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if it had not been joined with some vanity in themselves; like unto varnish, that makes ceilings not only shine, but last. But all this while, when I speak of vain glory, I mean not of that property that Tacitus doth attribute to Mucianus, “ Omnium, quæ dixerat fecerat

que, arte quadam ostentator :” for that proceeds not of vanity, but of natural magnanimity and discretion; and, in some persons, is not only comely, but gracious: for excusations, cessions, modesty itself well governed are but arts of ostentation ; and amongst those arts there is none better than that which Plinius Secundus speaketh, of, which is to be liberal of praise and commendation to others, in that wherein a man's self hath any perfection : for, saith Pliny very wittingly, “ In commending " another you do yourself right;" for he that you commend is either superior to you in that you commend, or inferior ; if he be inferior, if he be to be com

mmended, you much more; if he be superior, if he be not to be commended, you much less glorious. Men are the scorn of wise men, the admiration of fools, the idols of parasites, and the slaves of their own vaunts.

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OF HONOUR AND REPUTATION.

The winning of honour is but the revealing of a man's virtue and worth without disadvantage; for some in their actions do woo and affect honour and reputation; which sort of men are commonly much talked of, but inwardly little admired: and some, contrari. wise, darken their virtue in the shew of it; so as they be undervalued in opinion. If a man perform that which hath not been attempted before, or attempted and given over, or hath been atchieved, but not with so good circumstance, he shall purchase more honour than by affecting a matter of greater difficulty, or virtue, wherein he is but a follower. If a man so temper his actions, as in some one of them he doth content every

faction or combination of people, the music will be the fuller: A man is an ill husband of his honour that entereth into any action, the failing wherein may disgrace him more than the carrying of it through can honour him. Honour that is gained and broken upon another hath the quickest ret!

tion, like diamonds cut with fascets; and therefore, let a man contend to excel any competitors of his in honour, in out-shooting them if he can in their own bow. Discreet followers and servants help much to reputation; “ Omnis fama a domesticis emanat.” Envy, which is the canker of honour, is best distinguished by declaring a man's self in his ends, rather to seek merit than fame: and by attributing a man's successes rather to divine Providence and felicity, than to his own virtue or policy. The true marshalling of the degrees of sovereign honours are these: in the first place are “conditores, imperiorum," founders of states and commonwealths; such as were Romulus, Cyrus, Cæsar, Ottoman, Ismael; in the second place are “ legislatores," lawgivers; which are also called second foundders, or “ perpetui principes,” because they govern by their ordinances after they are gone; such were Lycurgus, Solon, Justinian, Edgar, Alphonsus of Castile, the wise, that made the “ Siete patridas:" in the third place are “li“ beratores," or “ salvatores ;" such as compound the long miseries of civil wars, or deliver their countries from servitude of strangers

or tyrants; as Augustus Cæsar, Vespasianus, Aurelianus, Theodoricus, king llenry the Seventh of England, king Henry the Fourth of France: in the fourth place are propaga“ tores,” or “ propugnatores imperii,” such as in honourable wars enlarge their territories, or make noble defence against invaders; and in the last place, are “patres patriæ," which reign justly, and make the times good wherein they live; both which last kinds need no examples, they are in such number. Degrees of honour in subjects are, first, "participes “ curarum,” those upon whom princes do discharge the greatest weight of their affairs; their right hands, as we may call them: the next are, “ duces belli,” great leaders; such as are princes lieutenants, and do them notable services in the wars; the third favourites; such as exceed not this scantling, to be solace to the sovereign, and harmless to the people; and the fourth, “negotiis pares ;" such as have great places under princes, and execute their places with sufficiency. There is an honour, likewise, which may be ranked amongst the greatest, which happeneth rarely; that is, of such as sacrifice themselves to death

are,

“ gratiosi,"

or danger for the good of their country; as was M. Regulus, and the two Decii.

OF JUDICATURE.

JUDGES ought to remember that their office is “ jus dicere," and not "jus dare;" to interpret law, and not to make law, or give law; else will it be like the authority claimed by the church of Rome; which, under pretext of exposition of scripture, doth not stick to add and alter; and to pronounce that which they do not find, and by shew of antiquity to introduce novelty. Judges ought to be more learned than witty, more reverend than plausible, and more advised than confident. Above all things, integrity is their portion and proper virtue. Cursed, (saith the law,) is he that «« removeth the landmark.” The mislayer of a mere stone is to blame; but it is the unjust judge that is the capital remover of landmarks, when he defineth amiss of lands and property. One foul sentence doth more hurt than many foul examples; for these do but corrupt the stream, the other corrupteth the fountain : so

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