this period in a
This powder was very efficacious in preventing somewhat rude and unscientific sorm. “Arsethe fits in many cases, where the bark, in the nic," says the distinguished writer whom I have largest quantity, had been unsuccessful. But just cited, “is mentioned in books as a febrialmost all who used it had a relapse in the space fuge, but it is one of those substances of of a fortnight, three weeks, or a month. One we are not as yet so far masters, as to be able, patient, just at the time the fit was expected, | by any art, to render it transferable from the took sixty drops of thebaic tincture. On this list of poisons to our Materia Medica ; and it he fell into a profound sleep, sweated profusely, cannot be deemed to be a proper remedy for an and escaped the fever, not only then, but at two intermittent fever, while an intermittent sever successive periods. Eight quartans in the hos- is less formidable than arsenic." But to this pital, and four in private practice, were entirely substance we shall have to return presently. cured by one drachm of the theriaca androm The chief BITTERS and ASTRINGENTS that achi, the same of the root of calamus aromat have been called into requisition, independently icus in powder, and fifteen grains of salt of of those already noticed, are, gentian, cascatartar. This mixture was taken in warm ale rilla, willow-bark, nux vomica, and the leaves or wine and water, an hour or two before the of the cherrybay, or Prunus lauro-cerasus ; bl Nevertheless I must confess, that I met the chief ASTRINGENTS, tormentil, galls, and with several cases where no medicine prevailed; oak-bark; the bark of both species of the swiand many patients, despairing of relief, left etenia or mahogany-tree; avens or caryophyllata themselves to nature ; some of whom went into (the Geum urbanum, Linn.), the Lycopus Exa pulmonary consumption, jaundice, or dropsy. ropæus of the same naturalist, called in Pied. Many, whom I thought cured of quartans, lately mont, where it is supposed to rival the bark, herb
China, alum, and several of the metallic oxydes. • Lect, and Observations on Medicine, by the To all these a common remark may be aplate Matthew Baillie, M. D., 1825. Unpublished. plied, that, where they have been of real ser
vice, it has generally, though not in every in- of eight grains in powder every six hoon te stance, seemed to arise from their uniting the an adult under palsy, without any mischieran two qualities of a bitter and an astringent, and effect except a slight stupor in the head. Add that they have rarely answered where there has much beyond this we cannot proceed with pro been only one of these qualities to depend upon. dence. Hoffmann (Philos. Corp. Hum. Mort, Thus tormentil, one of the most powerful vege- p. ii., cap. viii.) gives the case of a girl de table astringents we possess, and gentian, one years of age, who was killed by taking fra of our most powerful vegetable bitters, succeed grains of it, divided into two doses, for and so rarely alone, that no dependance is to be stinate quartan. placed upon them; but when given in combi | The lauro-cerasus was at one time, * * nation, they almost rival the virtue of cinchona, are told by Dr. Brown Langrish, a com and have occasionally succeeded where the medicine in his neighbourhood for the cure si latter has failed. “Joined,” says Dr. Cullen, agues (Experiments on Brules; see also per " with galls or tormentil, in equal parts, and Trans., No. 418, 420), but he takes to make given in sufficient quantity, gentian has not of the dose or mode of administering le failed in any intermittents of this country in properties are nearly the same as those batt which I have tried it."-(Mat. Med., part ii., almonds; and Dr. Bergius frequently prescribed ch. ii., p. 72.)
an emulsion of bitter almonds with secress There is, however, a principle, independently intermittents, in the quantity of a pint of w* of bitterness and astringency, that seems abso- daily during the intermission; and it sounds lutely necessary to enter into conjunction with cured where the bark failed.-(Mat. Nd,p these, in order to give full efficacy to any medi- 412.) This is an authority worth attending ; cine employed as a febrifuge in intermittents; and as the same medicines are said to have and a principle that has hitherto eluded all re- peculiar power of resolving visceral obstru search ; [unless it be analogous to that of qui tions, they have an additional claim to a cas nine, a principle similar to which has been de- tious series of experiments. It is known a the tected in other barks besides the Peruvian.) If present day, that their poisonous property do the cure depended upon the intensity of a bitter pends upon their containing a portion of Dakine and an astringent quality alone, galls, oak-bark, prussic acid (and consequently the latter wall and mahogany-bark ought to succeed better, now generally be prescribed by those who dest not only than a union of tormentil and gentian, to ascertain its power over ague). or chamomile and alum, which have also been The only metallic oxyde really worthy of * found very serviceable, but than cinchona it- tice is that of arsenic; for although varme self ; which every one knows they do not; al- oxydes of iron, mercury, zinc, and copper, bure though, when Peruvian bark cannot be obtained, been tried, and occasionally extolled, nobe they become desirable substitutes.
them have proved so decidedly beneficial al The nux vomica and Ignatius's bean (Strych-render it worth while to try them ofer agrande nos nux vomica, and Ignatia amara, Linn.) | Mercury, as we learn from Sir James de combine, with an intense bitter, a most active son, was tried extensively some years ago narcotic virtue ; and how far the last may be the Bocca Tigris in the east, on the cm peculiarly opposed to a recurrence of that two ships-of-war, the Grampus and Carela spasm on the extreme vessels which consti- | in consequence of the stock of bark benaze tutes the cold fit, it is difficult to determine. hausted. The paroxysms, he tells us, were le M. Bourieu (Hist. de la Soc. R. de Méd., 1776, variably put a stop to as soon as the same p. 340) from his own practice strongly recom- was saturated; but he adds, that three wa mends the latter, and Paullini (Cent.'iii., obs. of the patients thus treated, relapsed as 45), and Aaskow (Ant. Societ. Med. Hafn., / as the effects of the mercury had worno, tom. ii.) the former. If Dr. Fouquier's re- this after three, and, in a few instances mark be well founded, which we shall have oc- successive administrations, so casion to notice more at large when treating of ptyalism.-(Amer. Med. Repository, July paralysis, that these poisons have a power of | Iron, though of little value in m2 augmenting energy in debilitated muscular forms, has been said of late to barem fibres, while they leave those in health unaf- completely in that of its prussiate! fected, we can account for some part of the lickoffer has given various instances o success which has been so vauntingly ascribed a foreign journal, and places its poners to them in the case of intermittents. But, those of arsenic or bark. It must be notwithstanding that they have been for this however, upon a much larger scale purpose before the public for upwards of a cen- is entitled to an established reputation tury, the infrequency of their use is a strong ordinary adult dose is about four grund, TT argument that they are not much entitled to three times a day, in a little sugar al ** commendation. “In a very small dose," says Arsenic, under various forms, bas Dr. Cullen (Mat. Med., part ü., ch. ii., p. 76), ployed from a very early period.“ the faba Sancti Ignatii has the effect of curing Berol., dec. i., tom. in.) It is still intermittent fevers. But whether he reports ing, an oriental medicine, and has been this from his own practice, or from that of immemorially in India, and indeed all others, we cannot exactly determine : nor does east, but especially among the many he teli us what is the small dose he refers tioners, as a most powerful alteratit, to I have tried the nux vomica to the extent have occasion to notice more at barn
Tol alterant, as se med
treating of syphilis and elephantiasis. It was passed by without notice, that since the estabprobably introduced into European practice by lishment of the large copper-works which are the medical students under the brilliant cali- now carrying on in Cornwall, the internitting phate of Bagdad ; and seems to have been first fevers which used to be almost constantly presappropriated to the cure of intermittents by the ent in the neighbouring marshes, are now rarely Jewish physicians of Poland.-(Gilbert, Adder- 10 be met with in any shape. It should hence sar. Práci. Prim.; Slevogt, Pr. de Permissione seem, that the atmosphere is armed with a Prohib. et Prohibitione Permiss., Jen., 1700.) specific by becoming impregnated with metallic In Sir George Baker's time, we have seen that oxydes or carbonates; and that Cornwall should it was in extensive use, but productive of such be the spot recommended for change of air in very different results, that, however successful many cases of chronic or other obstinate interit might prove occasionally, this distinguished mittenls. pathologist thought it a worse evil than any The result of this general survey is, that the ague whatever. At that period, however, it cinchona (including its preparations, quinine and does not appear to have been tried in its most sulphate of quinine) offers by far the best remedy commodious forms, which are those of an ar- for intermittents of every kind ; that arsenic is senite or arseniate of potash. M. Macquer its best substitute ; and that, where these fail, recommends the latter; Dr. Fowler, many as fail they will occasionally, or if particular years ago, introduced and gave abundant proof circumstances should prohibit their use, we of the utility and general commodiousness of must throw ourselves upon such other medithe former ; and, under this modification, it has cines as unite intrinsically, or by combination, at length found its way into the Pharmacopæia a bitter and an astringent principle with a cerof the London College, under the name of tain proportion of aroma or stimulant warmth.* liquor arsenicalis. Sir Gilbert Blane tells us, It is at the same time clear, that a bitter and that it was used with great success in our unfor- astringent principle are not the only, nor even tunate expedition to Walcheren, where the the most effectual qualities, for the cure of an stomach could not retain the bark : but was intermittent; for the arsenical preparations concombined with opium, and, in most cases, with tain neither of these in any prominent degree ; bitters and aromatics.-(Select Dissertations, while, as already observed, there are many &c., p. 105, Lond., 8vo., 1822.)
medicines that possess them in far greater The cases of success from the use of this abundance than the bark, which have no claim medicine are so numerous, and its employment is now become so general, as to render it un- * Quinine is given so extensively by American necessary to advert to particular authorities in practitioners, that little need be said to recommend proof of its febrifuge power. With many con- it to more general use. When employed with
prudence, it rarely produces any bad effects, not stitutions there can be no question that it disa
| even in intermittents attended with local determigrees very considerably ; and there are numer- nation. It enjoys a supremacy over every article ous instances of its failure : but it is a medicine in the materia medica, and seems entirely free of real and inappreciable value in many diseases, from the objections urged to bark. Dr. Eberle, and in none more than in intermitting fevers. however, remarks (Pract. of Med., vol. i.), “ in cases Dr. Fowler advises it to be taken in doses of of ague which from long continuance or from from two to twelve drops, according to the age some previous malady, are attended with visceral and strength of the patient, once, twice, or
indurations or enlargements, the quinine or bark
must be given either after a gentle mercurial oftener, in the course of the day: and the di
course, or in conjunction with mercurial remedies. rections are so broad, and at the same time so The blue mass will in general answer best for this much within limit, that no actual harm can purpose, as it is mild, and less apt to pass off by the occur from following them literally. It will, bowels than calomel." Arsenic must be considered nowever, often be found advantageous to com- as the most valuable of the minerals for the cure bine a few drops of tincture of opium with each of intermittents. Dr. Mann observes (Medical dose, to guard against the vomiting and griping
Sketches), that it succeeded like a charm; and his
118 remarks might be confirmed by quotations from which it is sometimes apt to excite ; and the
many other medical writers of repute; but it bowels should be kept open by warm aperients sometimes leads to anasarcous effusions, and even during its use. Under the French Directory a paralysis has been remarked by Currie and others. similar preparation of arsenic formed a part of -(Hosack and Francis' Med. and Phil. Register, the political constitution of the day ; "for an vol. ii., p. 36.) According to Dr. Firth, the sulphate edici was formally published, commanding that of zinc has cured intermittents when the bark and the surgeons of the army of Italy should, with-arsenic have failed. (New-York Med. Rep., vol. in the course of two or three days, cure the
thx., p. 145.) And Eberle says of it, "I have very
rarely failed to arrest the disease as promptly with vast number of soldiers suffering from agues
it as with quinine."--(Pract. of Med., vol. i., p. 81.) caught in the marshes of Lombardy, by the use The list of vegetable substances employed by of this medicine, under pain of military punish American practitioners for the cure of intermit. ment
tent fever is very great.-See Bigelow's Medical It is a singular fact, and ought not to be Botany, Barton's Collection towards a Materia
Medica, Chapman's Therapeutics, Bigelow's Se. * It is best to begin with two or three drops of quel, &c. the liquor arsenicalis, two or three times a day, Among the remedies in popular use, the strong and to increase the dose by degrees. As Dr. El decoction of coffee deserves notice ; the coffee in liotsou suggests, this medicine should not be given powder is highly recommended by some German on an emply stomach.-ED.