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nevertheless agree, or in dealing with correspondence to particular persons, one by one ; but I say not, that the consideration of factions is to be neglected. Mean men, in their rising, must adhere; but great men, that have strength in themselves, were better to maintain them. selves indifferent and neutral; yet, even in beginners, to adhere so moderately, as he be a man of the one faction, which is most passable with the other, commonly giveth best way: The lower and weaker faction is the firmer in conjunction ; and it is often seen, that a few that are stiff do tire out a greater number that are more moderate. When one of the factions is extinguished, the remaining subdivideth ; as the faction between Lucullus and the rest of the nobles of the senate, (which they called " optimates,") held out awhile against the faction of Pompey and Cæsar; but when the senate's authority was pulled down, Cæsar and Pompey soon after brake. The faction or party of Antonius and Octavianus Cæsar, against Brutus and Cassius, held out likewise for a time; but when Brutus and Cassius were overthrown, then

soon after Antonius and Octavianus brake and subdivided. These ex

of use.

amples are of wars, but the same holdeth in private factions; and, therefore, those that are seconds in factions do many times, ' when the faction subdivideth, prove principals; but many times also they prove cyphers and cashiered; for many a man's strength is in opposition; and when that faileth, he groweth out

It is commonly seen, that men once placed, take in with the contrary faction to that by which they enter ; thinking, belike, that they have their first sure, and now are ready for a new purchase. The traitor in faction lightly goeth away with it; for, when matters have stuck long in balancing, the winning of some one man casteth them, and he getteth all the thanks. The even carriage between two factions proceedeth not always of moderation, but of a trueness to a man's self, with end to make use of both. Certainly, in Italy, they hold it a little suspect in popes, when they have often in their mouth “ Padre commune;" and take it to be a sign of one that meaneth to refer all to the greatness of his own house. Kings had need beware how they side themselves, and make themselves as of a faction or party; for leagues within the state are ever pernicious to

monarchies; for they raise an obligation paramount to obligation of sovereignty, and make the king “ tanquam unus ex nobis ;" as was to be seen in the league of France. When factions are carried too high and too violently, it is a sign of weakness in princes, and much to the prejudice both of their authority and business. The motions of factions under kings, ought to be like the motions (as the astronomers speak,) of the inferior orbs which may have their proper motions, but yet still are quietly carried by the higher motion of “pri

mum mobile."

OF CEREMONIES AND RESPECTS.

He that is only real had need have exceeding great parts of virtue; as the stone had need to be rich that is set without foil ; but if a man mark it well, it is in praise and commendation of men, as it is in gettings and gains; for the proverb is true, " That light gains make heavy

purses ;" for light gains come thick, whereas great come but now and then; so it is true, that small matters win great commendation,

because they are continually in use and in note; whereas the occasion of any great virtue cometh but on festivals : therefore it doth much add to a man's reputation, and is (as queen Isabella said) like perpetual letters commendatory, to have good forms: to attain them, it almost sufficeth not to despise them ; for so shall a man observe them in others; and let him trust himself with the rest ; for if he labour too much to express them, he shall lose their grace;

which is to be natural and unaffected. Some men's behaviour is like a verse wherein every syllable is measured ; how can a man comprehend great matters, that breaketh his mind too much to small observations ? Not to use ceremonies at all, is to teach others not to use them again ; and so diminisheth respect to himself; especially they are not to be omitted to strangers and formal natures : but the dwelling upon them, and exalting them above the moon, is not only tedious, but doth diminish the faith and credit of him that speaks; and, certainly, there is a kind of conveying of effectual and imprinting passages amongst compliments, which is of singular use if a man can hit upon it. Amongst a man's

years, a man shall be sure of familiarity; and therefore it is good a little to keep state : amongst a man's inferiors, one shall be sure of reverence; and therefore it is good a little to be familiar. He that is too much in any thing, so that he giveth another occasion of society, maketh himself cheap. To apply oneself to others, is good ; so it be with demonstration, that a man doth it upon regard, and not upon facility. It is a good precept, generally in seconding another, yet to add somewhat of one's own : as if you will grant his opinion, let it be with some distinction; if you will follow his motion, let it be with condi. tion; if you allow his counsel, let it be with alleging farther reason. Men had need be. ware how they be too perfect in compliments; for be they never so sufficient otherwise, their enviers will be sure to give them that attribute, to the disadvantage of their greater virtues. It is loss also in business to be too full of respects, or to be too curious in observing times and opportunities. Solomon saith, “He that “ considereth the wind shall not sow, and he 6 that looketh to the clouds shall not reap." A wise man will make more opportunities

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