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from the frontiers of the Grisons, to the North-east, by the Voral. berg, to the eastern extremity of the Lake of Constance. Vigoroufly repulted in his first attack, Maffena, regardless, as usual, of the lives of his men, renewed it, five different times, with freih forces, and increased impetuosity. But all could not avail against the steady valour of the Autriaus, who drove back the assailants, with immense Naughter.
The French, however, being in posleflion of the Grifons, the intafion of the Engadine and the county of Bormio, by a division of the army of Italy, cantoned, (by the improvident caution of the Emperor) in the Valteline, under the orders of Gen. Casabianca, was facilitated. The Austrians, too weak in that quarter, to refift them, retreated into the Tyrol, whither they were pursued by the French, ubo, (pot without confiderable lots,) forced tome of the defiles by which the entrance of that country was defended, and extended their destructive incursions as far as Glurenz and Nauders. Meanwhile, the yan-guard of the main army of the Imperalists puthed forward to meet theevemy, and, on the 21st of March, attacked the center of Jourdan's army, which it compelled to retreat from Sulgau to Engen, a dif. tance of about twelve leagues. The French then occupied the line from Schaffhausen through Engen to Dutlingen; and, on the apa proach of the Auftrains, Jourdan attacked them with his whole force on the 25th, but, after gaining fome advantage on his left wing, was completely defeated on his right, and in bis center, and compelled to retreat with precipitation,
In Italy the success of the Austrians was equally conspicuous, potwithstanding the treachery of the French, in attacking them before the expiration of the truce. The attempt of the latter to force the advanced posts of the former, on the 26th of March, at Santa Lucia, and Butlalengo, was rendered abortive ; and at Legnago, the Austrian General Kray obtained a complete victory, and com: pelled them to seek protection under the walls of Mantua, On the fifth of April, however, they were attacked, in their position, at Marmiruolo, which lies on the road from Mantua to Peschiera, at a thort distance from the former, by the Austrians, who compelled them, after an obftinate conflict, once more to retreat.
The accounts received are not sufficiently clear to enable us to state, with accuracy, either the loss of the French, in these different actions, or the situation of their respective armies, sublequent to their defeat. To rate the number of killed, wounded, and taken, at tbirty thousand men, would, as far as we can judge from the documents before us, be no exaggeration. But the good consequences resulting from the success of these first operations, in inspiring the enemies of the French with confidence, and in inftilling dismay into the minds of their own troops, are incalculable; every attempt to appreciate the influence, which it is calculated to have on the ge neral affairs of Europe, would, at this moment, be vain.
The Austrian army in Italy appear to be matters of the country between Mantua and Legnago, and to occupy a position extending along the banks of the Adige from the latter place to Verona, and
from thence to Peschiera, on the lake of Garda, which is in porfeflion of the French. Long before this, they have been joined by the first division of the Russian ariny, and, in all probability by General SUWARROW himself.
The army of the Archduke extends along the frontiers of Switzerland, from Schaffhauten to Balil; while the division under General Hotze occupies Feldkirch, and the country from thence to the lake of Conttance." The French have evacuated the Tyrol, the Engadine, and the Valteline; and the greater part of their main army, expelled from Swabia, have recrofled the Rhine, and are stationed to defend the posts on the opposite banks. Jourdan has resigned his command, and has been succeeded by Maslena, whose principal efforts will be directed to the defence of Switzerland. That country must now become the theatre of war, as the pofleflion of it is of the utmost consequence to both parties. So long as the French, by leaving the Swifs unmolested, secured their neutrality, the open · frontier of France, in her southern departments, exposed her to no danger. But now that the Swiss have been forced to beconie parties in the conteft, the case is altered. The Archduke, by a well timed proclamation, remarkable for its wisdom, temperance, and justice, has effe&tually quieted the apprehensions, and conciliated the affections, of such as are anxious to throw off the intolerable yoke of France. That the Swiss peasantry will be eager to avail themselves of the allittance of the Austrians, to inflict exemplary vengeance on the fanguinary tyrants who have profaned their altars, fullied the purity of their wires and daughters, masacred their relations and friends, and laid waste their country, witti fire and sword, scarcely adniits of a doubt; though we be no ftrangers to the arts now industriously enıployed to mislead and pervert their minds: and it is equally certain that the French will be unable to resist this combination of force, notwithttanding the advantages whicb they poffets in the country. Whether, then, after their expulsion fron Switzerland, the Swits remain inactive, or, which is most to be expected, will become the allies of their liberators, still the Auftrians will be enabled to penetrate into the south of France, and, by raising the standard of royalty, to secure the co-operation of the inhabitants of those districts, whose aversion from the republican government is notorious.
As we predicted, the successes of the Austrians have already imparted energy to the different people who have been enslaved by France. The Swiss have displayed a ttrong disposition to rise againít their oppressors; and in Piedmont the inhabitants are ripe for revolt. That this disposition will soon become general, is nearly certain. In Naples, too, the Calabrian peasantry have retorted on the banditti which subjugated their country, fome of the enormities which they had experienced at their hands. While the leaders of the French are amuling thenvelves, in the capital, with adapting some one of the many conftitutions with which they were supplied from the ample budget of Sieyes, to the government of their new born republic, the people of the country have seized on every soldier they
could find, and put them all to death, with some circumstances of cruelty, that would excite our horror, were we strangers to the causes which influenced these violent marks of resentment. The French have declaimed most loudly against this system of retaliation, to which, hitherto, they have been but little accustomed ; they have called those men who have presumed to follow the example set by themselves, barbarians, and have declared that the only war that can be waged against them is a war of extermination—the same species of war which the early revolutionists proclaimed againft Kings, and all existing institutions. What would they say if the powers of Europe were to apply their own arguments, and their own remedies, against themselves? Would they have any just grounds of complaint ?--The Jacobins will say yes—but honest men will answer no. The revolt in the Netherlands still continues, and mult derive fresh force from the present situation of affairs.
In all the countries through which the French have passed, they have, as usual, plundered the inhabitants, and atchieved all the milclief which they pollibly could; in their retreat from the Tyrol they conımitted the most wanton outrages, reducing to ashes the villages through which they passed, sometimes making the inhabitants perish in the flames, robbing the churches of all their ornaments, and destroying what they were unable to carry off.--Surely the day of retribution is near at hand !
The ađual state of things is well-calculated to excite the most fanguine expectations respecting the result of the present campaign: but we have so frequently been deceived by Aattering appearances, since the commencement of the war, that we are loth to indulge in anticipations, however apparently founded in reason and justice. We hope that the combined forces will not waste their time in laying formal siege to the strong fortress of Mantua ; but, leaving an adequate force to keep the garrison in awe, will rapidly advance into Lombardy, compel the enemy to evacuate the country, and encourage the people to restore their former government. The system formerly pursued by Picbegru, in the Low Countries, may be successfully adopted by the Austrians in Italy.
The Directory, terrified at the defeat of their troops, and the total frustration of all their projects, have imparted their alarm to the Councils, and, after having pompously proclaimed to the nation that the spirit of liberty had ftimulated the youths of France to obey the mandate of their rulers, and to join the armies to the full complement prescribed by their arbitrary decrees, now acknowledge the fallehood of their paft affertions, by calling for the adoption of more vigorous measures, in order to complete the number of 200,000 men, the fixed amount of the last requisitions. The councils authorized the assumption of a despotic authority by the regicidal Pentarchs, and enabled them to seize upon whatever was necessary for the supply of the army, whether in provisions, clothing, or itores, wherever it could be found. They have, however, since displayed a disposition to discontinue their obsequiournefs, but nothing has yet occurred of a nature sufficiently decisive to justify any particular remarks on the subject.
The best estimate, which we have seen of the French force, makes. it amount (previous to the late defeats) to 326,000 men ; (Scherer's official account rates them at 352,000.) Of there, 120,000 are oc: cupied in the defence of fortitied towns in France, and in the conquered countries ; so that no more than 200,000 remain for active service; a force wholly inadequate to cope with the coinbined armies, which have an immente fuperiority of numbers. Independently of the Austrian army, which was never so numerous nor 1o well-appointed as at present, the Emperor of Russia seems determined to put the whole force of his einpire in motion. All the roads from his dominions to the seat of war are said to be actually crouded with his troops, and every ship in his ports is ordered to be ready to fail as soon as the season will permit them. If, indeed, private accounts from Petersburgh may be credited, Paul has not only laid an embargo on all thips from Hanburgh, by way of punishing the Hamburghers for the asistan:e which they have afforded to the French during the war, but has refolved to make the Pruilian monarch act with decision, at leaft; and to force him from that dilgraceful and suspicious neutrality which he has too long observed. The French early declared that they would suffer no neutral powers in the present contest, but should consider, as enemies, all who would not avow themselves their friends; and had their means been adequate to their intentions this resolution would have been rigidly enforced. The rule, we think, may be reverted, and all who do not proclaim themselves the enemies of the Republic be justly confidered as her friends. Whether the two Emperors have adopted this criterion, and mean to act accordingly, we thall not pretend to decide. Certain, however, it is, that their present conduct is marked by a manly and determined fpirit which seems to promise the most happy consequences.
Were not the subject too serious to be treated with levity, ihe contradictory language of the French, respecting that article of their political creed which consecrates the facred duty of infirreflion, would excite our laugliter. In all those disgraceful treaties which they have, at different times, compelled the weaker powers of Europe to fign, they have invariably ftipulated for the relcafe of all rebels and insurgents who, by the propagation of their feditious principles, had endeavoured to subvert the government of their country; and in all States, where they have had an interest in exciting public commotions, whether friendly, neutral, or allied, they have invariably foniented the spirit of insurrection. But 110 sooner do the subjugated Swiss evince a dispofition to throw off the yoke imposed by French arms, than they condemn the very spirit which elsewhere they have encouraged, and seek, by the molt rigorous means, to cruih it in its infancy. The low wretches who act, under the orders of Muffena, in the capacity of Directors of the Helvetic Republic, have recently pailed a law, in virtue of their sovereign authority, in which it is expressly declared, that “ Every citizen, or forrigner, living under the lacus of ibe republic, wbo, either by words or actions, Jhall oppose tbe measures taken by government
for the defence of the country, or shall attempt to draw others from tbeir obedience to the laws, and ibeir duty in their country's defence, or fall propose to submit to a foreign power, ball be puni/bed with death." !!! The same law inflicts a limilar punishment on every Swifs who fall refuse to join the French, and march against the Auftrians !-Whoever will take the trouble to compare these prorifions with the proclamations of Brune, in Switzerland, the remonftrances of Garat, and the addresses of Championet in Naples, or with any other ebullitions of republican zeal, in any of the countries which the French have subdued, or endeavoured to subdue, will find as complete a contradiction as the profligacy of unprincipled demagogues ever displayed. Indeed, the unlawful mandate here issued by the arbitrary usurpers of power in Switzerland, with a view to consolidate their power and to extend their usurpation, is similar to those very laws which have been passed by the legislative powers of establithed governments, in order to frustrate the efforts of the French to cement the people into rebels and traitors; and which have, by the Directory and councils of France, been invariably stigmatized as acts of tyranny and oppression, which subjects ought to resist, and which would juftify them in withdrawing their allegiance from their Sovereign, and overthrowing the whole frame of their government. The only difference consists in the fources whence they itsue; the one flows from the contaminated channel of an usurped and boundless tyranny, while the others have iilued from the pure springs of legitimate power, founded in justice, and exercised with wisdom.
So well is Mallena acquainted with the spirit of the Swiss, and so strong are his apprehensions of its consequences, that he has recourse to every pollible means which republican tyranny can devite for preventing its display. Such of the inhabitants as have moft sway, from their virtue, their talents, and their patriotism, among their fellow-countrymen, are taken out of their beds, and carried off by night'; while the city of Berne, the theatre of so many crimes, which its inhabitants are, doubtless, anxious to punish, has been declared in a state of liege, with a view to facilitate the commission of ftill greater outrages, if possible, than it has yet experienced.- Ere the expiration of another month, we Thall be enabled to appreciate the consequences of this state of things.
At home, the Report of the Secret Committee of the House of Commons has, as was to be expected, occasioned the proposal of tome strong measures, calculated to impede the progress of treason, and 10 avert the effects of systematic fedition. Our readers will recollect the means (proposed in our last number) which suggefted themfelves to our minds, as necessary to be adopted on the present exigency; and we are happy to find that, on this important topic, the sentiments of those whose peculiar duty it is to watch over the fafety of the state, perfectly coincide with our own. On the 19th of April, the Report was taken into consideration, and Mr. Pitt moved, “ that it was the opinion of the Committee that a Bill be bronylit in to renew and amend the Bill palled in the 38th of his