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Otaheite.Cape of Good Hope...Spain. stedfast to the faith of their prophet.
Our settlement will need to be on their guard in such circumstances, especially as we are bitterly blamed for the apostacy of the tribes in the mountains. Some of the Mohammedan doctors, who are suspected of being favourably disposed towards our religion, have, within these few days, been dreadfully threatened. Keekshee, who is perhaps the first doctor in the country, has been severely persecuted for reading and commending
May 1. On the 20th of April, General Bulgakoff sent Kattegary to request one of us to visit him at Georghievsk. On going thither Mr. Paterson found that the general sent for one of us, with the express view of thanking us for the interest which we take in the welfare of the natives. Mr. Paterson conversed a long time with him on the state of the country, and took an opportunity of laying before him the wretched condition of the common people. When he was told that the chiefs persecuted the people for reading our tracts, he was much displeased, and seemed to wish success to our exertions iu Christianizing the natives.”
"The persecution against the people in our immediate neighbourhood, for reading our tracts and commending our religion, still continues. Not long since, we learned, that the chiefs entered into an agreement among themselves, at the fast of Ramazan, to apprehend any priest who might be found to hear or to read our books, and whip him to death. Notwithstanding the hostile measures of the chiefs, however, the people evidently wish to know more about us and Christianity. Several of them have come, privately and asked books, begging us not to tell any person that they had received them. There are also a considerable number of young people learning to read. We hope that this will pave the way for the dissemination of Christian principles among them, by means of tracts. May the time soon arrive, when the knowledge of the Lord shall cover the earth, as the waters do the channel of the deep."
"We have heard nothing more as yet, about the Sonnas. From reports which daily increase, it appears, that our information respecting the commotions on account of religion among the mountain tribes was correct. Hasau Seid told me to-day that one would he surprised to see the number of scholars throughout the country; that some Effendis taught more than an hundred; and that the
chiefs had advised the people to get their
children taught to read, that they might b able to withstand our arguments, and defen their own religion. I was told yesterday b a Mola, who knows the mountain tribe that Arslau Beg had attacked the Beshelba village which renounced Mohammedism som time ago, and had carried off all the pro perty belonging to it. The Effendi of the village, whose name is Ali, justified Arsla Beg's conduct, and declared all the inhab tants of the village to be infidels, except ond man, to whom Arslau Beg gave back 400 sheep, which he had carried off along with the property of the rest of the villagers. Two men were put to death. Yet it does not ap pear that any of the people have been reclaimed. On the contrary, it is said, that many more throughout the mountains are forsaking the religion of their fathers. The Mola who gave me this inforination, is an intelligent man, and has travelled over the greater part of the Turkish empire. He told me, that we were the subject of conversation every where, both on this, and on the other side of the Kuban."
In consequence of a serious war which had broken out in Otaheite, the greater part of the missionaries had thought it necessary for their safety to retire to the neighbouring island of Huaheine, where they had been received in a friendly manner. Four missionaries had been left at Otaheite, but were expected soon to follow the others. The war, it was thought, would end in the total overthrow of Pomarre's government,
CAPE OF GOOD HOPE.
A mission has been established among the Namaquas, which is said to proceed favour ably; and the surrounding tribes have ex.. pressed a great desire to hear the Gospel. The missionaries' congregation has increased to upwards of 700. Besides these, many, who are obliged for the sake of their cattle to live near water, come occasionally to hear the word of God, or one of the missionaries goes to them to instruct them and their children; for which reason, observe the mis sionaries, we want help in our labours, før we have a large field before us.
A decree of Joseph Bonaparte, of the 10th December, contains the following regula
Considering that it is repugnant to the spirit of the Gospel, and the purity of the
discipline of the best ages of the church, that the ecclesiastical order should be diverted from its legitimate avocations by legal concerns; and, at the same time, that the public interest requires the unity of jurisdic
*From the date of the present decree, the ecclesiastical power shall cease to exercise any judicial jurisdictiou, as well civil as criminal, which is found to devolve to the secular magistrates.
"All causes for trial, whether civil, crimimal, or of any other description, pending be
tween various suitors in the ecclesiastical courts, shall be transferred, according to the character and nature of their transaction, to their respective secular tribunals.
"The judges, deciding in such causes, shall apply to them the regulations of canon◄ law in vigour in Spain, as would have guided the ecclesiastical judges, to whom such causes would otherwise have been submitted. The mode and form of such proceedings, as well as the reiteration of each cause, must be exclusively determined by the law which regulates the secular tribunals.”
VIEW OF PUBLIC AFFAIRS.
WI had scarcely closed our View of Public Affairs for the last month, when a new and most extraordinary scene was exhibited in France. The long reported decree of separation of Bonaparte and Josephine has at length taken place, and their marriage has been formally dissolved by the French Senate. The cause of this singular divorce is stated to be the want of issue on the part of the emperor, and his solicitude for his people, which makes him desirous, with a view to their happiness, of leaving a son to succeed him, educated by himself in all the imperial arts. This separation has taken place with the professed consent of all the parties concerned. Josephine is made to come forward, and declare that she willingly sacrifees her own happiness to that of France: Bonaparte, in his speech on the occasion, expresses himself to have been fully sataked with his consort; but that there is no sacrifice beyond his courage, when the welfare of France requires it. Josephine is to rain the title and rank of Empress Queen, with a dowry of two millions of livres (near VOD004) a year. Nothing appears to be ayet fixed with respect to a successor to Karphine.
The annual Exposition of the state of the French empire, which has been nd before the Legislative Body, is little are than an amplification of Bonaparte's "ch, of which we gave an abstract in our number. It affirms, that, when the Enbladed at Walcheren, all the depart Lets gave striking proofs of their attach, excepting that of the Sarre; which is fure to be deprived, for 25 years, of the
rights of citizens, and subjected to a double contribution;—a severity which is doubtless intended to be exemplary. 66 Holland," it is said, "is only a part of France; an illu vion of the Rhine, the Meuse, and the Scheldt, the great arteries of the French empire."- "Should Spain free her colonies, it will be her own fault. The Emperor will never oppose the independence of the con-' tinental nations of America: that independence is in the natural order of events; it is just; it agrees with the true interests of all European powers. Should the people of Mexico and Peru wish to raise themselves to the elevation of a noble independence, France will never oppose them, provided they enter into no connection with England."
Bonaparte's policy, with respect to the South American colonies, is obvious. By thus engaging to countenance their independence, he hopes to establish a prior claim to their favour and confidence, and ultimately, perhaps, to obtain an ascendancy over them, to the exclusion of the English. ̧ For while Bonaparte thus comes forward as the assertor of their rights, we shall probably be prevented, by our relations with the mo ther country, from affording even the slightest expression of our approbation to any ef forts which they may make to deliver them. selves from their present state of oppression and degradation.
Gerona has been forced to open its gates to the besieging army, after a most gallant and determined resistance, second only to that of Saragoza. It surrendered by capitulation, on the 11th of December. The terms
were, that the garrison should be prisoners of war, and that the persons and property of the inhabitants should be respected.
French troops appear to be pouring into Spain in great numbers: 350,000 men, it is said, are to be sent there. The English army under Lord Wellington has taken a position on the frontiers of Portugal. The headquarters were at Coimbra about the beginning of this month.
The late King of Sweden has been removed, with his family, to Stralsund, whence he is to proceed to Switzerland, which, it seems, is the appointed place of his exile. He will there be in the power of Bonaparte, who, we fear, retains too deep an impression of resentment for the inflexible resistance which he experienced from this gallant mo-" narch, to use his power generously,
Peace has been concluded between Sweden and Denmark, and also between Sweden and France.
The American Congress began its sittings on the 27th of November. The Message of the President treats at considerable length of the relations of the United States with the belligerent powers, and especially with England. The disavowal by his Majesty of Mr. Erskine's provisional arrangement, is spoken of as a measue which was not justified by the circumstances of the case, and of which no satisfactory explanation had as yet been officially made to the Government of the United States, The attack on the Chesapeake is styled "a murderous aggression;" and the conduct of Mr. Jackson is adverted to in strong terms of reprehension. "Forgetting the respect due to all governments, he did not refrain from imputations on this, which required that no farther communications should be received from him" -but "a ready attention will be given to communications through any channels which may be substituted."-Of France, all that is said is, that, though her "trespasses on our commercial rights have long been the subject of our just remonstrances, the posture of our relations does not correspond with the measures taken on the part of the United States to effect a favourable change."-The expenses of the year 1809, the President states, would be met by the money remaining in the treasury from former years: but, owing to the failure of the revenues arising from commerce, a loan would be required for the ensuing year. In enumerat
ing the many blessings enjoyed by the United States notwithstanding the external wrongs and vexations to which they have been subjected, Mr. Madison observes, that bealth had never been more universal; that the produce of the year had been ample; that the country every where presented proofs of enterprize, extensive capital, and improvement; and that its dependence on foreign countries, both for raw materials and useful manufactures, was greatly diminished. "Recollecting always," he adds, "that for every advantage we are indebted to that Divine Providence, whose goodness has been so remarkably extended to this nation, it becomes us to cherish a devout gratitude, and to implore from the same Omnipotent Source a blessing on the consultations and measures about to be undertaken for the welfare of our beloved country."
The correspondence between Mr. Jackson and the American Secretary of State has been published; and, while it must be admitted that neither of these gentlemen bas always chosen the most conciliatory modes of expression, we must nevertheless think, that the former has greatly the advantage of the latter in argument. It would be quite inconsistent with our limits to give a detailed exposition of the points in dispute, many of which were exceedingly trivial, though urged with much heat and acrimony. The circumstance which afforded a pretest to the American Government for breaking off all intercourse with Mr. Jackson, was, that gentleman's having affirmed, and, after the fact had been denied by the American Government, having repeated the affirma tion, that it was known to that government that Mr. Erskine had departed from his instructions in agreeing to the arrangement which had been disavowed by his Majesty.
There is great reason to hope, notwith standing the unfavourable aspect of the President's speech, that our differences with America may still be accommodated.
In our number for last September we noticed the spirit of insubordination which had manifested itself among the officers of the Company's troops on the Madras establisliment. This spirit, instead of subsiding, as was expected, arose to such a height that it was found necessary to employ an armed force to repress it. The officers of several of the native regiments induced the troops under their command to seize several fortified places, and to set themselves in direct hostility to the Company's authority.
Such prompt and vigorous measures, how ever, were taken by the Madras Government, as have completely defeated the designs of the disaffected, and crushed this dangerous insurrection. The particulars have not yet transpired. It is only known,
that the insurgents have been entirely subdued. Lord Minto, the Governor-General, had thought it necessary to repair to Madras on this emergency; but the contest is said to have been at an end before he reached that presidency..
THE ssion of Parliament was opened on the 23d instant, by a Speech, which was read by the Lord Chancellor. It was in substance as follows: viz.
His Majesty laments the calamities which hare ballen Austria. She entered into the war with France without any encouragement from his Majesty. His Majesty had nevertheless given all the support in his power to her efforts.
It appeared important at once to destroy the formidable naval armaments and establishments in the Scheldt, and to divert France from reinforcing her armies on the Daaube. An expedition was accordingly sent thither; and though its principal ends have not been attained, yet advantages conreced with our own security will be found to have resulted from it.
Sweden has made peace with France; but his Majesty had always left her fully at liberty to pursue her own interests in that respect. He trusts that nothing will occur to interrupt the amity between Sweden and Great Britain.
His Majesty's efforts to liberate Portugal have been powerfully aided by the confidence of the Prince Regent, and the cooperation of the local government and people. The expulsion of the French from that cbantry, and the glorious victory of Talavera, have contributed to check the progress of the French in Spain.
The Spanish government have determined to assemble the Cortes of the nation; a measure which, it is hoped, will give fresh animation and vigour to the councils and arms of Spain; whose cause every consideration of policy and good faith binds his Majesty to support; and he relies on the aid of Parliament in so doing,
The intercourse between his Majesty's ambassador and the government of the Caited States, his Majesty regrets, has been suddenly and unexpectedly interrupted. He has, however, received assurances of a friendly disposition on the part of America, which wil be met by a corresponding disposition
on his part.
His Majesty has directed the estimates for
the current year to be framed with all possible attention to economy: he greatly regrets the pressure on his subjects which the war renders inevitable.
His Majesty recommends the state of the inferior clergy to the farther consideration of Parliament.
The accounts of the trade and revenue of the country will be found highly satisfactory; the measures directed by France against our commerce having wholly failed of any permanent effect.
The inveterate hostility of our enemy continues to be directed against this country with unabated animosity and violence. To guard the security of his Majesty's dominions, and to defeat the designs which are meditated against us and our allies, will require the utmost efforts of vigilance, fortitude, and perseverance.
"In every difficulty and danger, his Ma jesty confidently trusts that he shall derive the most effectual support, under the continued blessing of Divine Providence, from the wisdom of his Parliament, the valour of his forces, and the spirit and determination of his people."
The Address moved was, as usual, an echo to the Speech. An amendment was moved, strongly condemning the conduct of minis ters, evidently with no other view than that of discovering the real temper of the house. For this amendment, 92 voted in the House of Lords, while 144 voted against it ; leaving a majority of 52 in favour of ministers. In the House of Commons the numbers were, 167 in favour of the amendment, and 265 against it; being a majority of 96. It is to be noted, however, that Lord Sidmouth's party voted against the amendment, on the ground that it went too far, in condemning before inquiry; and this party may be expected to throw its weight in general into the opposition scale. Estimating its numbers in the lower house at 15, this re
duces the ministerial majority from 96 to 66: among whom also, it may be presumed, are not a few moderate men, not particularly attached to any party. It is apprehended therefore, by many, that the present administration is too feeble to maintain its ground
long; and this apprehension has been strengthened by a subsequent division in the House of Commons, on a motion made by Lord Porchester for appointing a committee to inquire into the conduct of the Walcheren expedition. This motion was resisted by ministers, as premature; the information promised by his Majesty to the house not having yet been furnished. The house, however, thought differently: 195 voting for the committee of inquiry, and only 186 against it. On this point, however-viz. the stability of administration-we do not pretend to speculate.
The Isle of Bourbon, in the East Indies, surrendered to a squadron of four frigates and a sloop of war, under the command of Commodore Rowley, on the 21st of Septem
ber. A French frigate, and the Europe and Streatham East-India ships, were found in the harbour, and taken possession of.
Measures of increased severity have been adopted against British commerce by the governments of Denmark and Holland. Bonaparte appears, at the same time, to have greatly relaxed the rigours of his commercial decrees, as they relate to France. He has permitted corn to be freely exported from that country in neutral bottoms; in which may be imported, in exchange, a variety of articles, which are enumerated and though he professes to exclude the produce and manufactures of Great Britain, yet he must be aware that such a reservation is altogether nugatory. The quantity of corn brought from France to this country has been very large.
WARDLE Tersus F. AND D. WE stated in our last number the issue of this trial, and intimated our intention of resuming the subject. Col. Wardle, it will be remembered, had been declared, by the verdict of a jury, liable to pay above 1000l. for furniture, supplied by Mr. Wright, for the use of Mrs. Clarke; in consequence of testimony, given by Mrs. Clarke aud Mr, Wright's brother, that he had come to Wright's house with that lady, and made himself expressly answerable for it. Mr. Wardle, indignant at this decision, addressed the public in a letter, in which were these words: "There only remains for me now, before God and my country, to declare the verdict was obtained by perjury alone; and I do pledge myself to prove that fact the earliest moment the forms of the law will allow me to do so." In commenting on this subject in one of our former numbers, we naturally assumed, in the same manner, indeed, as almost every one else, that Col. Wardle was about to prosecute the witnesses for perjury; their perjury" being the "fact" upon which he declared himself at issue with them, and on which, therefore, his intended prosecution would be made to turn. He took, however, another course. He prosecuted, not each for perjury, but the whole together for a conspiracy; by which proceeding, as it seems to us, the perjury became a point merely to be inferred, certainly not the specific crime that was to be punished. Lord Ellenborough seems to have taken great alarm at this mode of proceeding, for a reason which his lordship's own words will best explain.
The defendants might all have been in
WRIGHT, AND MRS. CLARKE.
dicted for perjury, which, in truth, is the correct course that ought to have been pur sued; and I am not a little alarmed at this new measure of combining in one charge of conspiracy all the witnesses to a transaction, respecting which they have given their testimony on
oath. Indictment for con spiracy, in every case, has this hardship belonging to it, that it deprives every individual, included in such indictment, of the power of calling those as witnesses who are combined in the indictment. If witnesses, instead of being questioned, and having their credibility impeached, should be thus combined in one aggregate prosecution, and stripped of the advantage of the evidence of each other, it is a hardship of the most severe nature, and which I shall be very sorry to see imposed again."
But we proceed to the trial.
Col. Wardle, as well as Major Dodd and Col. Glennie, who were present on the oc casion of the meeting at Wright's house, severally swore that no engagement or undertaking to pay for the furniture in question had been made: and thus the testimony of Wright's brother, and Mrs. Clarke, and indeed also the oath of Wright himself, the prosecutor in the first cause, stood op posed to that of three new witnesses;-of whom, however, two might have been brought forward in the first cause with much more propriety than in the second. Had the question turned on the preference due to the two sets of contending witnesses, there might have been some difficulty in deciding. On the one hand, Mrs. Clarke certainly was, from general character, de