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TN issuing this third volume, I take the opportunity of making a statement, which perhaps it would have been well to have made before.

The reader will observe that there is scarcely any allusion in this work to the kindred works of modern writers on the same subject. This is not from any want of respect for the able historians who have written upon the discovery, or the conquest, of America. I felt, however, from the first, that my object in investigating this portion of history was different from theirs; and I wished to keep my mind clear from the influence which these eminent persons might have exercised upon it.

Moreover, while admitting fully the advantage to be derived from the study of these modern iv Advertisement.

writers, I thought that it was better, upon the whole, to have a work composed from independent sources, which would convey the impression that the original documents had made upon another mind.

Here and there I have accidentally become acquainted with what some modern writer has said upon a particular point; and I have endeavoured to confirm or refute his views. But, with the exception of the historical fragment of Munoz and the biographies of Quintana, I have not read thirty pages of all that has been written by modern writers on the Spanish Conquest.

It is seldom worth while, I think, to explain how any book has been written, except in such a case as the present, when the explanation may altogether remove any appearance even of discourtesy to persons who should receive nothing but gratitude and honour from a fellow-labourer.

London, February, 1857.

vi Contents.




Chapteb I.—The rebellion of Enrique—The variety of forms

of Indian subjection—Indians of war—Indians of ransom

—Indians of commerce—The branding of slaves—Per-

sonal services—General questions arising from the enco-

mienda system ....... 99

Chapteb II.—Nature of eucomiendas re-stated—History of

encomiendas resumed from the Conquest of Mexico—

Original plan of Cortes—Junta in 1523 forbids enco-

miendas—Meanwhile Cortes had granted encomiendas—

Ponce de Leon comes to Mexico as judge of residencia—

His instructions about encomiendas—The question not

determined, on account of the unsettled state of the

Government of Mexico . . . . . . 133

Chapteb III.—Meaning of the word residencia—Origin of

the practice of taking residencias in Castille and Aragon

—The good and evil of residencias . . . .148

Chapteb IV.—The residencia of Cortes—Death of Ponce de

Leon—Confused state of the Government of Mexico—

Ponce de Leon's instructions about encomiendas come to

naught—Encomiendas allowed by the Spanish Court—

An audiencia created for Mexico—Instructions to this

Audiencia do not vary the nature of encomiendas in New

Spain 159

Chapteb V.—Arrival of the Audiencia—Great disputes

between the Protectors of the Indians and the Audiencia

—The Auditors prosecute the Bishop of Mexico—The

Bishop excommunicates the Auditors—A great Junta in

Spain on the subject of the Indies . . . .178

Chapteb VI.—The second Audiencia arrives in Mexico—

Proceedings of the Auditors—Great error in their instruc-

tions about encomiendas—Severity towards the colonists

—The number of orphans in New Spain . . -194

Chapteb VII.—The importation of Negroes—Monopolies of

licences—Depopulation of the West India Islands . 210

Contents. vii


Chapteb VIII.—General administration of the Bishop-Presi-

dent in New Spain—The new Audiencia did not abolish

encomiendas—Why thoy failed to do so—Proceedings in

Spain with respect to encomiendas—The celebrated Law

of Succession passed in 1536 . . . .218



Chapteb I.—Importance of the history of Guatemala—

Embassies to Cortes after the siege of Mexico—His

discovery of the Sea of the South—Origin of the king-

dom of Guatemala—Laws and customs of that country

—Expedition against Guatemala prepared . . . 235

Chapteb II.—Conquest of Guatemala by Pedro de Alvarado

—Founding of the town of Guatemala . . .261

Chapteb III.—Establishment of the Dominican and Fran-

ciscan Orders in New Spain—Life of Domingo de Be-

tanzos—Letters of the first bishops . . -275

Chapteb IV.—Establishment of the town of Santiago in

Guatemala—Domingo de Betanzos comes to Santiago,

and founds a Dominican convent there—Is obliged to

return to Mexico ....... 307

Chapteb V.—Reappearance of Las Casas—His mission to

Peru—His stay in Nicaragua—Disputes with the Go-

vernor—Comes to Guatemala, and occupies the convent

that had been founded by Domingo de Betanzos—Alva-

rado's expedition to Peru—Las Casas and his brethren

study the Utlatecan language . . . .318

Chapteb VI.—Las Casas and his monks offer to conquer the

"Land of War"—They make their preparations for the

enterprize ........ 333

Chapteb VII.—Las Casas succeeds in converting by peaceable

means the "Land of War"—He is sent to Spain and

detained there ....'.. 344

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