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and generally all warlike people are a little idle, and love danger better than travail ; neither must they be too much broken of it, if they shall be preserved in vigour: therefore it was great advantage in the ancient states of Sparta, Athens, Rome, and others, that they had the use of slaves, which commonly did rid those manufactures; but that is abolished, in greatest part, by the Christian law. That which cometh nearest to it is, to leave those arts chiefly to strangers, (which for that purpose are the more easily to be received,) and to contain the principal bulk of the vulgar natives within those three kinds, tillers of the ground, free servants, and handicraftsmen of strong and manly arts; as smiths, masons, carpenters, &c. not reckoning professed soldiers.
But, above all, for empire and greatness it importeth most, that a nation do profess arms as their principal honour, study, and occupation ; for the things which we formerly have spoken of are but habilitations towards arms; and what is habilitation without intention and act? Romulus, after his death, as they report or feign,) sent a present to the Romans, that
above all they should intend arıns, and then they should prove the greatest empire of the world. The fabric of the state of Sparta was wholly, (though not wisely,) framed and composed to that scope and end ; the Persians and Macedonians had it for a flash; the Gauls, Germans, Goths, Saxons, Normans, and others had it for a time; the Turks have it at this day, though in great declination. Of Christian Europe they that have it are, in effect, only the Spaniards: but it is so plain, that every man profiteth in that he most intendeth, that it needeth not to be stood upon : it is enough to point at it; that no nation which doth not directly profess arms, may look to have greatness fall into their mouths : and, on the other side, it is a most certain oracle of time, that those states that continue long in that profession, (as the Romans and Turks principally have done,) do wonders ; and those that have professed arms but for an age have, notwithstanding, commonly attained that greatness in that age which maintained them long after, when their profession and ex. ercise of arms hath
to decay. Incident to this point is for a state to have
those laws or customs which may reach forth unto them just occasions, (as may be pretended,) of war; for there is that justice imprinted in the nature of men, that they enter not upon wars, (whereof so many calamities do ensue,) but upon some, at the least specious, grounds and quarrels. The Turk hath at hand, for cause of war, the propagation of his law or sect, a quarrel that he may always command. The Romans, though they esteemed the extending the limits of their empire to be great honour to their generals when it was done, yet they never rested upon that alone to begin a war: first, therefore, let nations that pretend to greatness have this, that they be sensible of wrongs, either upon borderers, merchants, or politic ministers; and that they sit not too long upon a provocation ; secondly, let them be pressed and ready to give aids and succours to their confederates; as it ever was with the Romans; insomuch, as if the confederates had leagues defensive with divers other states, and upon invasion offered did implore their aids severally, yet the Romans would ever be the foremost, and leave it to none other to have the honour. As for the wars, which were
anciently made on the behalf of a kind of party, or tacit conformity of estate, I do not see how they may be well justified : as when the Romans made a war for the liberty of Græcia ; or, when the Lacedæmonians and Athenians made wars to set up or pull down democracies and oligarchies; or when wars were made by foreigners under the pretence of justice or protection, to deliver the subjects of others from tyranny and oppression, and the like. Let it suffice, that no estate expect to be great that is not awake upon any just occasion of arming.
No body can be healthful without exercise, neither natural body nor politic: and, certainly, to a kingdom or estate a just and honourable war is the true exercise. A civil war, indeed, is like the heat of a fever; but a foreign war is like the heat of exercise, and serveth to keep the body in health; for in a slothful peace both courages will effeminate, and manners corrupt : but howsoever it be for happiness, without all question for greatness, it maketh to be still for the most part in arms: and the strength of a veteran army, (though it be a chargeable business,) always on foot, is
that which commonly giveth the law; or, at least, the reputation amongst all neighbour states, as may be well seen in Spain ; which hath had, in one part or other, a veteran army almost continually, now by the space of sixscore years.
To be master of the sea is an abridgment of a monarchy. Cicero, writing to Atticus of Pompey his preparation against Cæsar, saith, “ Consilium Pompeii plane Themistocleum “ est; putat enim, qui mari potitur, eum re“ rum potiri ;” and, without doubt, Pompey had tired out Cæsar, if upon vain confidence he had not left that way. We see the great effects of battles by sea : the battle of Actium decided the empire of the world; the battle of Lepanto arrested the greatness of the Turk. There be many examples where sea-fights have beep final to the war ; but this is when princes or states have set up their rest upon the battles; but thus much is certain, that he that commands the sea is at great liberty, and may take as much and as little of the war as he
whereas those that be strongest by land are many times, nevertheless, in great straits. Surely, at this day, with us of Europe the