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than that which denounced on the slave trader the pains and penalties of felony. No dissentient voice was heard. Even Mr. G. Hibbert, a West Indian merchant, and one of the most powerful advocates for the continuance of the Slave Trade, who made one of the small minority of eighteen that voted against the abolition in 1807,-and Mr. Marryatt, another West-Indian merchant, and the agent for Trinidada,-united in reprobating those persons who still embarked in this trade, and in deeming them fit subjects of felo nious prosecution.
Mr Perceval concurred with Mr. Brougham in his views; expressed his wish to see the abolition laws carried into complete effect; and joined in all the terms of reprobation with which the conduct of such as still presumed to violate those laws had been branded: and Mr. William Smith, whose labours in this cause, since it first began to attract public notice, have been incessant, and Mr. Canning, followed on the same side.
Mr. Stephen felt it was right in him to offer a few observations to the House, especially as an honourable friend and near connection of his own (Mr. Wilberforce) was absent from indisposition. In deliver ing his own sentiments, however, he might be considered as speaking those of bis absent friend. Mr. Stephen defended the present administration from the charge of having been lukewarm in enforcing the laws abolishing the Slave Trade. *I would as soon," he said, " afliance myself in the bonds of friendship with a man who had strangled my child, as lend my feeble support to an administration, disposed to violate the sacred duty of adhering to, and enforcing, the abolition of the Slave Trade," Indeed, it would be extravagant injustice to wards his Right Honourable Friends (Mr. Perceval and Mr. Canning) to suppose any want of attachment in them to this cause, considering their important services to it when in the
hands of their political opponents. They were content to augment the popularity of an administration to which they were hostile, for the sake of carrying a measure so near to their hearts. But he trusted there were no longer two parties in parliament on this subject. The hardest tax to which his candour could be subjected, was that of doing justice to his old opponents in this cause; and yet, in the evidence by which the credulity of parliament had been abused, there was room enough for difference of opinion in every view but that of strict moral principle. Humanity had fraudu lently been enlisted in the service of her enemies, by pretences that the abolition would produce massacres on the coast of Africa, and in surrection in the West Indies, as well as ruin to the planters, to the merchants of Liverpool, and to our commerce in general. Experience had dispelled all such illusions. There have been no massacres on the coast; no insurrections in the colonies; Liverpool has not been injured; and the general commerce of the country has been flourishing beyond example. He believed, therefore, that gentlemen once 'zealous against the abolition, would now, if the question were revived, be found among its most active promoters.
Mr. Stephen proceeded to remark, that although he held this country bound to use her utmost efforts to induce foreign powers to renounce their share of this detestable commerce, he would not admit, that if we failed in those efforts, all the evils of the abolition would be ours, and all the benefits theirs. On the contrary, our colonies, supposing the abolition effectual, would acquire a great accession of interior strength, while theirs would be progressively weakened and endangered. less could he admit, that we had gained nothing by that great mea sure of abolition, which had been the best boast of the country and of the times we live in. Much had
been done in diminishing the slave trade, though much, he admitted, remained still to be done. But if the reverse of this were true, if the exportation of slaves had not diminished, still we should be great gainers by the abolition. We had at least delivered ourselves, as a nation, from the guilt and shame of authorising that cruel and opprobrious traffic; and this, in his mind, was an advantage above all price. If we had effected nothing more, he should rejoice and bless God to the last hour of his life for that happy deliverance.
. With respect to the slave trade carried on by foreign nations, Mr. Stephen admitted that there were difficulties. This, however, he would say, that he hoped never to see a defensive treaty with any South American power, unless the abolition of the slave trade was one of its stipulations. We had an unquestionable right to make their renouncing the slave trade the condition of our further support. As to subjects of our allies carrying on a contraband slave trade from England, the case ought not to be endured. If the existing penalties were found insufficient, as the case of the Commercio de Rio seemed to prove, they ought to be increased; and persons who so abused our hospitality, though clothed with a
public character, ought to be sent with ignominy out of the country. The penalties on the slave trade when carried on by British subjects. ought also clearly to be increased, The offence was in its nature piracy and murder; and if British subjects were found abandoned enough to prosecute a trade in human blood, in defiance of the laws of their country, Parliament would be bound to put a stop to such atrocious crimes by the terrors of adequate punish
The interest which we are persuaded that our readers, in common with us, take in this great question, will excuse the length of our abstract. It would not have been be coming in us to have overlooked the revolution which a few years has evidently produced in the feelings of parliament and the public, on a question involving so many great moral principles. It is one of the signs of the times which we cannot contemplate without the liveliest emotions of exultation and gratitude. The magnitude of the change can be duly estimated only by those who had occasion to mark the difficulties, beyond all parallel, which the leaders in this cause had to encounter and overcome. They have done well, and their memory shall be blessed.
LITERARY AND PHILOSOPHICAL INTELLIGENCE,
GREAT BRITAIN. In the press: The Life of Bishop Wainflete, Founder of Magdalen College, Oxford, by Dr. R. Chandler ;--Southey's History of Brazil, Vol. II.;--the Edinburgh Annual Register for 1809;-Elements of the Science of War, by W. Muller;The Works of the late Bishop Portens, complete, in 6 vols. 8vo., with his Life (which may be had separately), by the Rev. R. Hodgson ;-Another volume of Anecdotes of the Manners of the Citizens of London, by Mr. Malcolm;-The Second
mary of the History of the English Church, and of the Sects which have departed from her Communion, from the earliest Period to the Reign of James the First. By the Rev. Johnson Grant, A. M.
Preparing for publication: Illustrations of Scott's Lady of the Lake, from Paintings by Mr. R. Cook; Illustrations of Gertrude of Wyoming, from Paintings by the same hand;- A second volume of Historical Sketches of the South of India, by Lieut.Col. Mark Wilks;-Essays on the Poetry and Superstitions of the Highlands, with Fragments in Verse and Prose, by Mrs. Grant of Laggan ;-Chronological Memoirs of Mahommedan History, down to the Establishment of the House of Timur in Hindustan, translated from the Persian, by D. Price, Esq. of Bombay;-and, A Life of Bishop Hall, by the Rev. Josiah Pratt.
Messrs. Leigh and Sotheby will shortly submit to public sale the entire Libraries of the late Rev. W. Bird, formerly Second Master of the Charter House; W. Platel, Esq. of Peterborough, including his Arabic, Persian, Bengalee, and other MSS.; the Hon. and Rev. H. J. de Salis, D. D.; and a Collection of Coins by the late B. C. Roberts, Esq.
In the latter end of June last, a gentleman residing in Sloane Square planted in his garden a new species of potatoe, which he, brought last spring from the Alleghany Mountains in North America. From the original parent there grew one hundred stems, and when these were dug, the produce weighed 28lbs.; whereas the seed potatoe weighed only two ounces.
The project of an archway through part of Shooter's Hill has been revived; and notice has been given of an intended application to Parliament for a bill to carry it into effect.
According to accounts from Illyrian Carinthia, a terrible rain-spout descended on the night between the 27th and 28th of August, at Hermajor and its vicinity, threat ening destruction to the whole village. The water flowed into the market-place and its neighbourhood so high, as to penetrate the windows of the first floors. More than fifty persons were hurried away by the torrent; many of whom were alive, and called pite ously for assistance, which no one could af ford. All the bridges, and twelve houses, were washed away, and a great quantity of cattle perished in the fields.
A Bavarian engineer has invented a method of constructing wooden bridges, which, for strength and solidity, promise a long du
ration. They are likewise remarkable for the elegance of their form and the width of their arches. One, consisting of a single arch 200 feet wide, has been thrown over the river Roth. Another, 286 feet wide, has been made for a large city. The arches may be so constructed as to admit ships of war, or merchant vessels, to pass through them, an aperture being made in the centre, which can be opened and shut at pleasure. The bridges may be taken to pieces in two days, if necessary, to stop the progress of an enemy, or for any other purpose.
A new and dreadful eruption of Vesuvine took place in September. It is considered as a very extraordinary circumstance that this eruption was not preceded by the usual indications; every convulsion of Vesuvias being previously announced by the drying up of the wells of Naples. This phenomenon did not take place on this occasion; and, to the great surprise of the inhabitants, Vesuvius began to emit flames on the night of the 10th of September. On the morning of the 11th, the flames became more intense, and the lava began to flow from the east and south-east sides of the mountain. Towards evening the conflagration increased, and about twilight two grand streams of fire were seen to flow down the ridge of the vol cano: night produced no change in this state of things. On the morning of the 19th, a hollow sound was heard, and kept increasing; the fire and smoke likewise augmented in intensity, and towards evening the horizon was obscured. The breeze, usual in these parts, having blown from the south-east, dissipated the accumulated clouds. The mountain continued to vomit lava and a dense smoke, which even at a distance was strongly sulphureous; the hollow noise in the sides of the mountain continued to increase. The 13th the volcano was tranquil, and the lava ran slowly in the channels which it had formed during the night; but, at four in the afternoon, a frightful and continued noise, accompanied with frequent explosions, an nounced a new eruption. The shocks of the volcano were so violent, that at Castel Novo, built upon a rock, at the distance of near four leagues, oscillations were felt simi. lar to those produced by an earthquake. At five o'clock the eruption commenced, and continued during the greater part of the night. This time the burning matter flowed down all the sides of the mountain, with a force hitherto unprecedented; all Vesuvius was on fire, and the lava has caused the greatest losses; houses and whole estates have been overwhelmed; and at this day families in tears, and reduced to despair,
search in vain for the inheritance of their ancestors, buried under the destroying lava.
ST. MICHAEL'S, AZORES.
On the 11th of August, at ten P. M. slight shocks of an earthquake were felt in the Island of St. Michael's, at intervals of a few minutes, for four hours. During this time, the inhabitants, under the influence of alarm for their personal safety as well as property, were running to and fro in the greatest distress. Between two and three a dreadful rocking was experienced throughout the whole island; several houses were thrown down, and many others were greatly damaged; and such persons as scught safety in the open air were dashed to the ground, On the 12th, at mid-day, a hollow rumbling sound was heard, the clouds gathered, and the wind was hushed into silence; the rocking returned, and in a few minutes after, the village of Cozas, situated on a plain, com
prising twenty-two houses, was swallowed up, and in the spot where it stood a lake of boiling water gushed forth. Many of the unfortunate inhabitants, who had previously retired to the elevated ground, beheld the sight with a degree of horror and amazement, which enchained all their faculties; their whole pro perty swept away in a few minutes, and in the place where their once beautiful gardens and flourishing orchards stood, nought now appeared but a vast expanse of water. About thirty-two persons, it is calculated, have lost their lives by this awful and calamitous event; and cattle and property to a considerable amount are destroyed. A great degree of alarm continues to pervade the whole island, as on the east side an orifice has been discovered, resembling the crater of a volcano, and out of which flames occasionally burst. Hitherto they have been unaccompanied by any ejection of volcanic
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HIBERNIAN SUNDAY SCHOOL SOCIETY.
WE hail with pleasure every well-concerted attempt to improve the condition of Ireland; and we trust that every call which is made upon our benevolence, with a view to further that object, will uieet with prompt attention. A prospectus has just reached us, bearing the title which we have given to this article, and sanctioned by very high names, which appears to us highly deserving of encouragement. We shall therefore, transcribe the main parts of it.
"That national education is of the utmost importance to Ireland, and that rapid strides have been made in the advancement of this desirable object, within a few years, are facts generally admitted, and in proportion as the extent and benefit of what has been done are acknowledged, so does the view excite general enquiry, as to what yet remains to be done, or what measures may be adopted, to render the object more diffusive and permanent.
"In the enquiry, it is necessary to take into special consideration, that the persons intended to be benefited, almost without exception, derive subsistence from continued Jabour, and of course must be accommodated by arrangements answering to their short periods of leisure.
Amongst the various plans therefore hitherto suggested, none has perhaps been
adopted more generally useful, under the foregoing circumstances, or more effectually tending to the end proposed, than the esta blishment of Sunday Schools.
"They hold out, to the children of the manufacturer and the peasant, the means of procuring instruction of the most important kind, at once tending to inculcate the principles of religion, leading, as a conse quence, to decency and good conduct, and affording a pleasing domestic employment to the lower orders in the improvement of their minds by reading, and the acquirement of habits which will naturally supersede occupstions of the grossest and most fatally destructive tendency; they also lead to a decent and useful appropriation of the Sabbath, by rendering that period of rest from bodily labour instrumental to the acquire. ment of knowledge, which is at present, in too many instances, dedicated to profligacy and guilt.
"It is further to be observed, that the influence of these schools does not confine its effects merely to the Sunday, or to the children who are the more immediate objects of instraction. In the one instance, the schoolbooks, the use of which is given to them on the week days, will be read with sedulous attention, and the children feeling the advantages afforded them, and appreciating their value, will be stimulated to extraordinary diligence, and will be found not alone