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and find nothing of their sweetness; yea, though it be in a morning's dew. Bays, likewise, yield no smell as they grow, rosemary little, nor sweet marjoram ; that which, above all others, yields the sweetest smell in the air, is the violet; especially the white double violet, which comes twice a year, about the middle of April, and about Bartholomew-tide. Next to that is the musk-rose; then the strawberry leaves dying, with a most excellent cordial smell; then the flower of the vines; it is a little dust like the dust of a bent, which grows upon the cluster in the first coming forth; then sweet-briar, then wall-flowers, which are very delightful to be set under a parlour or lower chamber window; then pinks and gilliflowers, especially the matted pink and clove gilliflower ; then the flowers of the lime tree; then the honey-suckles, so they be somewhat afar off, Of beanflowers I speak not, because they are field flowers: but those which perfume the air most delightfully, not passed by as the rest, but being trodden upon and crushed are three; that is, burnet, wild thyme, and water-mints; therefore you are to set whole
alleys of them, to have the pleasure when you walk or tread.
For gardens, (speaking of those which are indeed prince-like, as we have done of buildings,) the contents ought not well to be under thirty acres of ground, and to be divided into three parts; a green in the entrance, a heath or desert in the going forth, and the main garden in the midst, besides alleys on both -sides; and I like well, that four acres of ground be assigned to the green, six to the heath, four and four to either side, and twelve to the main garden. The green hath two pleasures; the one, because nothing is more pleasant to the eye than green grass kept finely shorn; the other because it will give you a fair alley in the midst, by which you may go in front upon a stately hedge, which is to enclose the garden ; but because the alley will be long, and, in great heat of the year or day, you ought not to buy the shade in the garden by going in the sun through the green; therefore you are, of either side the green, to plant a covert alley, upon carpenter's work, about twelve foot in height, by which you may go in shade into the garden. As for the
making of knots or figures with divers com loured earth, that they may lie under the windows of the house on that side which the garden stands, they be but toys ; you may see as good sights many times in tarts. The garden is best to be square, encompassed on all the four sides with a stately arched hedge; the arches to be upon pillars of carpenter's work, of some ten foot high, and six foot broad.; and the spaces between of the same dimensions with the breadth of the arch. Over the arches let there be an entire hedge of some four foot high, framed also upon carpenter's work; and
upper hedge, over every arch, a little turnet, with a belly enough to receive a cage of birds; and over every space between the arches some other little figure, with broad plates of round coloured glass gilt for the sun to play upon;
but this hedge I intend to be raised upon a bank not steep, but gently slope, of some six foot, sot all with flowers. Also I understand, that this square of the garden should not be the whole breadth of the ground, but to leave on either side ground enough for diversity of side alleys, unto which the two covert alleys of the
green may deliver you; but there must be no alleys with hedges at either end of this great enclosure; not at the either end for letting your prospect upon this fair hedge from the green ; nor at the farther end, for letting your prospect from the hedge through the arches
upon the heath.
For the ordering of the ground within the great hedge, I leave it to variety of device, advising, nevertheless, that whatsoever form you cast it into first, it be not 100 busy of full of work; wherein 1, for my part, do not like images cut out in juniper or other garden stuffs they be for children. Little low hedges, found like welts, with some pretty pyramids, 1 likes well; and in some places fair columne um frames of carpenter's work. I would alu kva 46 the alleys spacious and fair. Yon may bawer closer alleys upon the side ground, Inat was in the main garden. I wish alm, in the way middle, a fair mount, with three nakl4 m4 alleys, enough for four to walk abreasts white I would have to be perfect circles, with out any bulwarks or embonuments and whole amount to be thirty feet highs some fine banqueting hour, with some ci.
neys neatly cast, and without too much glass.
For fountains, they are a great beauty and refreshment; but pools mar all, and make the garden unwholesome, and full of flies and frogs. Fountains I intend to be of two natures; the one that sprinkleth or spouteth water; the other a fair receipt of water of some thirty or forty feet square, but without fish, or slime, or mud. For the first, the ornaments of images, gilt or of marble, which are in use, do well; but the main matter is so to convey the water, as it never stay either in the bowls or in the cistern; that the water be never by rest discoloured, green or red, or the like, or gather any mossiness or putrefaction; besides that, it is to be cleansed every day by the hand; also some steps up to it, and some fine pave. ment about it do well. As for the other kind of fountain which we may call a bathing-pool, it may admit much curiosity and beauty, wherewith we will not trouble ourselves; as, that the bottom be finely paved, and with images : the sides likewise; and withal embellished with coloured glass, and such things of lustre; encompassed also with fine rails of low sta