Imágenes de página
PDF
ePub

hereafter, through the said tasks and works, sedulously shun idleness, in order to avoid the bad habits which idleness is accustomed to cause. The allowance of food which was given to the boys at each meal, was a roll and a half.

"Fourth Section.-21. The father of the two boys. 22. Two boys of six years old. 23. A roll and a half. 24. The mother of the girl. 25. A roll and a half. 26. The girl of six years old.

The explanation of the figures contained in the following plate, which treats of the time and manner in which the native Mexicans instructed and corrected their sons; that they might learn to avoid all kinds of sloth, and to keep themselves constantly exercised in profitable things, according to the signification of the figures successively represented in the plate, which is divided into four sections, which four sections are explained in their proper order and are as follow.

The first section, wherein is shown how fathers employed their sons of seven years old in giving them nets to fish with; and mothers occupied their daughters in spinning, and in giving them good advice; in order that they might always be diligent, and employ their time in something to avoid all sloth. The allowance of food which they gave to their sons at each meal was a roll and a half.

'PLATE LX. First Section.-1. The seven blue points signify seven years. 2. The father of the boys contained in this division of the plate. 3. A roll and a half. 4. The boy of seven years old, whose father is instructing him how to fish with the net which he holds in his hands. 5. The mother of the girls contained in this division of the plate. 6. A roll and a half. 7. The girl of seven years of age, whom her mother is teaching how to spin.

'The second section, wherein is declared how fathers chastise their sons of eight years of age, intimidating and threatening them with thorns of the aloe, that in case of negligence and disobedience to their parents, they should be punished with the said thorns; the boys accordingly weep for fear, as is represented and signified by the figures contained in this section. The quantity of food which they allowed them, consisted of a roll and a half.

Second Section.-8. These eight points signify eight years. 9. The father of the boys contained in this division of the plate. 10. A roll and a half. 11. The boy of eight years of age, whose father threatens him in case of ill-behaviour to inflict public punishment upon him with thorns. 12. Thorns of the aloe. 13. The mother of the girls contained in this division of the plate. 14. The girl of eight years of age, whose mother threatens her with thorns of the aloe in case of ill-behaviour. 15. Thorns of the aloe.

'The third section, wherein is declared how fathers punished, with the said thorns of the aloe, their sons of nine years of age, when they were incorrigible and rebellious towards their parents, by running the said thorns into their shoulders and bodies. They corrected their daughters by pricking their hands with thorns, as is represented in the third section. The allowance of food which they gave them was a roll and a half.

"Third Section.-17. These nine points signify nine years. 18. A roll and a half. 19. The father of the boys contained in this division of the plate. 20. A boy of nine years old being found to be incorrigible, his

father runs thorns of the aloe into his body. 21. The mother of the girls contained in this division of the plate. 22. A roll and a half. 23. The girl of nine years old, whose mother corrects her for negligence, by pricking her hands with thorns.

The fourth section shows how fathers chastised their sons of ten years of age when they were refractory, by inflicting blows upon them with a stick, and threatening them with other punishments, as is represented by the figure contained in this section. The quantity and allowance of food which they gave them was a roll and a half.

'Fourth Section.-24. These ten points signify ten years. 25. A roll and a half. 26. The father of the boys contained in this division of the plate. 27. The boy of ten years of age, whose father is correcting him with a stick. 28. The mother of the girl contained in this division of the plate. 29. A roll and a half. 30. The girl of ten years of age, whose mother is correcting her with a stick.

The explanation of what is represented in the first section of the following plate. When a boy or a girl of eleven years of age disregarded verbal reproof, their parents obliged them to inhale smoke of axi through their nostrils, which was a cruel and severe punishment, that they might be sorry for their conduct, and not turn out worthless and abandoned, but on the contrary employ their time in profitable things. They gave boys of such an age bread, which consisted of rolls, only by allowance, that they might learn not to be gormandizers or gluttons.

'PLATE LXI. First Section.-1. The eleven blue points signify eleven years. 2. A roll and a half. 3. The father of the boys contained in this division of the plate. 4. The boy of eleven years of age, whose father is punishing him by obliging him to inhale through the nostrils the smoke of dried axi. 5. The smoke or vapour of axi. 6. The mother of the girls contained in this division of the plate. 7. The girl of eleven years of age whose mother is punishing her by making her breathe smoke of axi. 8. A roll and a half. 9. The smoke of axi.

The explanation of what is represented in the second section.-When a boy or girl of twelve years of age would not submit to the reproof or advice of their parents, the father took the boy and tied his hands and feet, and laid him naked on the ground in some damp and wet place, in which situation he kept him for a whole day, in order that by this punishment he might amend and fear his displeasure. And the mother obliged the girl of the said age to work by night before break of day, employing her in sweeping the house and street, and continually occupying her in personal tasks. They gave them food likewise by allowance.

Second Section.-10. Twelve years. 11. A roll and a half. 12. The father of the boys contained in this division of the plate. 13. The boy of twelve years of age stretched upon the wet ground, with his hands and feet tied for a whole day. 14. This painting signifies the night. 15. The mother of the girls contained in this division of the plate. 16. A roll and a half. 17. The girl of twelve years of age, who is employed by night in sweeping. The explanation of what is represented in the third section of the following plate.-Boys and girls of thirteen years of age were occupied by their parents: the boys in fetching wood from the mountains, and in bringing reed-grass and other litter in canoes for the use of the house; and the girls in grinding meal and making bread, and preparing other articles of

food for their parents. rolls each at each meal,

They gave the boys for their allowance of food two

• Third Section.-18. The father of the boys contained in this division of the plate. 19. Thirteen years. 20. Two rolls. 21. The boy of thirteen years of age, who brings a load of reed-grass. 21. A canoe with bundles of canes. 22. The mother of the girls contained in this division of the plate. 23. The girl of thirteen years of age, who makes cakes and prepares articles of food. 24. Two cakes. 26. A bowl. 25. The comali. 27. 28. A pot for boiling provisions in, and two cakes.

The explanation of what is represented in the fourth section of the following plate. Their parents employed and occupied a boy or girl of fourteen years of age, the boy in going in a canoe to fish in the lakes, and the girl in the task of weaving a piece of cloth. Their allowance of food was two rolls.

• Fourth Section.-29. Fourteen years. 30. Two rolls. 31. The father of the boys contained in this division of the plate. 32. The boy of fourteen years of age, who goes out fishing with his canoe. 33. The mother of the girls contained in this division of the plate. 34. Two rolls. 35. The girl of fourteen years of age, who is occupied in weaving. 36. The web and occupation of weaving.

The explanation of what is represented in the following plate.-The figures contained in the first section signify that the father who had sons nearly grown up, carried them to the two houses represented in the plate; either to the house of the master, who taught and instructed the young men; or to the Mezquita, accordingly as the lad was himself inclined; and committed him to the care of the superior Alfaqui, or to the master of the boys, to be educated,-which lads it was fit should have attained the age of fifteen.

'PLATE LXII. First Section.-1. A youth of fifteen years of age, whose father delivers him up to the superior Alfaqui, that he might receive him as an Alfaqui. 2. The Talmazqui, who is the superior Alfaqui. 3. The Mezquita named calmecac. 4. The father of these two youths. 5. A young man of sixteen, whose father delivers him up to the master, that he might teach and instruct him. 6. The Teachcauh or master. 7. The seminary where they educated and taught the young men, which was called cuincacali. 8. Fifteen years.

The explanation of what is represented in the second section of the following plate. This painting signifies the laws and usages which they followed and observed in the marriages, which they lawfully contracted. The ceremony consisted in the female negociator, who arranged the nuptials, carrying on her back, on the first night of the wedding, the betrothed woman, accompanied by four women with blazing torches of resinous fir, who attend to light her on the way: and having arrived at the house of the man to whom she was engaged, the parents of the betrothed man went out to receive her in the court of the house, and conducted her to an apartment where the man to whom she was engaged expected her; and seating the betrothed couple on a mat on which were placed seats, near a hearth of fire, they took them and tied them to each other by their clothes, and offered incense of copal to their gods. Two old men and two women afterwards delivered a separate discourse to the newly married couple, and set food before them, which they presently ate; and after their repast was over

11. The 15. The

the two old men and women gave good advice to the married pair, telling them how they ought to conduct themselves and live, and by what means they might best preserve the state and obligations which they had taken upon them, in order that they might pass their lives in tranquillity. Second Section.-9. The apartment. 10. The old man. hearth of fire. 12. The wife. 13. Copal. 14. The husband. old woman. 16. The old man. 17. Food. 18. A mat. 19. Food. 20. An old woman. 21. A pitcher of pulque. 22. A cup. 23. 24. These women light the bride on her way with torches, when on the first night of the wedding they accompany her to leave her at the house of the bridegroom. 25. The female negociator, the bride. 26. 27. These women light the bride and bridegroom on the first night of their wedding.

The explanation of what is contained in the first section of the following plate. Since each of the figures respecting the novice Alfaquis are accompanied with explanations signifying in what their fathers and superiors employed them, it will be unnecessary to repeat these explanations, further than by saying that as soon as they commenced being Alfaquis, personal services for the Mezquitas were immediately allotted to them, in order that when they became superior Alfaquis, they might at a future time know how to employ the novices in the same routine of tasks as they had themselves been engaged in.

PLATE LXIII. First Section.-1. A Tlamacazq, or novice Alfaqui, whose task it is to sweep. 2. A novice Alfaqui, who brings branches from the mountain for the purpose of strewing the mezquita. 3. A novice Alfaqui, who returns loaded with thorns of the aloe for the mezquita, in order to offer a sacrifice with them of his own blood to the devil. 4. A novice Alfaqui, who brings a load of green canes for the mezquita, for the purpose of making fences and to scatter on the pavement.

The explanation of what is represented in the second section of the following plate; in which section likewise, under each of the figures, are declared the employments and occupations which were allotted to the young men, in order that they might afterwards know how, when they attained a proper age and station, to command other young men like themselves, that they might not turn out idle and abandoned persons, but always apply themselves to virtuous things.

'Second Section.-5. A young man who carries a large log of timber for the purpose of keeping light burning in the mezquita. 6. A servant who carries wood for the abundant supply of light in the mezquita. 7. A servant carrying the said wood. 8. A young man with a load of boughs for the purpose of strewing the mezquita.

[ocr errors]

'The explanation of what is represented in the third section of the following plate; in which section likewise, under each of the figures, are declared the punishments and chastisements which the superior Alfaquis inflicted on those who were subject to them, correcting them either because they were negligent or inattentive to their duties, or on account of some excesses which they had committed, in the manner represented in the plate.

(

Third Section.-9. A superior Alfaqui, who is chastising a novice Alfaqui for being neglectful of his duty. 10. A novice Alfaqui. 11. A superior Alfaqui. 12. A novice Alfaqui. 13. A superior Alfaqui, who is chastising a novice Alfaqui by piercing him with thorns of the aloe as incorrigible. 14. This house signifies, that if the novice Alfaqui went to

his own house to sleep for three successive days, they inflicted on him the punishment which is declared and represented.

The explanation of what is represented in the fourth section of the following plate; in which section likewise, under each of the figures, is declared how soldiers of valour trained to the military profession young men who had attained a fit age, according as their fathers had intrusted them to their care, and the youths were led by their own inclinations. Their fathers in this manner placed them with persons who were skilled in the arts and occupations to which their own inclinations disposed them.

'Fourth Section.-15. The Teguigua, who is a man of valour in war. 16. The young man. 17. The father of the young man, who confides his son to the soldier of valour, that he may train him to the military profession and carry him along with him to the wars. 18. The young man, the pupil of the soldier of valour, who goes with him to the wars, carrying his baggage on his back, together with his own arms. 19. The Teguigua, a soldier of valour, who goes ready armed to the wars.

The explanation of what is represented in the first section of the following plate; in which section, under each of the figures, are declared the employments and occupations of the superior Alfaquis; some went by night to the mountain to offer sacrifices to their gods, other played on musical instruments, others counted the hours by the stars of the sky, and others exercised themselves in other services of their mezquitas.

PLATE LXIV. First Section.-1. A novice Alfaqui. 2. A superior Alfaqui, who goes with a blazing light by night to a mountain to perform penance, and carries in his hand a bag of copal for incense to offer a sacrifice to the devil, and on his back henbane in a vase for the same sacrifice, as likewise boughs for the purpose of strewing the place of sacrifice; and behind him is a novice Alfaqui, with other things. 3. This painting with eyes signifies the night. 4. A superior Alfaqui, who is playing on the teponaztli, which is a musical instrument, which is his occupation during the night. 5. This painting with eyes signifies the night. 6. A superior Alfaqui, who watches by night the stars and the sky, in order to see what the hour is, which is the task and duty allotted to him.

The explanation of what is represented in the second section of the following plate; in which section, under each of the figures, is declared its signification, explanatory of the punishments which they inflicted on the young men, as represented by the figures, which were executed according to the laws and ordinances of the kings of Mexico.

Second Section.-7. A young man who proceeds on a military expedition, carrying a load of provisions and weapons of war. 8. The Telpuchtlato. 9. A woman. 10. A young man. 11. The Telpuchtlato. The officers deputed to watch over the conduct of the young men, are here signified, who, when any young man had criminal connection with any woman, chastised the young man by inflicting blows upon him with halfburnt as fiery logs of wood, and separated the parties from further intercourse, as is represented by the figures contained in this division of the plate.'-pp. 45-70.

We next give some curious illustrations of the course of public justice, in Mexico-that being always a nice criterion of the state of civilization in different countries.

NO. II.

Τ

« AnteriorContinuar »