« AnteriorContinuar »
LITERARY AND PHILOSOPHICAL INTELLIGENCE, &c. &c.
Is the press: A Series of Letters from Madame la Marquise du Deffand to the Earl of Orford and to Voltaire, with a Life of the Lady-A Treatise on Mortification, by Mr. Lee, Surgeon, of Shields;-An Inquiry into the Nature, Causes, and Treatment of Impediments of Speech, Cases of Amentia, partial Derangements, &c. of the Human Faculties, in a Letter from Mr. Thelwall to Mr. Cline;-The Vestibule of Eloquence, being Exercises in Recitation, with an introductory Discourse, by Mr. Thelwall-A History of the Inquisition in Italy, Spain, and Portugal, with Plates;and Travels through Morocco, by Dr. Buffa, in 1806.
Preparing for publication: An historical Narrative of the War in the Levant, from 1793 to 1801, with Maps and Views;-A collective Edition of the Works of the late Bishop of London, by Mr. Hodgson, Rector of St. George's, Hanover Square.
Mr. Cumming has in the press a new and enlarged edition of his Observations on the Properties of Cylindrical and Conical Wheels; to which he has added a Supplement, containing estimates of the national advantages that may reasonably be expected from the investigations of the select committees of the House of Cominons appointed to take into consideration the acts now in force requiring the use of broad wheels, &c., with such extracts from their reports as relate to that subject. This work will be ready for publication in the early part of the ensuing month.
The first number of a German newspaper, to be continued twice a week, was published on the 2d instant, by Messrs. Vogel and Schulze, Poland Street.
The Rev. John Hunt has circulated proposals for publishing, by subscription, the whole of the Works of the Rev. John Howe, induding at least one volume of discourses never before published.
The great improvements intended to be made in Shoreham harbour, have met the wishes of the public, not only of that county, but also of the mercantile interests of the metropolis, so that they are immediately to
be carried into effect after the next sessions of parliament; and it is further intended, that a canal from the docks at Shoreham shall open a communication with Worthing, and also that a canal, or iron rail-way, shall extend to the eastward, as far as Lewes. This plan will not only produce a place of safety for merchant ships, but also for those of his Majesty's navy. The central situation of the port of Shoreham will, no doubt, make it an object worthy the attention of government, as the improvements at that port will not only allow room for merchant-ships, but also for a fleet of transports to assemble, thereby expediting the shipping of troops, without unnecessarily harassing them by long marches and circuitous routes. It is also in contemplation to extend the present design much farther, as from the port of Shoreham being the nearest to that of London, and the navigation of that harbour being lately much improved, and extending, at the present time, nearly to the town of Horsham; and, from a survey that has been taken, it is concluded that, at a moderate expense, the same may be joined with the Thames at Guildford, thereby making it an object of great national utility and importance.
Forty boats, which have been employed in the herring fishery, on the Norfolk coast, between the 25th of September and 1st of November last, caught upwards of fourteen millions of fish, which sold to the merchants for between 16 and 17,000l., and gave to each person employed in the fishery, independent of the expenses of the vessel, about 501.-The herring fishery at Yarmouth has been remarkably productive, a greater quantity having been caught than ever was known. The boats have come in repeatedly with twenty lasts, and, in some instances, as many as twenty-three or twenty-four lasts have been brought in at a time. A last of herrings is 10,000.
The Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures, and Commerce, have lately presented Mr. John Morison with their silver medal and forty guineas, for his ingenuity in providing himself with artificial arms, after he had experienced the misfor
tune to lose his natural ones by the dis charge of a cannon. This worthy man, who
lives in the neighbourhood of Holborn Bars, undertakes to supply other persons labouring under similar misfortunes with that which he deplores, with artificial arms, legs, and other instruments, adapted to almost every purpose of life.
Common spirits of turpentine have been recently administered by several medical gentlemen of the metropolis, with good effect, in the cure of tape worm. The doses given were in some cases so large as two ounces, but those of half an ounce at a time, repeated twice a day, were generally found to answer the purpose. The vehicle in which the turpentine was administered, was generally honey.
It is a fact which ought to be known to all housewives, that if they begin to grate a nutmeg at the stalk end, it will prove hollow throughout; whereas the same nutmeg, grated from the other end, would have proved sound and solid to the last. The centre of a nutmeg consists of a number of fibres issuing from the stalk, and its continuation through the centre of the fruit, the other ends of which fibres, though closely surrounded, and pressed by the fruit, do not adhere to it. When the stalk is grated
away, those fibres having lost their hold, gradually drop out, and the nutmeg appears hollow; and as more of the stalk is grated away, others drop out in succession, and the hollow continues through the whole nut. By beginning at the contrary end, the fibres above-mentioned are grated off at their core end, with the surrounding fruit, and do not drop out and cause a hole. Another circumstance worth knowing, is, that in consequence of the great value of the oil of nutmegs, it is often extracted from the nuts that are exposed to sale, by which they are rendered of very little value. To asce:tain the quality of nutmegs, force a pin into them, and if good, however dry they may appear, the oil will be seen oozing out all round the pin, from the compression occasioned in the surrounding parts.
The Rev. James Hall, has, for several months past, been usefully engaged in experiments for procuring flax from broom. This is done by the following process:Steep the twigs, or the former year's branches, preferring the most vigorous shoots, for two or three weeks, more or less, according to the heat of the season, in stagnant water, or boil them for an hour, in water. This done, the flax separates freely from the twigs; and where there is not machinery for the purpose, it may be easily stripped off by children, or others, at any time, when not
quite dry; as hemp is pulled from the stalks. What adds to the value of this discovery is, that on being cleared of the flax, and steeped for some time in boiling water, the twigs, or wood, become tough and beautifully white, and are worth, at a medium, from a shilling to eighteen-pence a pound, for making carpet-brooms, &c. When stripped from the twigs, the flax 'requires only to be well washed in cold water, then wrung, and shaken well, and hung out to dry, previously to its being sent off to the paper manufacturers, &c. Professor Davy has bleached some of it for Mr. Hall, who has also seen it spun. The same gentleman also observes, that the fibres of all kinds of mallows are particularly beautiful, especially the malvasylvestris. They are finer than camel's hair, which they somewhat resemble, and there is no difficulty in procuring them.
Dr. C. H. Hall succeeds Dr. C. Jackson in the deanery of Christ Church.
Dr. Phillimore is appointed professor of civil law, in the room of Dr. Lawrence, deceased.
Rev. W. Crabtree is appointed master of University college, in the room of Rev. Dr. Smyth, deceased.
The following subjects are proposed for the Chancellor's prizes, for the present year: viz.-For Latin verses-" Pyramides Egyp tiacæ. For an English essay-" What are the arts, in the cultivation of which the moderns have been less successful than the ancients?"
For a Latin essay" In Philosophia, quæ de vita et moribus est illustranda, quænam præcipuo sermonum Socraticorum fuit excellentia?"
The first of the above subjects is intended for those gentlemen of the university who have not exceeded four years from the time of their matriculation; and the other two for such as have exceeded four, but not completed seven years.
In our number for November, we were guilty of a mistake in noticing the election. of public orator in the university of Cambridge. The competition for that office lay between the Rev. R. Tatham, and the Rev. R. Walpole. The former was elected by a majority of 20.
Mr. J. Smith has been elected printer; and the Rev. W. A. Pemberton registrary of the university
The subject for the Norrisian prize for
the ensuing year is, "the connection of reli- erected in the middle of the air; it is set on gion and learning." fire: and the stag, impatient for the signal, starts off, as soon as it is given, and passes twice under the blazing arch, amidst the shouts and applauses of the spectators.
On the late Jubilee day, the master (the Bishop of Bristol) and seniors of Trinity college voted a donation of fifty guineus to the British and Foreign Bible Society.
The Halsem prize is this year adjudged to the Rev. W. Heath, fellow of King's col. lege, for his dissertation On the advantage of difficulties in religion; or an attempt to shew the good effects which result, or which might result, from the proofs of revevelation being of a probable rather than of a demonstrative kind."
The following is the subject for the Hulsean premium for the present year:"The remarkable propensity of the Jews to idolatry before the Babylonish captivity, compared with their exemption from it, in general, afterwards, affords the unbeliever no just ground for rejecting the scriptural account of the miracles in the time of Moses and Joshua."
The first and second wranglers of the present year are Messrs. Maule and Brundreth, both of Trinity. In our next number tre purpose to give a list of those who have obtained academical honours.
For some time the curiosity of the Parisians has been gratified by Messrs. Franconi, with a spectacle truly extraordinary; that of the most shy and timid animal, a stag, tamed and trained to the same performances as the most docile and courageous hone. Led by his instructor, the docile animal advances into the arena, looking round on every side with an air equally expressive of gentleness and intelligence. At the command of his master, he bends his knees, and respectfully bows his head. M. Franconi gets upon his back, cracks his whip, and fires pistols, at which the animal shews neither fear nor alarm. After this first experiment, he is left to himself, and made to perform the exercises of the manége, like the best-trained horse. He sets off at full gallop: turns and stops at the word of command. He leaps over rails with wonderful agility, and even clears two horses at once. After every performance, he stands still, fixes his eyes on his master, and endeavours to discover from bis looks whether he is satisfied. M. Franconi then goes up to him, pats him, and bestows other caresses, for which the gentle animal testifies the highest gratitude. In the last place, a triumphal arch, charged with fire-works, is
M. Chaptal has recently made experiments to ascertain the nature of seven specimens of colour, found in a colour-shop at Pompeii. No. 1, the only one which has not received any preparation from the hand of man, is a greenish and sopanaceous argil, in the state in which nature presents it in various parts of the globe, and resembling that known by the name of Terra di Verona. -No. 2, is an ochre of a beautiful yellow, all the impurities of which have been removed by washing. As this substance turns red by calcination with a gentle fire, the yellow colour, which it has preserved without alteration, affords a new proof, that the ashes which covered Pompeii retained but a slight degree of hat.-No. 3, is a brown red, like that employed at present for coarse work, and is produced by the calcination of the preceding.-No. 4, is a pumice-stone, extremely light and white; the texture is very fine and close.-The three others are compound colours, which M. Chaptal was obliged to analyse, in order to ascertain their constituent principles. From his experiments on No. 5, which is of a deep blue, and in small pieces of the same form, it appears to be composed of oxyde of copper, lime, and alumine. It resembles ash-blues in the nature of its principles, but differs from them in its chemical properties. It seems to be the result, not of precipitation, but of the commencement of vitrification ; and the process by which it was obtained by the ancients is lost.-No. 6, is a sand of a light blue, mixed with some small whitish grains. On analysing it, M. Chaptal discovered in it the same principles as in the preceding; indeed, it may be considered as a composition of the same nature, in which there is a greater proportion of lime and alumine. No. 7, is of a beautiful roseatehue: it is soft to the touch; is reduced between the fingers to an impalpable powder; and leaves upon the skin a pleasing carnation colour. From M. Chaptal's experiments, he looks upon it as a real lake, ia which the colouring principle is united with alumine. In its properties, its hue, and the nature of its colouring principle, it has nearly a complete analogy with madder lake. The preservation of this lake for 19 centuries, without perceptible alteration, is a phenomenon which cannot fail to excite the astonishment of chemists.
MISSION TO TARTARY.
FROM the last accounts of the state of this interesting mission, published by the Edinburgh Missionary Society, we shall give such extracts as may be sufficient for the information of our readers.
During the last winter the missionaries enjoyed unusually good health, and though they felt severely the want of regular communication with this country, occasioned by the war, yet they were diligently employed in forwarding the great objects of their mission. The following extracts are taken from the letters of the missionaries.
March 2, 1809. "Owing to the severity of the weather we have not thought it adviscable to appoint any of our number as yet to visit the villages. On the evening of the 25th we had two severe shocks of an earthquake, the one immediately succeeding the other.
"Kattegary, who was with us for a few days lately, laboured much, during his visit, to convert to Christianity his uncle Islam Gerry, who shewed him great kindness, and listened more to what he said than was agreeable to some of the Tartars. Ali, the son of Shaker, a Mirzah, ene of whose wives is Islam Gerry's daughter, called Kattegary an infidel dog, and asserted, that it would be meritorious to kill him, on account of his efforts to make his countrymen Christians. Our people seemed to be highly pleased when Kattegery preached to the family on
"We have ransomed Omar for 700 rubles: and we understand that his master, Kubal, repents greatly of having sold him. Nor is this to be wondered at, for the people in general are so far from expressing indignation on account of Omar's becoming a Christian, and being ransomed by us, that, except the chiefs, the greater part express satisfaction, and some appear to be really glad, especially his relations. Omar discovers a strong desire to be better acquainted with the doctrines of the Gospel, and to be taught to read.
"The chiefs continue to shew great fierceness against us and Christianity."
"Mr. Fraser and I," says Mr. Brunton, "have had much conversation lately with two Jetishkool Mirzas, one of whom has been in Constantinople, and other parts of Turkey,
and is more intelligent than his countrymen in general. The other, who is his nephew, I can read better, but knows less, and yet ist far from being ignorant. They informed us, that the Jetishkools and Jambalooks doubted · the truth of their religion; and that several of them, particularly the priests, had, some secretly and some openly, desired them to inquire particularly about our religion, bring them some of our tracts, (which several of them have no doubt read,) and observe the way in which we performed religious wor ship. One of them attended for this pur pose on Sunday last (Feb. 26), when the service was performed in the Tartar language, which he repeatedly said was not bad. This Mirzah sermed to be convinced that some of the Jetishhool and Jambalook priests would listen favourably to our religion., He told Mr. Fraser, that the best way to convert the Tartars, was to talk to them secretly. I was not a little pleased to find a Tartar Mirzah exactly of my own opinion' with regard to this point.
"The report of the Besbolbais having renounced Mohammedism gains ground more and more. Various circumstances, which would lengthen out a letter too much, might be mentioned to shew the effect which our tracts have had.
It has, as you know, beeu much dis puted whether Abdy died a Christian, a Mohammedan, or neither. If he was not a Christian, he made many a false profession. Last time but one that I saw him, he told me, he intended to give his family a written permission to stay along with us, should they choose it. It is probable he did so, although we have never heard of it. To Mr. Fraser, who saw him the day that he became ill, he professed his firm belief in the truth of Christianity; and bade him give his best wishes to me, and tell me, that be firmly believed the doctrines which he had learned from the New Testament. The day preceding this, Jellorum Harrison heard him making the same profession, in the presence of a great number of people, before Kubal, who immediately fell into a violent passion,
and left him.
"I cannot describe the grief with which I am obliged to mention the death of our friend Sultan Islam Gerry, who although he had left us twice, out of hatred to our reli
gion, could not be induced, either by threats, er by promises, to leave us again. His capacious mind, and extensive knowledge, considering the country to which he belonged, are well known to every member of the settlement. Twice, last night, after I was in bed, he told Adam and another of our young people, whom I had sent to inquire how he was, that he anxiously wished to see me as soon as possible. He was satisfied when I sent him word that I should go in the morning; but although I went early, it was not till he had sent the priest once, the priest's son twice, and a Mirzah and a slave once, to call me. When I went he said almost nothing, but looked as if he wished to say something, which he hesitated about expressing.
"The priest sat down on the side of the dying eld Sultan's bed, repeated the Mohammedan creed, and said several prayers, to which the bye-standers, who were not few, added their Amen; but the Sultan added neither Amen nor sign.-A Tartar Mirzah pressed him to make a profession of his faith, which the Tartars demand of all who are dying, and seem to think necessary to their valvation. The Sultan replied, that he believed in the Lord. As this was far from being satisfactory, he was earnestly pressed to make a farther profession; but he could not be prevailed with to say any thing more than that he trusted in God, and this be often said without being urged. He never once mentioned Mohammed's name. This no Tartar would deny to be a real sign infidelity. It cannot be pretended that he was unable to speak, for to tell all the other things that he said would require a wiele sheet. Omar and others think that
the fear of distressing his family, by being left unburied, prevented him from professing his faith in Christ. He confessed to Mr. Galloway, a few weeks ago, that the arguBats in the first printed tract, in defence of the death, resurrection, and divinity of Christ, were very powerful; and left him ne affected, and incapable of advancing the smallest objection. He was wont often read the tracts, and Matthew's Gospel. We do not think," say the missionaries, that the directors should be discouraged for want of success. We do not desire to beat; yet we humbly hope, that our labour as not been in vain. When we consider the amber of children we have gathered in among the heathen-the number of
tracts, and particularly of the Gospel by Matthew, in the native language--the inquiry that prevails, and the suspicions of the truth of Mohammedism that have been excited-the alarm of the chiefs--the apparent disposition of whole nations to receive the Christian religion, produced by our con versations, and the reading of our tracts— and especially when we consider, our almost miraculous preservation till this period, amid the ravages of the hostile incursions, and almost constant warfare of the different tribes around us, we cannot help pleasing ourselves with the idea, that Providence has dealt kindly with us.”
"April 10. Abizawan Oghli Musa, who was in the Kabardian country lately, came here yesterday, and told us, that he had seen Kamuat, the Sonna, who visited us about three years ago. Kamuat had informed him that the Sonna prince, his master, had directed him to desire us to send some person tò instruct his people in the principles of the Christian religion. This business KaMohammedan, seems anxious to have this muat committed to Musa, who, though a design accomplished.-Mr. Bruuton, foreseeing the danger that would arise from the Kabardians, told Musa that our people were little accustomed to go so far from home; that we had much to occupy us in our own place; and that we could not at present comply with the request of the Sonna prince but that, if he sent two sober men, of good judgment, well skilled in the Turkish lan guage, we should endeavour to make their residence comfortable during their stay, in struct them in the principles of Christianity, and, if possible, teach them to read.
to the tribes on the other side the Kuban
a Beshelbay village had renounced the Mo-
s that have been baptized--the print- am informed, has excited the utmost fierce
es circulating of a vast number of CHRIST. OBSERV. No. 97.
ness in some of the chiefs, who continue