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tues; but the main point is the same which we mentioned in the former kind of fountain; which is, that the water be in perpetual motion, fed by a water higher than the pool, and delivered into it by fair spouts, and then discharged away under ground by some equality of bores, that it stay little; and for fine de vices of arching water without spilling, and making it rise in several forms, (of feathers, drinking glasses, canopies, and the like,) they be pretty things to look on, but nothing to health and sweetness.
For the heath, which was the third part of our plot, I wish it to be framed as much as may be to a natural wildness. Trees I would have none in it, but some thickets made only of sweetbriar and honeysuckle, and some mild vine amongst; and the ground set with violets, strawberries, and primroses ; for these are sweet, and prosper in the shade; and these are to be in the heath here and there, not in any order. I like also little heaps, in the nature of mole-hills, (such as are in wild heaths) to be set, some with wild thyme; some with pinks; some with germander, that gives a good flower to the eye; some with periwinkle ; some
with violets: some with strawberries; some with cowslips ; some with daisies; some with red roses ; some with lilium convalium; some with sweet-williams red; some with bear's foot, and the like low flowers, being withal sweet and sightly : part of which heaps to be with standards of little bushes pricked upon their top, and part without; the standards to be roses, juniper, holly, berberries, (but here and there, because of the smell of their blossom,) red currants, gooseberries, rosemary, bays, sweetbriar, and such like; but these standards to be kept with cutting, that they grow not out of course.
For the side grounds, you are to fill them with variety of alleys private, to give a full shade; some of them wheresoever the sun be. You are to frame some of them likewise for shelter, that when the wind blows sharp, you may walk as in a gallery; and those alleys must be likewise hedged at both ends, to keep out the wind; and these closer alleys must be ever finely gravelled, and no grass, because of going wet. In many of these alleys, likewise, you are to set fruit trees of all sorts, as well upon the walls as in ranges; and this should be ge
nerally observed, that the borders wherein you plant your fruit trees be fair and large and low, and not steep; and set with fine flowers, but thin and sparingly, lest they deceive the trees. At the end of both the side grounds I would have a mount of some pretty height, leaving the wall of the enclosure breast high to look abroad into the fields.
For the main garden, I do not deny but there should be some fair alleys, ranged on both
sides with fruit trees, and some pretty tufts of fruit trees and arbours with seats, set in some decent order ; but these to be by no means set too thick, but to leave the main garden so as it be not close, but the air open and free. For, as for shade, I would have
the alleys of the side grounds, there to walk, if you be disposed, in the heat of the year or day; but to make account, that the main garden is for the more temperate parts of the year, and, in the heat of summer, for the morning and the evening, or overcast days.
For aviaries, I like them not, except they be of that largeness as they may be turfed, and have living plants and bushes set in them; that the birds may have more scope and na
tural nestling, and that no foulness appear on the floor of the aviary. So I have made a platform of a princely garden, partly by precept, partly by drawing; not a model, but some general lines of it; and in this I have spared for no cost; but it is nothing for great princes, that, for the most part taking advice with workmen, with no less cost set their things together; and sometimes add statues and such things for state and magnificence, but nothing to the true pleasure of a garden.
It is generally better to deal by speech than by letter ; and by the mediation of a third than by a man's self. Letters are good, when a man would draw an answer by letter back again ; or when it may serve for a man's justification afterwards to produce his own letter ; or where it may be in danger to be interrupted, or heard by pieces. To deal in person is good when a man's face breedeth regard, as commonly with inferiors; or in tender cases, where a man's eye upon the countenance of
him, with whom he speaketh, may give him a direction how far to go; and generally where a man will reserve to himself liberty, either to disavow or to expound. In choice of instruments, it is better to choose men of a plainer sort, that are like to do that, that is committed to them, and to report back again faithfully the success, than those, that are cunning to contrive, out of other men's business, somewhat to grace themselves, and will help the matter in report for satisfaction sake. Use also such persons as affect the business wherein they are employed, for that quickeneth much ; and such as are fit for the matter; as bold men for expostulation, fair-spoken men for persuasion, crafty men for inquiry and observation, froward and absurd men for business that doth not well bear out itself. Use also such as have been lucky, and prevailed before in things, wherein you have employed them; for that breeds confidence, and they will strive to maintain their prescription. It is better to sound a person, with whom one deals, afar off, than to fall upon the point at first, except you mean to surprise him by some short question. It is better dealing with men in ap