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'Donald Mac Donald, Esq., of Aberarder, of the house of Kepoch, father of Captain Mac Donald, of Moy, was remarkable for his hospitality, as well as for many other traits of eccentric virtue. Aberarder House is situated in one of the most romantic spots on earth, at the side of Loch Logan, and is distant on one side four, and on the other six miles from any house. In good weather, he used to seat himself on a green knoll, above the mansion, which commanded a view of the road, at least a mile each way, and when he discovered a traveller, he used to desire Mrs. Mac Donald immediately to prepare food, for that he had discovered a stranger, whose slow progress indicated the necessity of refreshment. Sometimes it happened that the stranger passed without calling; on discovering which, he would exclaim, "Damn the scoundrel! I am sure he is a bad fellow at home." He was even known sometimes to follow a considerable distance with food, or to persuade the traveller to return and spend the night.'vol. ii. p. 131.
It is a common practice to set before the stranger milk, ale, bread and cheese, and whatever else they may have, unasked. They will even surrender to him their only bed. In the Hebrides, even now, the doors are never locked; and in many parts of the Highlands there are no bolts to the doors. When the provision of one house was exhausted, the guest was transferred to the neighbouring one, where he met with an equally kind reception-a custom which was in vogue less than fifty years ago, and is not entirely laid aside. Mr. Logan indulges at large in the delights of Highland feasting. According to all accounts, they lived magnificently, and were from an early age deeply versed in the art of cookery, an art which they have by no means lost. The Highlanders occasionally, not often, met for a carousal, the bill being paid by a general contribution. Of the length of their sittings, at such social treats, the following anecdote affords an amusing example.
'The laird of Assynt, on one occasion, having come down to Dunlobin, was accosted by the smith of the village, when just ready to mount his garron and set off. The smith being an old acquaintance, and the laird, Like the late Mac Nab, and others of true Highland blood, thinking it no derogation from his dignity to accept the gobh's invitation to take deoch au doras, a draught at the door, or stirrup cup, for every glass had its significant appellation, went into the house, where the smith called for the largest jar, or greybeard of whiskey, a pitcher that holds perhaps two gallons, meaning, without doubt, to show the laird that when they parted it should not be for want of liquor. "Well," says Donald, "they continued to sit and drink, and converse on various matters, and the more they talked, the more subjects for conversation arose, and it was the fourth day before the smith thought of his shop, or the laird of Assynt."'—vol. ii. pp. 158, 159.
One of the mysteries connected with the manners of the Highlanders, is the origin of their partiality for snuff. It certainly is not Celtic, though the art of smoking some sort of herb, seems to have been known to that ingenious race. In London, we see the figure of a Highlander as a sign, wherever snuff is sold-a fashion
said to have been established for the purpose of attracting the attention of the men of the Black Watch, now the 42nd regiment, who were constantly calling to replenish their capacious boxes. Whatever be the solution of this mystery, it is clear from Mr. Logan's account, that the practice does not interfere with the longevity of the Highlanders, of which he has given several remarkable instances upon good authority.
'Gilour Mac Creim, an inhabitant of Jurah,' he says, 'kept 180 Christmasses in his own house; and he notices a woman, in Scarba, who reached the patriarchal age of 140 years, and a person in South Uist, who had but lately died, at 138. In more recent times we find Flora Mac Donald, who died in Lewis, in 1810, with full possession of her faculties, at the age of 120, and Margaret Innes, who died in Sky, in 1814, aged 127; in 1817, Hugh Cameron, called Eobhem na Pillie, died at Lawers, in Braidalban, in his 112th year, and one Elizabeth Murray died at Auchenfauld, in Perthshire, when she had reached 116; Peter Gairdon, who has been before alluded to, a native of Mar, was a sturdy old Highlander when he died at the advanced age of 132. This veteran, whose portrait has been engraved, continued to wear his native garb, in this and other particulars, resembling Alexander Campbell, alias Ibherach, who lived in Glencalvie, in Ross-shire, and was born in 1699. This "ancient of days" died at the age of 117, retaining his vigour of body and mind to the last, and enjoying his favourite amusement of roaming about the glens. A walk of eleven miles to visit his clergyman was a recreation; and shortly before his death he went to Tain, a distance of twenty-six miles, in one day. He trod with a firm step, and uniformly dressed in the kilt and short hose, leaving his breast and neck exposed to the blast, however cold. Poor Ibherach, after living so long, was indebted for support to the generosity of his friends. About a year before his death, in 1816, he received from Lord Ashburton a shilling for every year of his life, with something additional for whiskey to moisten his venerable clay, and cheer his spirit in the evening of life. This sum outlasted Campbell, and helped his clansfolk to perform the last offices with becoming decency and respect to the hoary veteran. In August, 1827, John Mac Donald, a native of Glen Tinisdale, in Sky, died at Edinburgh, aged 107. It was too memorable a circumstance to forget, that early one morning he supplied two females, as he supposed, with water from a fountain, which individuals were Flora Macdonald and Prince Charles Stewart in disguise. This man was very temperate and regular, and never had an hour's illness in his life. On new year's day, 1825, he joined in a reel with his sons, grandsons, and great grandsons. The public prints have for many years past occasionally recorded the deaths of Highlanders, whose remarkable old age may have entitled them to notice, but who obtained a place in the obituary chiefly from the circumstance of their having been concerned in their last unfortunate struggle, and being supposed at the time the only survivors of those engaged in that affair. Successive communications have hitherto proved the supposition erroneous, and afforded a proof of the general longevity of the Gaël. It is represented that, when His Majesty was in Edinburgh, John Grant, aged 110, was presented to him as one who had fought
against the Royal forces in 1745, when, addressing his Sovereign, he observed that, although he might not rank among the oldest friends of his throne, he was entitled to say that he was the last of his enemies.'— vol. ii. pp. 174-176.
The chapter upon the shipping, commerce, money, and manufactures of the Celts, contains much curious matter. Proceeding to that upon their music and poetry, we find that Mr. Logan is a devout believer in the authenticity of the Ossianic poems. We had thought, that this fond dream of Caledonian minds had long since vanished. His observations upon their music are much more worthy of notice. The reader will no doubt be pleased with his history of the Scottish Bagpipes.
'The PIPE is a most ancient instrument of music. It was well known to the Trojans and Greeks, among whom there were different sorts for Dorian, Lydian, and Phrygian measures; but the addition of a bag and accompanying drones or burdens, must have been an invention of subsequent times. Theocritus, who flourished 385 A. C., mentions it in his Pastorals, and Procopius describes it as having both the skin and wood extremely fine. Pronomus the Theban, is said, by Pausanias, to have been the first that played the different measures at once on one pipe.
There is at Rome, a fine Greek sculpture, in basso relievo, representing a piper playing on an instrument bearing a close resemblance to the Highland bagpipe. The Greeks, unwilling as they were to surrender to others the merit of useful inventions, acknowledge, that to the barbarians, i. e. the Celts, they owed much of their music, and many of its instruments. The Romans, who, no doubt, borrowed the bagpipe from the Greeks, used it as a martial instrument among their infantry.* It is represented on several coins, marbles, &c.; but from rudeness of execution, or decay of the materials, it is difficult to ascertain its exact form. On the reverse of a coin of the Emperor Nero, who thought himself an admirable performer on it, and who publicly displayed his abilities, the bagpipe is represented. An ancient figure, supposed to be playing on it, has been represented, and particularly described by Signor Macari, of Cortona, and it is engraved in Walker's History of the Irish Bards, but it does not, in my opinion, appear to be a piper. A small bronze figure found at Richborough, in Kent, and conjectured to have been an ornament of horse furniture, is not more distinct. Mr. King, who has engraved three views of it, and others, believe it to represent a bagpiper, to which it has certainly more resemblance than to "a person drinking out of a leathern bottle."
The bagpiper, of a rude and concordant construction, is in common use throughout the East, and that it continues the popular instrument of the Italian peasant, is well known. In this country, it is the medium through which the good Catholics show their devotion to their Virgin Mother, who receives their adoration in the lengthened strains of the sonorous Piva. It is a singular but faithful tradition of the church, that the shepherds who
*Varro calls it Pythaula, a word of Greek derivation, and not dissimilar to the Celtic piol-mhala, pronounced piovala.'
first saw the infant Jesus in the barn, expressed their gladness by playing on their bagpipes. That this is probable, and natural, will not be denied, but the illuminator of a Dutch missal, in the library of King's College, Old Aberdeen, surely indulged his fancy when he represented one of the appearing angels likewise playing a salute on this curious instrument. The Italian shepherds religiously adhere to the laudable practice of their ancestors, and, in visiting Rome and other places to celebrate the advent of our Saviour, they carry the pipes along with them, and their favourite tune is the Sicilian Mariners, often sung in Protestant churches.'-vol. ii. pp. 269, 270.
The author does not affect to trace the origin of the pipes amongst the Scots, but he thinks that it is of great antiquity. Robertson says of it, that its music is the voice of uproar and misrule. Its fitness for the tumult of battle rendered it preferable to the harp. Association alone can make its rude sounds acceptable to any human ear, in our humble opinion; its power to produce strong impressions, of which many proofs might be given, is entirely referable to this hidden and electric chain.
In the war in India, a piper in Lord Mac Leod's regiment, seeing the British army giving way before superior numbers, played, in his best style, the well-known Cogadh na Sith, which filled the Highlanders with such spirit, that, immediately rallying, they cut through their enemies. For this fortunate circumstance Sir Eyre Coote, filled with admiration, and appreciating the value of such music, presented the regiment with fifty pounds, to buy a stand of pipes. At the battle of Quebec, in 1760, the troops were retreating in disorder, and the general complained to a field-officer in Fraser's regiment of the bad conduct of his corps. "Sir," said the officer with a degree of warmth, "you did very wrong in forbidding the pipers to play; nothing inspirits the Highlanders so much, even now they would be of some use." "Let them blow in God's name, then," said the general; and the order being given, the pipers with alacrity sounded the Crimneuchadh, on which the Gaël formed in the rear, and bravely returned to the charge. George Clark, now piper to the Highland Society of London, was piper to the 71st regiment at the battle of Vimiera, where he was wounded in the leg by a musquet-ball as he boldly advanced. Finding himself disabled, he sat down on the ground, and, putting his pipes in order, called out, "Weel, lads, I am sorry I can gae nae farther wi you, but deel hae my saul if ye sall want music ;" and struck up a favourite warlike air, with the utmost unconcern for any thing, but the unspeakable delight of sending his comrades to battle with the animating sound of the piobruchd.
'It is a popular tradition, that the enemy anxiously level at the pipers, aware of the power of their music; and a story is related of one, who, at the battle of Waterloo, received a shot in the bag before he had time to make a fair beginning, which so roused his Highland blood, that, dashing his pipes on the ground, he drew his broadsword, and wreaked his vengeance on his foes with the fury of a lion, until his career was stopped by death from numerous wounds. It is related of the piper-major of the 92nd, on the same occasion, that, placing himself on an eminence where the shot was flying like hail, regardless of his danger, he proudly sounded the battle air to animate his noble companions. On one occasion, during
the peninsular war, the same regiment came suddenly on the French army, and the intimation of their approach was suddenly given by the pipers bursting out their Gathering. The effect was instantaneous; the enemy fled, and the Highlanders pursued.'-vol. ii. pp. 273, 274.
The most celebrated seminary for instruction in the pipes, was kept in the Isle of Sky, by the Mac Rimmons, who were hereditary pipers to the chiefs of Mac Leod. They, however, have long since ceased their avocation, and the instrument would most probably have nearly fallen into oblivion by this time, but for the exertions of the Highland Societies here and in Scotland. The Northumberland bagpipes are more portable and less noisy than the Scots. They are sometimes formed entirely of ivory, richly ornamented with silver, and the bag of cloth or karkan, is handsomely adorned.
We must refer the reader to Mr. Logan's volumes for the games and exercises of the Highlanders, and their marriage ceremonies, wakes, and funerals, the details of which are mixed up with a good deal of antiquarian research into the religion and manners of the Celts. The work is, indeed, altogether well calculated to reward attention. The authorities upon which the author has founded his statements, are carefully quoted; and though, as a Highlander, he is sanguine in his praises of his Celtic ancestors, nevertheless, we do not think that he has often, or materially, overrated the renown which they deserve from posterity. The work is illustrated by a few coloured plates, and a variety of well-executed wood
ART. III.-Cartonensia: or, an Historical and Critical Account of the Tapestries in the Vatican; copied from the designs of Raphael of Urbino, and of such of the Cartoons whence they were woven, as are now in preservation. With Notes and Illustrations. To which are subjoined, Remarks on the Causes which retard the progress of the higher departments of the art of painting in this country. By the Rev. W. Gunn, B.D. 8vo. pp. 198. London: Ridgway. 1831. ALTHOUGH many persons may have gazed upon the seven Cartoons of Raphael, in the Palace at Hampton Court, with what Watts quaintly terms a "vulgar idea," and may have gained from them pleasure and entertainment; yet how few there are who know any thing of the history, and still less of the real merits of those celebrated productions! Added to the others, which that great master designed, they form in themselves a school of art, from which the historical painter, especially, may derive, not technical instruction only, but inspiration of the highest order. They are to him what the Parthenon was, and St. Peter's is to the architect,--what the works of Phidias, Canova, and Thorwalsden are to the sculptor; and those of Homer, Ariosto, Shakspeare and Milton are to the poet. Barry says of them, writing from Rome, that they were the