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where to become to be out of the sun or cold. For embowed windows, I hold them of good use ; (in cities, indeed, upright do better, in respect of the uniformity o wards the street ;) for they be pretty retiring places for confer
; and besides, they keep both the wind and sun off; for that which would strike almost through the room doth scarce pass the window; but let them be but few, four in the court, on the sides only.
Beyond this court, let there be an inward court of the same square and height, which is to be environed with the garden on all sides ; and, in the inside, cloistered on all sides upon decent and beautiful arches as high as the first story; on the under story towards the garden, let it be turned to a grotto, or place of shade or estivation; and only have opening and windows towards the garden, and be level upon the floor, no whit sunk under ground, to avoid all dampishness; let there be a fountain or some fair work of statues in the midst of this court, and to be paved as the other court was. These buildings to be for privy lodgings on both sides, and the end for privy galleries; whereof you must foresee that one of them be for an infir
mary, if the prince or any special person should be sick, with chambers, bed-chamber, “ tecamera,” and “recamera,” joining to it; this upon the second story. Upon the ground story, a fair gallery, open, upon pillars; and upon the third story likewise, an open gallery upon pillars, to take the prospect and freshness of the garden. At both corners of the farther side, by way of return, let there be two delicate or rich cabinets, daintily paved, richly hanged, glazed with crystalline glass, and a rich cupola in the midst ; and all other elegancy that may be thought upon. In the upper gallery too, I wish that there may be, if the place will yield it, some fountains, running in divers places from the wall, with some fine avoidances. And thus much for the model of the palace; save that you must have, before you come to the front, three courts; a green court plain, with a wall about it; a second court of the same, but more garnished with little turrets, or rather embellishments upon the wall; and a third court, to make a square with the front, but not to be built, nor yet enclosed with a naked wall, but enclosed with terraces leaded aloft, and fairly garnished on
the three sides; and cloistered on the inside with pillars, and not with arches below. As for offices, let them stand at distance, with some low galleries to pass from them to the palace itself.
God Almighty first planted a garden; and, indeed, it is the purest of human pleasures; it is the greatest refreshment to the spirits of. man; without which buildings and palaces are but gross handyworks; and a man shall ever see, that, when ages grow to civility and elegancy, men come to build stately, sooner than to garden finely; as if gardening were the greater perfection. I do hold it, in the royal ordering of gardens, there ought to be gardens for all the months in the year; in which, severally, things of beauty may be then in season. For December and January, and the latter part of November, you must take such things as are green all winter ; holly ; ivy; bays; juniper ; cypress trees; yew; pines; fir-trees; rosemary ; lavender; periwinkle, the white, the
purple, and the blue; germander; flags; orange trees ; lemon trees, and myrtles, if they be stoved ; and sweet marjoram warm set. There followeth, for the latter part of January and February, the mezereon tree, which then blossoms; crocus vernus, both the yellow and the grey; primroses ; anemonies; the early tulip; hyacinthus orientalis ; chamaïris ; fritellaria. For March there come violets, especially the single blue, which are the earliest; the early daffodil; the daisy; the almond tree in blossom; the peach tree in blossom ; the cornelian tree in blossom ; sweet-briar. In April follow the double white violet; the wall-flower; the stockgilliflower; the cowslip; flower-de-luces; and lilies of all natures; rosemary-flowers; the tulip; the double peony; the pale daffodil ; the French honeysuckle ; the cherry tree in blossom; the damascene and plum trees, in blossom ; the white thorn in leaf; the lilac tree. In May and June come pinks of all sorts, especially the blush pink; roses of all kinds, except the musk, which comes later ; honeysuckles; strawberries; bugloss; columbine ; the French marygold; flos Africanus ; cherry tree in fruit; ribes; figs in fruit; rasps; vine
flowers ; lavender in flowers; the sweet satyrian, with the white flower ; herba muscaria ; lilium convallium ; the apple tree in blossom. In July come gilliflowers of all varieties; musk roses; the lime tree in blossom ; early pears, and plums in fruit; gennitings; codlins. In August come plums of all sorts in fruit ; pears ; apricots; berberies; filberds; muskmelons ; monks-hoods of all colours. In September come grapes; apples; poppeys of all colours ; peaches ; melocotones; nectarines; cornelians; wardens ; quinces. In October and the beginning of November, come services; medlars; bullaces; roses cut or removed to come late; hollyoaks ;: and such like. These particulars are for the climate of London ; but my meaning is perceived, that you may have “ ver perpetuum," as the place affords.
And because the breath of flowers is far sweeter in the air, (where it comes and goes, like the warbling of music) than in the hand, therefore nothing is more fit for that delight, than to know what be the flowers and plants, that do best perfume the air. Roses, damask and red, are fast flowers of their smells; so that
you may walk by a whole row of them