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his own.

in his opinions, and how far wrong.-It could no longer serve any good purpose to spend his time there, and be a burden to his friends. He was really in want of money. Besides, the cardinal had told him, vivâ você, to come no more into his fight, unless he would recant;"--and said Luther, “In my former letter I have distinctly pointed out al? the recantation I can possibly make.” He then signified his positive determination to leave the place; but not before he had formally appealed from the pope's legate, nay from the pope himself “ill informed to the fame most holy Leo X. that he might be better informed.” In profecuting this appeal he confessed that he acted rather froin the judgment of some persons of distinction than from

If he had been left entirely to himself, he should have thought an appeal unnecessary in this case. He wilhed to refer every thing to the determination of the church. What could he do more? He was not a contentious adversary, but a tractable scholar. Even the elector Frederic, he knew, would be better pleased with his appeal than his recantation. He therefore besought the cardinal to consider both his departure and his appeal as the effect of necessity and of the authority of his friends. They said, what will you retract ? Is YOUR retractation to be the rule of OUR FAITH? If any thing, which you have advanced, is to be condemned, let the church decide and do you obey.-—This reasoning, in his mind was irreGiftible.

Luther waited four whole days,--reckoning from the day of his dismiffion by the cardinal; - and still received no further orders. The suspense was extremely afflicting; and both himself and his friends began to suspect that this TOTAL SILENCE portended violence to his person. To prevent be


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ing seized and imprisoned, he quitted Augsburg very early in the morning of the nineteenth* of October 1518. A friendly senator ordered the gates of the city to be opened, and he mounted a horse, which Staupitius had procured for him. He had neither boots nor spurs, nor sword; and he was so fatigued with that day's journey, that when he descended from his horse, he was not able to stand, but fell down instantly among the straw in the stablet. He had, however, taken care before his departure, that every thing relative to his appeal, should be done in a proper manner and in the presence of a notary public.

Such was the conclusion of the conferences at Augsburg, in which the firmness and plain dealing of Luther was no less conspicuous than the unreasonable and imperious behaviour of the cardinal.

Whatever might be the cause of that siLENCE for several days, on the part of Cajetan, which our reformer and his friends beheld with so much just suspicion and jealousy; whether the legate still hoped to bring the affair to a happy termination by the milder methods of influence and persuasion; or whether his ambiguous conduct is best explained on the supposition that he was intending to seize the person of Luther, but did not dare to proceed to extremities, in defiance of the imperial grant of safe conduct, without further orders from the


Some historians say, this happened on the 20th of October, others on the 1816, but I think Luther's own account of the proceedings at Augsburg show that he must have left that city on the 19th. It is unnecessary to trouble the reader further respecting a matter of fo little consequence.

+ Tom. I. Altemb. p. 150.

Paul Sarpi says, what is not at all improbable,- that Luther had John Huss's case in his head.

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Roman See;-on almost every imaginable view of his motives, it seems natural to conclude that he must have been much mortified at the sudden departure of Luther. He had neither punished the heretic nor reduced him to submission. The court of Rome would probably be highly displeased when they heard of his escape; and, in their disappointment, would be apt to forget the difficult circumstances under which the cardinal acted, and to attribute both the present and the consequent mischiefs to his bad management. In fact, as soon as the events at Augsburg were known at Rome, the pope's legate was blamed exceedingly for his severe and illiberal treatment of Luther at the very moment, it was said, when he ought to have promised him great riches, a bishopric, or even a cardinal's hat *.

Cajetan, no doubt, understood the disposition of the court of Rome sufficiently to foresee how harsh a construction would be put upon his conduct in a business, which had terminated so unfavorably to their wishes and expectations. In the bitterness of his heart he complained to the elector of Saxony of Luther's insolent and insincere behaviour; and even reproached his Highness for supporting such a character. He said, that he had conversed for many hours privately with Staupitius, and one or two more learned friends respecting this business; that his object had been to preserve the dignity of the Apostolic See without disgracing BROTHER MARTIN, and that when he had put matters into. such a train, as to have reasonable hopes of the success of his plan, he had found himself completely deluded. Martin, his several associates, and his vicar-general, had suddenly disappeared. Martin indeed had written letters, in which he

pretended # Father Paul.

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pretended to beg pardon, but he had retracted not one word of the scandalous language he had used. Lastly, Cajetan warned the prince to consider, how much he was bound in honor and conscience, either to send Brother Martin to Rome or to banish him from his dominions. As to himself, he said, he had washed his hands of so pestilential a business, but his Highness might be affured the cause would go on at Rome. It was too important to be passed over in silence*; and he intreated him not to fully the glory of himself and his illustrious house for the fake of a paltry mendicant monk.

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Every pious reader will lament the effect which these turbulent and contentious scenes produced upon the mind of the venerable Staupitius. . Id should seem, that partly an apprehension of danger, and partly his private conversation with cardinal Cajetan, influenced this good man to leave his friend, withdraw all further opposition to the popedom, and retire to Saltzburg. Our more determined and adventurous reformer did not hesitate to tell him, that “ he stuck fast between Christ and the pope-." Let us hope, however, that this judgment of Luther was of the harsher fort; and that, in passing it, fufficient allowances were not made for the different tempers and ages of men and for inveterate habits.

Two reasons induce me to conclude with certainty chat Staupitius acted towards Luther with perfect faithfulness at Augsburg. First, it is beyond all dispute, that he affronted Cajetan by leaving that place suddenly and without taking leave which he would never have done, if he



. Luth. Op. Vol. I. The letter is dated O&t. 25, 1518.
+ Lib. I. ep.


had betrayed his friend by dishonorably entering into any plans for seizing his person. Secondly, bý way of encouraging the perfecuted monk in his difficult circumstances he used this language to him, “ Remember, my brother, you undertook this business in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ." Luther himself, three years afterwards, owned these precious words “ funk deep into his mind.” The truth is, this reverend vicar-general was a man of a timid temper, and well advanced in years; also his views of the gospel were far from being bright or distinct; and lastly the prospect of peace with the hierarchy, at least at Wittemburg, — Waš extremely gloomy.

Moreover, we cannot doubt but the pope's legate, in his private conversation with Staupitius, would use both conciliatory and threatening fanguage. Each would tend to shake the resolution of such a man. . And besides the direct and imnediate effect of that conversation on the mind of the timorous vicar-general, we may fairly traće some other important consequences to the same origin. While he was agitated with the discussion, and perhaps yielding to the legate's menaces and advice, he exhorted his less pliable monk to exhibit to his superiors some plainer marks of obedience and humility. The firm temper of Luther, which had resisted the imperious dictates of a haughty cardinal, instantly relented under the intreaties of a mild and affectionate friend. Hence that fubmif. five letter, which our reformer wrote to Cajetan * on Monday the seventeenth of October; and hence those apologies and conceffions which are contained in it, to the very limit of what his confcience would permit. Probably no part of his own conduct, on a review of the proceedings at Aug{burg,

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