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ter; they increase the cares of life, but they mitigate the remembrance of death. The perpetuity by generation is common to beasts ; but memory, merit, and noble works are proper to men: and surely a man shall see the noblest 'works and foundations have proceeded from childless men, which have sought to express the images of their minds where those of their bodies have failed; so the care of posterity is most in them that have no posterity. They that are the first raisers of their houses are most indulgent towards their children; beholding them as the continuance, not only of their kind, but of their work; and so both children and creatures.

The difference in affection of parents towards their several children is


times unequal, and sometimes unworthy, especially in the mother; as Solomon saith, “A wise " son rejoiceth the father, but an ungracious

son shames the mother.” A man shall see, where there is a house full of children, one or two of the eldest respected, and the youngest made wantons; but in the midst some that are as it were forgotten, who many times, nevertheless, prove the best. The illiberality

of parents in allowance towards their children is a harmful error, and makes them base; acquaints them with shifts; makes them sort with mean company; and makes them surfeit more when they come to plenty : and therefore the proof is best when men keep their authority towards their children, but not their purse.

Men have a foolish manner, (both parents, and schoolmasters, and servants), in creating and breeding an emulation between brothers during childhood, which many times sorteth to discord when they are men, and disturbeth families. The Italians make little difference between children and nephews, or near kinsfolks ; but so they be of the lump they care not; though they pass not through their own body; and, to say truth, in nature it is much a like matter; insomuch that we see a nephew sometimes resembleth an uncle or a kinsman more than his own parents, as the blood happens. Let parents choose betimes the vocations and courses they mean their children should take, for then they are most flexible; and let them not too much apply themselves to the disposition of their children, as thinking they will take best to

It is true,

that which they have most mind to. that if the affection or aptness of the children be extraordinary, then it is good not to cross it; but generally the precept is good, “opti

mum elige, suave et facile illud faciet con“ suetudo." Younger brothers are commonly fortunate, but seldom or never where the elder are disinherited.


He that hath wife and children hath given hostages to fortune ; for they are impediments to great enterprizes, either of virtue or misa chief. Certainly the best works and of greatest merit for the public have proceeded from the unmarried or childless inen; which, both in affection and means, ' have married and endowed the public. Yet it were great reason that those that have children should have greatest care of future times, unto which they know they must transmit their dearest pledges. Some there are, who though they lead a single

life, yet their thoughts do end with themselves, and account future times impertinences ; nay, there are some other that account wife and children but as bills of charges : nay more, there are some foolish rich covetous men that take a pride in having no children, because they may be thought so much the richer; for, perhaps, they have heard some talk,“ Such an

one is a great rich man,” and another except to it, “ Yea, but he hath a great charge of

children,” as if it were an abatement to his riches : but the most ordinary cause of a single life is liberty, especially in certain self-pleasing and humorous minds, which are so sensible of every restraint as they will go near to think their girdles and garters to be bonds and shackles. Unmarried men are best friends, best masters, best servants; but not always best subjects; for they are light to run away; and almost all fugitives are of that condition. A single life doth well with churchmen, for charity will hardly water the ground where it must first fill a pool. It is indifferent for judges and magistrates; for if they be facile and corrupt you shall have a servant five times worse than a wife. For soldiers, I find the generals com

monly in their hortatives put men in mind of their wives and children ; and I think the despising of marriage among the Turks maketh the vulgar soldier more base. Certainly wife and children are a kind of discipline of humanity; and single men, though they be many times more charitable, because their means are less exhaust, yet, on the other side, they are more cruel and hardhearted, (good to make severe inquisitors,) because their tenderness is not so oft called upon. Grave natures, led by custom, and therefore constant, are commonly loving husbands, as was said of Ulysses, “ve“ tulam suam prætulit immortalitati." Chaste women are often proud and froward, as presuming upon the merit of their chastity. It is one of the best bonds, both of chastity and obedience, in the wife, if she think her husband wise, which she will never do if she find him jealous. Wives are young men's mistresses, companions for middle age, and old men's nurses ; so as a man may have a quarrel to marry when he will: but yet he was reputed one of the wise men that made answer to the question when a man should marry. “A

young man not yet, an elder man not at all.”

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